A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED SEDIMENT YIELD OF A TRIBUTARY OF THE KUBANNI RIVER AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON THE A.B.U DAM, ZARIA

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUSPENDED AND
DISSOLVED SEDIMENT YIELD OF A TRIBUTARY OF
THE KUBANNI RIVER AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON
THE A.B.U DAM, ZARIA


BY



Yusuf, Yakubu Obadaki

08037022049 & 08075875081

yyobadaki@yahoo.com


Department of Geography

Ahmadu

Bello University

Zaria.



An Abstract of a Paper Present
ed

at the 3
rd

International Conference of the Nigerian
Association of Hydrogeologists Holding at University of Ibadan, Nigeria from 23
rd
-
28
th

of November, 2008.



Abstract


This study attempted a co
mparative analysis of the suspended and dissolved sediment
yields of a tributary of the Kubanni River

and their implication on the Ahmadu Bello
University (A.B.U) dam, Zaria
. The suspended sediment yield has been acquired in a
previous study by Yusuf (2006
). From the samples of the filtered river water (i.e. aliquot)
from which the dissolved concentration (i.e. total dissolved solids) was derived and the
discharge records which have been carefully kept, the dissolved sediment discharges
provide the basis fo
r estimating the dissolved sediment yield. The results showed that the
dissolved sediment yield is higher than the suspended sediment yield of the tributary.
However, there is no statistically significant difference between them. This implies that
estimati
ng sediment yield by considering only suspended sediment yield is an
underestimation and this further complicates the already established reservoir siltation
problem of the A
.
B
.
U
.

Reservoir as it influences the water quality.


Key Words
: Discharge, Dissolv
ed Sediment Discharge, Suspended Sediment Discharge



and Sediment Yield.



2

INTRODUCTION

As a result of extreme fluctuations in river discharges in some climatic regions, dams are
constructed across rivers to create water reservoirs. When a dam is
constructed across a
river, the resultant reservoir receives water and sediments from the catchment area of the
river network. Eroded sediments are transported and deposited into the reservoir and this
becomes worrisome if the dam is not designed to flush
out such sediments as they will
continue to settle at the bottom of the lake and overtime increase in thickness.


The materials carried by rivers are termed sediment load. It is possible to divide sediment
load into bedload, suspended load, and solute loa
d or total dissolved solids. Bedload is
the load that remains in contact with the channel bed and such load is important in
scouring the channel. Solute load is material carried in true chemical solution and is
important in the assessment of water quality
and pollution. The suspended sediment loads
are those materials carried by rivers and transported in suspension which, from the point
of view of reservoir sedimentation, is of crucial importance (McPherson, 1975; Vanoni,
1975 and Ward, 1975).


Of the thre
e forms, Suspended load is generally the largest (Painter, 1976; Ayoade, 1988
and Strahler and Strahler, 2006). However, Smith and Stopp (1978) opine that, for many
rivers the quantity of materials carried in solution far exceeds that transported in
partic
ulate form. How far is this true?




3

RESEARCH PROBLEM

Although sediment load of rivers consists of bedload, solute load and suspended sediment
load, in reservoir siltation, suspended sediment load is the largest and is of crucial
importance as earlier discu
ssed. Langbein and Schumm (1958), surmise that an
appropriate assessment of suspended sediment concentration is of particular importance
in estimating sediment yields. Also, because of limitations of instrumentation and
resources, Yusuf (2006), confined hi
s study to assessing the magnitude of suspended
sediment produced by a tributary of River Kubanni, Zaria alone.


The rating curve was used to allow a reasonable estimate of suspended sediment yield for
the study area.
A Channel Sediment Yield (CSY) value
of 482 tons/yr and a Specific
Sediment Yield (SSY) value of 92 tons /km
2
/yr were derived for the catchment area.


Out of curiosity and the need to either prove or disprove the earlier propositions, the
author deems it necessary to attempt a comparison betw
een the suspended and dissolved
sediment yields of the same stream used in his earlier study.


AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to attempt a comparative analysis of the suspended and dissolved
sediment yields of a tributary of the Kubanni River

and their implication on the A.B.U.
dam
, Zaria.




4

This aim will be achieved through the following set of objectives:

(i)

To determine the dissolved sediment concentration
/discharge


(ii)

To establish a rating curve for discharge and dissolved sediment discharge

(iii)

To
determine the river’s dissolved sediment yield

(iv)

To compare between suspended and dissolved sediment yields of the stream

(v)

To
emphasize their implications on the Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U)
Dam


HYPOTHESES

Deriving from the above objectives are the null
hypotheses that:

(i)

There is no significant relationship between the dissolved sediment discharge
and stream discharge.

(ii)

There is no significant difference between the suspended and dissolved
sediment yield of the stream.


THE
CONCEPT OF SEDIMENT YIELD

Disintegration of the earth’s crust by several physical and chemical processes provides
the majority of materials that may become fluvial sediment. From these materials, soils
are formed.


Erosion of soils by water can be separated into sheet and channel
erosion, but no distinct
division exists. Sheet erosion occurs when fine
-
grained silts and clays are removed from
a surface in a sheet of relatively uniform thickness, by raindrop splash and sheet flow.

5

Because of irregularities on the land surface, sheet
flow quickly concentrates into small
rills or channels, which grow in size as they join. Within these channels the water erodes
the banks and bed materials. Virtually all the sediments contained in streamflow are
derived from sheet wash and channel erosion

upstream. Owing to gravity however, many
forms of mass wasting take place, ranging from slow creep to very rapid landsides.


The rate of sediment movement and its distribution within a river is a function of
sediment characteristics, mainly grain size an
d density, and of flow characteristics,
mainly velocity and temperature (Painter, 1976).


Sediment entering the stream from the catchment area is carried downstream by the
transporting medium, namely water. During the movement of water, the potential energ
y
is transformed into kinetic energy and part of the latter is consumed for transporting the
sediment. It moves sediment, which in turn, invariably, reduces the sediment
-
transporting
capacity. The upper limit of transporting capacity is governed by this ci
rcumstance
(Bogardi, 1974).


Sediment yield in drainage basins, a function of many variables including the nature of
the geology and soil, relief characteristics, vegetation cover, drainage characteristics,
climate, time and land use pattern within the dra
inage basin, is the total amount of
sediments that are generated within the catchment area of the river and subsequently
moved from a drainage basin to be deposited on flood plains, in storage reservoirs, or

6

carried off to the seas. The greater part of thi
s is made up of suspended sediment load
(Gregory and Walling, 1973 and Oyebande and Martins, 1978).


In general, sediment load carried by natural streams can be separated into three
components:

(a)

The dissolved load, consisting of all organic and inorgani
c materials carried in
solution by moving water,

(b)

The suspended or wash load, consisting of organic and inorganic particulate
matter that is suspended in and carried by moving water.

(c)

The bed load, consisting of coarse materials such as gravels, sto
nes, and boulders
that move along the bottom of the channel. These materials move by skipping,
rolling and sliding or saltation (Ward, 1975; Painter, 1976; Smith and Stopp,
1978; Ayoade, 1988; Knighton, 1998 and Strahler and Strahler, 2006).


This distinc
tion is somewhat arbitrary because there is an interchange of particles between
the two later modes of transport as some bed load materials can be carried in suspension by
turbulent mixing process. With regards to catchment denudation, the dissolved and
su
spended loads are the main components. But from a geomorphological standpoint, the
bed load is the principal concern because of its influence on the adjustment of river channel
form. Of the three components of load, however, it contributes least to the tot
al (Knighton,
1998).
It is on this premise that the author limits his investigation to the suspended and
dissolved yields alone.



7

THE STUDY AREA

The study area is in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. It is one of the provinces that make up
the Central high pla
ins of Northern Nigeria and it is approximately 670m above mean sea
level. It is located on latitude 11
0
03’N and longitude 7
0
42’E, about 664km away from
the sea (Arowolo, 2000).


The study site is located in the upper Kubanni drainage basin, in Zaria 11
0
0
8’58”
-

11
0
10’25” N and 7
0
36’45”
-

7
0
38’28”E: Federal Survey Topographical Sheet 102, Zaria
S.W. The Kubanni River has its source from the Kampagi Hill, in Shika, near Zaria. It
flows in southeast direction through Ahmadu Bello University. It has four tribu
taries. The
northernmost tributary of the river was used for this study (fig.1).


The study area belongs to the tropical continental type of climate corresponding to
Koppen’s tropical savannah or tropical wet and dry climate zone (Aw), characterized by
str
ong seasonality in rainfall and temperature distributions (Koppen, 1928). The region is
an area within the Zaria plain, a dissected part of the Zaria


Kano portions, an extensive
peneplain, which had developed on crystalline metamorphic rock, and believed

to be
overlain by wind drift sediments (Wright and McCurry, 1970). The drainage systems of
Zaria focus mainly on River Galma. Except for Galma river, all streams in the area are
seasonal, flowing only during and after rains, although the larger ones have
surface water
along stretches for much of the year. A very good example is the Kubanni river along
Samaru (Mortimore and Wilson, 1965).



8

The soil type is highly leached ferruginous tropical soils, developed on weathered
regolith overlain by a thin deposit
of wind blown silt from the Sahara desert during many
decades of the propagation of the tropical continental air mass into the area (Wright and
McCurry, 1970 and Tokarski, 1972). Natural vegetation of the study area is the Northern
Guinea Savannah. Unfortu
nately this characteristic vegetation cover is hardly preserved
due to urbanization and poor management practices, like fuelwood harvesting, annual
bush burning, cultivation and intensive grazing (Ologe, 1971).


Prior to 1973, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU)

water demand had always been met,
though inadequate and irregularly, by the Zaria water treatment plant, located some 25
km south
-
east of the institution. The desire to achieve equilibrium between water supply
and demand led the ABU authority, in 1973, to

start the construction of a small earth dam
across River Kubanni in order to retain water that would meet the community’s present
and future needs an
d the dam was completed in 1974.











9






















Fig.1 Location of the Study Area on the Ku
banni River Basin




10

METHODOLOGY

In order to achieve the aim and objectives of this study, data on suspended sediment
concentration, suspended sediment discharge, suspended sediment yield and stream
discharge which were collected and derived by Yusuf (2006)

were used. From the
evaporation to dryness of the 250ml samples of filtered river water (i.e. the aliquot)
carefully kept from the earlier study, and accurately weighing the solid residue, the
dissolved load concentration, usually referred to as total dis
solved solids (TDS) in mg/l,
was obtained. This was done by multiplying the difference in weight of the flask before
and after oven
-
drying by 4 (Smith and Stopp, 1978).



DATA ANALYSES

Estimation of Dissolved Sediment Yield

Dissolved sediment measurements,

like suspended sediment measurements, are rarely
continuous, temporal extrapolation is often required to enable a reasonable estimate of
dissolv
ed sediment yield to be made (Gregory and Walling, 1973; Painter, 1976). This is
usually achieved through the s
ediment rating curve which relates
dissolv
ed sediment
concentration,
dissolv
ed sediment discharge to stream discharge, on the basis of a limited
number of sediment measurements (Walling, 1978).


A precise form of rating curve as proposed by Bauer and Till
e (1967) was used to regress
stream discharge on the dissolved sediment discharge, by using their log exponents (log)
as shown below:



log Qd = log a + b log Q
-------------------------------------------------------

1


11


Where

Qd = Dissolved Sediment discha
rge in mg/s



Q = Stream Discharge in m
3
/s

a + b = Constants representing the intercept and slope of the rating plot
respectively.


The dissolved sediment discharge (Q
d
) in mg/s, a product of discharge and concentrat
ion
was then converted to kg/day thus:



Qd =
QCs

* 60 * 60 * 24
-----------------------------------------------------

2




1000




Where Qd =
Dissolve
d Sediment Discharge in kg/day



Q = Stream Discharge in m
3
/s



Cs = Dissolved
Sediment Concentration in mg/l



Therefore, a continuous record of suspended sediment discharges, provide an estimate of
sediment yield throughout the year (Ferguson, 1987)).


Furthermore, the suspended and dissolved sediment yields were compared to determ
ine
their level of similarity and pair wise comparison was undertaken using the paired
correlation analysis. All analyses were carried out by the use of the SPSS statistical
package. The confidence level that was used

in

accepting or rejecting the hypothes
es is
95% corresponding to an alpha value of 0.05.





12

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

ESTIMATION OF DISSOLVED SEDIMENT YIELD

Dissolved Sediment Discharge (Qs)


Discharge (Q) Relation

A log
-
log relationship of a rating curve relating daily mean instantaneous discharge
values to dissolved sediment discharges is shown in fig. 2. The regression equation, using
the technique of Bauer and Tille (1967) as in equation 1 takes the form:


log Qd = lo
g 2.732 + 1.135 log Q
------------------------------------------------------

3

with a regression coefficient of correlation (r) value of 0.931 and coefficient of
determination (r
2
) of 0.867.


The strong relationship between dissolved sediment discharge an
d discharge is exhibited
in the low degree of scatter of the points in fig.2. Although, the regression coefficients
have higher values, the situation is same for the suspended sediment discharge and
discharge relationship.


From equation 3, dissolved sedim
ent discharge in mg/s is estimated for the period of
study. Using equation 2, dissolved sediment discharges in mg/s is converted to kg/day as
displayed in table 1 where the dissolved sediment discharge (Qd) in kg/day gave a total
annual dissolved sediment
yield of 486,135 kg/yr.

Dividing this by 1000 gives a Channel
Sediment Yield (CSY) value of 486 tons/yr and a Specific Sediment Yield (SSY) value
of 9
3

tons/km2/yr on dividing the channel sediment yield (CSY) by the catchment area
(i.e 5.25 km2).


13


Adding t
he suspended sediment yield of 481,671 kg/yr to th
at of dissolved sediment
yield above

gives a total annual sediment yield of 967,806 kg/yr. Dividing this by 1000
gives a Channel Sediment Yield (CSY) value of 967 tons/yr and a Specific Sediment
Yield (SSY)

value of 184 tons/km
2
/yr on dividing the channel sediment yield (CSY) by
the catchment area (i.e 5.25 km
2
).


Discharge
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
.05
.04
.03
.02
.01
.005
.004
.003
.002
.001
Dissolved Sediment Discharge (Qd)
500
400
300
200
100
50
40
30
20
10
5
4
3
2
1
.5
.4
.3
Fi
g. 2: Relationship between Dissolved Sediment Discharge (Qd) and



Discharge (Q)





14







Table 1: Dissolved

Sediment Discharge in kg/day



Days

April

May

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

March

April

1


63.8

13290

194.32

1840.8

2802.61

1840.8

871

644.3

457.2

194

63.83

18.34

2


63.8

644.27

194.32

1139.1

2802.61

1840.8

871

644.3

457.2

194

63.83

18.34

3


63
.8

457.16

113.98

1310.7

2278.72

1840.8

871

644.3

396.6

194

63.83

18.34

4


63.8

194.32

1310.7

1004

2802.61

1840.8

871

644.3

307.9

194

63.83

18.34

5


63.8

166.99

307.88

11214

48309.4

1840.8

871

644.3

307.9

194

63.83

18.34

6


397

457.16

194.32

1485

3069.14

1485

871

644.3

307.9

194

63.83

18.34

7


114

194.32

11214

1004

2278.72

1485

871

644.3

307.9

194

63.83

18.34

8


114

9971.9

1139.1

14757

2539.06

1485

871

644.3

307.9

194

63.83

18.34

9


63.8

307.88

2278.7

2576.5

2278.72

1485

871

644.3

307.9

194

63.83

18.34

10


194

194.32

644.27

2576.5

2278.72

1485

871

644.3

307.9

114

63.83

18.34

11


167

166.99

549.76

2058.4

2539.06

1485

871

644.3

307.9

114

63.83

18.34

12


114

644.27

457.16

1840.8

2058.35

1139.1

871

644.3

307.9

114

63.83

18.34

13


194

457.16

457.16

1661.
7

6321.64

1139.1

871

457.2

307.9

114

63.83

18.34

14


114

250.33

250.33

1485

3338.46

1139.1

871

457.2

307.9

114

63.83

18.34

15


114

194.32

194.32

21852

3069.14

1139.1

871

457.2

307.9

114

63.83

8.35

16


88.5

457.16

307.88

2058.4

2802.61

1139.1

871

457.2

3
07.9

114

63.83


17


63.8

250.33

3963.6

1840.8

2278.72

1139.1

644.3

457.2

307.9

114

63.83


18


167

194.32

396.61

1485

2058.35

1139.1

644.3

457.2

307.9

114

63.83


19


167

396.61

12563

1485

2278.72

1139.1

644.3

457.2

307.9

114

63.83


20


167

166.99

1310.7

1840.8

2058.35

1139.1

644.3

457.2

307.9

114

63.83


21


2803

7757.9

16382

11214

1661.72

1139.1

644.3

457.2

307.9

114

63.83


22

167

250

307.88

1661.7

4681.2

1484.96

1139.1

644.3

457.2

307.9

114

63.83


23

63.8

194

194.32

1004

3338.5

2058.35

1139.1

644.3

4
57.2

307.9

88.5

63.83


24

63.8

114

1310.7

1004

2802.6

2278.72

1139.1

644.3

457.2

194.3

63.8

63.83


25

63.8

457

307.88

772.86

3338.5

1840.75

871.04

644.3

457.2

194.3

63.8

63.83


26

63.8

1004

307.88

1004

2278.7

1840.75

871.04

644.3

457.2

194.3

63.8

63.83


27

63.8

114

194.32

38916

1840.8

1840.75

871.04

644.3

457.2

194.3

63.8

63.83


28

63.8

114

307.88

1661.7

2802.6

1840.75

871.04

644.3

457.2

194.3

63.8

63.83


29

63.8

88.5

194.32

1004

2278.7

1840.75

871.04

644.3

457.2

194.3


63.83


30

63.8

63.8

250.33

772
.86

7247

1840.75

871.04

644.3

457.2

194.3


63.83


31


397


1139.1

3338.5


871.04


457.2

194.3


63.83


Total

677.6

8158

40189.8

103365

121676

118772

39019

22956

16417

9023.1

3638

1978.73

265.11


Sum Total =
486,135 kg/yr

Source: Yusuf, 2008




15

Comparison
between Suspended and Dissolved Sediment Yield

The monthly values in table 1 follows the same pattern with that of the suspended
sediment yield derived by Yusuf (2006) however, a close comparison between the two
confirms that the suspended sediment yield (
481,671 kg/yr) is lower than the dissolved
sediment yield (486,135) with a percentage difference of only 1%. This is in agreement
with the proposition of Smith and Stopp (1978).


Similarly, pairwise comparison was made using the Pearson’s correlation and t
his
indicate that the correlation between the suspended and dissolved sediment yields is very
high. Thus, implying that, there is no significant difference between the pair of data. This
is shown in table 2 below.


Table 2: Paired Samples Correlation of Su
spended and Dissolved Sediment Yields




N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

Q
s

& Q
d

359

.988

.000



CONCLUSION

Results obtained in this study shows that the dissolved sediment yield is higher than the
suspended sediment yield of the tributary of River Kubanni. Ho
wever, there is no
statistically significant difference between the two yields. This implies that limiting the
study of the sediment yield of the stream to the suspended sediment yield alone does not
give a true representation of the channel and specific s
ediment yields since a lot of

16

underestimation will be done. This study is therefore an effort in the right direction as it
gives us a clearer picture of the sediment yield of the stream under study.


F
rom the point of view of reservoir

sedimentation, it is

the sediment load that is of crucial

importance. Walling and Kleo (1979), added that

information on the magnitude of the

suspended sediment loads of rivers has many

practical applications ranging from

geomorphological studies of denudation rates and

patte
rns of landform development to

problems of upstream soil loss and downstream

channel and reservoir sedimentation. The

reservoir sedimentation of the Ahmadu Bello

University dam
which provides water for

the University community
is the result of

eroded mater
ials transported and deposited on

the

reservoir floor which consequently

affects the water holding capacity of the dam

which was earlier reported by Iguisi (1997),

to have an average annual loss of depth of

about

14.3cm.

Finally, Ayoade (1988) emphasized
that solute (dissolved) load is

important in the assessment of water quality and pollution and the high solute load

observed in this study will have great impact on the water quality of the Ahmadu Bello

University Reservoir.












17

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