ICTs for climate change mitigation

youthfulgleekingRéseaux et Communications

17 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 3 mois)

139 vue(s)









ICTs for climate change mitigation

Richard Labelle

Independent ICT4D Consultant

rlab@sympatico.ca


Twitter.com/rlabelle


ICT, climate change & development workshop


Johannesburg


(Jan. 23
-
24, 2012)

2

Objectives

To present the case for ICTs to mitigate
climate change with a focus on the
developing world

To identify opportunities

To discuss strategic options going forward

3

Four noteworthy trends …

1.
The (continued)
rise of the humans


Increases in people, wealth and intellectual
resources (brain power), leading to a ….

2.
….
rise of demand


Increased demand for energy, food & natural
resources resulting in accelerated ….


3.

increasing climate change &
environmental impacts

4.
… the
rise of the machines
(ICTs).


4

Global change & climate (1)

Climate change is a real threat

Fossil fuel emissions tracking
surface warming


the priority

Emissions from land use growing
more slowly

C sinks in ocean and on land are at risk

Earth processes at risk


World primary energy demand

by IEA scenario


IEA. 2011. World Energy Outlook 2011. IEA/OECD, Paris. 666 pp.

5

6

Predicted global energy use in CMO

under 4 different scenarios


[1]




Crane, H.D., E. M. Kinderman & R. Malhotra. 2010.
A cubic mile of oil. Realities and options for averting the looming global energy crisis
.
Oxford University Press, New York, 297 pp.
http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195325546/?view=usa


Energy related CO2 emissions

by IEA scenario



7

IEA. 2011. World Energy Outlook 2011. IEA/OECD, Paris. 666 pp.

8

IPCC Projections of surface warming as a
result of increasing GHG emissions


[1]




[
IPCC. 2007.
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
. IPCC. Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. (Eds.). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
pp 104.
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm


9

Proportion of energy expressed in CMO from
different primary sources (2006 data)


[1]




Crane, H.D., E. M. Kinderman & R. Malhotra. 2010.
A cubic mile of oil. Realities and options for averting the looming global energy crisis
.
Oxford University Press, New York, 297 pp.
http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195325546/?view=usa



Havana, Cuba, 8
-
9 February 2011

10

11

The past contribution of energy efficiency


[1]




Segar, C. 2009.
International energy co
-
operation and global energy security. International Energy Agency (IEA). Session on “Ensuring the
sustainability of energy supply chain”
, Conference on Strengthening Energy Security in the OSCE area, Bratislava, 6


7 July 2009.
PowerPoint presentation.
http://www.osce.org/documents/eea/2009/07/38666_en.pdf

12

Energy efficiency will have major role to
play in achieving low C future (IEA)


[1]




IEA. 2010.
World Energy Outlook 2010
. N. Tanaka, Executive Director, IEA, Beijing, 17 Nov. 2010. PowerPoint presentation. 35 slides.
http://www.energy.eu/publications/weo_2010
-
China.pdf

13

Mitigation opportunities

1.
Reducing GHG emissions from all stages
of the ICT life cycle


and especially during their production, use
and disposal

2.
Making greater using ICTs to mitigate
vegetation related emissions


through the greater use of ICT based earth
observation and management systems and
networks

3.
Encouraging the development and
adoption of ICT based enabling
technologies


to reduce GHG emissions.

4.


14

ICTs enhance efficiency & facilitate
conservation by (1):

Process efficiency

Doing things fast

Use less energy


emit less C

Connecting everything & everyone:

Instrumenting objects and places around us:

The Internet of Things

Empowering people to act

Measuring everything (& everyone!):

The Internet of Things

More info on energy use



15

ICTs enhance efficiency & facilitate
conservation by (2):

Controlling everything

Smart controls

Connect & control all motors & energy
consumption (embedded controls)

More options to reduce consumption:
smart motors, lighting, grid, buildings,
logistics /transport & cities



16

The negative impact of ICTs

on GHG emissions

Energy consumption from using ICTs

About 2
-
3 % of total emissions, growing
to 6 %

Same as aviation industry

PCs & peripherals

Telecoms infrastructure

Data centres

ICT use is increasing and so are GHG
emissions from ICTs



17

The enabling effect of ICTs

(GeSI : Global e
-
Sustainability Initiative)


[1]




The Climate group and GeSI. 2008.
Smart 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age
. 87 pp.
http://www.smart2020.org/

The use of ICTs by

the Green Belt Movement (Kenya)



Havana, Cuba, 8
-
9 February 2011

18

GBM uses:

Satellite data to
identify areas of forest loss
where urgent
reforestation or tree planting should be carried out.

GIS and Remote Sensing for identification of the
location,
delineate the
extent
of specific potential community
-
based
tree planting project sites.

Field measurements to
estimate baseline biomass
and
carbon stocks for the community tree planting project sites

Mapping and field based
-
monitoring using GIS to ensure
high survival
of the planted trees

Web
-
based mapping application for
reporting of
project
progress
to the management and project partners
GIS @ GBM
19

ICTs & related trends & innovations
(1)

Digitization & dematerialization

Microprocessors


ARM vs Intel

Handhelds vs desk/lap tops

Internet diffusion

IPv6

Broadband

Cloud computing

20

A sample telepresence session


[1]




[

Havana, Cuba, 8
-
9 February 2011

21

ICTs & related trends &

innovations (2)

Nanotechnology &
micro
-
electro
-
mechanical systems (MEMS)

Wireless & mobile device uptake

Web 2.0 & 3.0

Agenda 21 redux: Everyone is a user
and provider of content (information)

Innovations in display technology

Gorilla glass, Dragontrail, etc.


massive increase in display surface area

Screens everywhere


22

ICT & related trends & innovations(3)

The Internet of Things (IOT)

Everything and everywhere connected

Sensor technology

Sensor networks

Social networking

Improved & greener batteries

GIS & visualization technologies such
as building information modeling
(BIM)

23

Machine to machine (M2M)
communications


a WSN variant


Beacham Research. 2009.
M2M world of connected services. The Internet of Things
.
http://www.beechamresearch.com/Downloads.aspx

.
Beecham`s Sector Map shows segmentation of M2M Market in new semi
-
circular format, including 9 key Service Sectors, key Applicat
ions
Groups within Sectors, and examples of Connected Devices within each Sector. Overall, Beecham Research tracks over 300 differ
ent

device
types.

24

ICTs for earth observation

Remote sensing:

Disaster risk reduction (flooding, etc.)

Generates massive amounts of data

Data available through Cloud / Grid
(GEOSS, etc.)

Wireless sensor networks

The Internet of Things

Connected smart sensors gathering data
at earth’s surface (& below!)


25

How to measure ICT impacts


the
need for standards

ITU working on standards for
environmental impact assessment
(EIA) of ICTs

Telecommunication Standardization
Advisory Group (TSAG)

ITU Study Group 5 (SG
-
5)

Standards for measuring impact of ICTs

Universal power adapter and charger
solution for mobile terminals and other
ICT devices




26

The positive impact of ICTs

on GHG emissions

ICT enabling effects

ICTs can save 5 times as much C as
they consume


but likely much more

Essential for enhanced earth
observation

In poorer countries and areas:

Enhance reach of services

Reduce cost of service delivery

Decreased energy use for accessing services



27

Strategy going forward (1)

Awareness promotion:

Build the knowledge base

Best practice analysis and documentation

Case studies

Stakeholder consultations and partnership
making

Identify key stakeholders and potential
beneficiaries

Municipal governments, environmental groups,
professional associations, the private sector,
consumer groups, etc.

Consult with experts in the energy as well as
the architecture, engineering and construction
(AEC) communities
Establish partnerships with like minded groups
and organizations such as the AEC and energy
communities, etc.




28

Strategy going forward (2)

Stakeholder consultations and partnership
development

Identify key stakeholders and potential
beneficiaries

Municipal governments, environmental groups,
professional associations, the private sector,
consumer groups, etc.

Consult with experts in the energy as well as
the architecture, engineering and construction
(AEC) communities

Establish partnerships with like minded groups
and organizations such as the AEC and energy
communities, etc.




29

Strategy going forward (3)

Research priorities

Work with the energy sector and
planners to develop the assessment
tools and practices:

Energy audits which include smart tech
audits

Rapid smart tech audit technologies:
Autodesk

Develop rapid assessment technologies such
as the e
-
Environment Readiness Index
(EERI) and test and improve using pilots




30

Strategy going forward (4)

Research priorities …

Streamlining the use of BIM in building
and town design and planning

Research on the use of BIM for rural
planning and development, building with
natural materials, passive energy buildings,
zero and positive energy buildings, etc.

BIM for low cost urban and rural housing

Tech transfer is costly, so what are
benefit / costs? They could be
significant: do the research




31

Strategy going forward (5)

Research priorities …

Undertake rapid assessments such as
those proposed by the use of tools such
as the e
-
Environment Readiness Index
(EERI)

Look at the use of renewables for
powering ICT use off grid and ICT use
for Green Growth in developing
countries

Climate Innovation Center (CICs) for
introducing ICT
-
based green technologies
(InfoDev)






32

Strategy going forward (6)

Training:

Train architects and planners on BIM as
we trained people for network
engineering (Cisco Academies).

Look at BIM for rural development

Train energy audit specialists, including
building audit & retrofit specialists





33

Strategy going forward (6)

Key policy issue

Energy subsidies.





34

Related info (1)

Much of this presentation can be found in
the ITU publication by Richard Labelle:

m
-
environment


ICTs for abating climate
change and promoting Green Growth and
sustainable development
” which will be
available online from the ITU site in the
coming weeks of 2012.

The report will be published online by ITU and
includes detailed references supporting all
points made above.


35

Related info (2)

A training program on ICTs for abating
climate change and promoting Green
Growth and sustainable development

To be offered by the UN APCICT (Asia Pacific
centre for ICT Training) in Korea

As part of the Academy for ICT Essentials for
Government Leaders

http://www.unapcict.org/academy

Starting Feb.22, 2011

Will be published online: detailed report, ,
accompanying PPTs

Detailed PPTs have been prepared and were
used in part for this presentation.

36

Working groups

What are priorities for developing
countries?

What are key issues influencing the
use of ICTs for mitigation in your
countries?





37



Thank you!


Richard Labelle

rlabtag@gmail.com

rlab@sympatico.ca


Twitter.com/rlabelle