Using Treatment Wetlands

swedishstreakMécanique

22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 1 mois)

47 vue(s)

Presented by:

Scott Wallace, P.E.


Scott.Wallace@naturallywallace.com

(612) 802
-
2329

Long
-
Term Hydrocarbon Remediation
Using Treatment Wetlands

References for Industrial Wetland Design



Water Environment Research
Foundation (WERF)


Small Scale Constructed Wetland
Systems
(Wallace & Knight, 2006)


Treatment Wetlands 2
nd

Edition


(Kadlec & Wallace, 2009)

Recent Industrial Wetland Examples


BP, Casper Wyoming Refinery, USA


BP, Lima Ohio, USA


ARCO Wellsville New York Refinery USA


Williams Pipeline, (Watertown, South Dakota) USA


El Paso Energy (El Dorado, Kansas) USA


Shell, Scotford I Upgrader, Alberta, Canada


Buffalo
-
Niagara International Airport, USA


Heathrow Airport, London UK


Edmonton Airport, Alberta, Canada


Occidental Petroleum, Cano Limon, Colombia


Rosebel Gold Mine, Suriname


Sangachal, Azerbaijan


Industries Using Wetlands


Oil & Gas (upstream & downstream)


Chemical Manufacturing


Landfills


Mining


Food Processing


Airports

Types of Treatment Wetlands


Surface Flow (SF)


Horizontal Subsurface Flow (HSSF)


Vertical Flow (VF)


Sludge Dewatering Reed Beds


Intensified Wetlands


Aerated (cold climates)


fill
-
and
-
drain (warm climates)


reactive media (ammonia, phosphorus, etc)


industrial wastewaters

Surface Flow Wetlands

Kadlec

& Wallace, 2008

Surface Flow Wetlands

Champion Paper, Pensacola Florida

Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands

Wallace & Knight, 2006

Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland

Wildflower Meadows: 90
-
person treatment system

Vertical Flow Wetland

IWA, 2000

Vertical Flow Wetland

Rousillon
, France

Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed

Kadlec & Wallace, 2008

Skovby, Denmark: 8000
-
person treatment wetland

Main Treatment Mechanisms


Adsorption of dissolved
-
phase hydrocarbons


Contaminant retention time much greater than hydraulic
retention time


Microbial degradation of organic compounds


Settling of particulate compounds


Oxidation and reduction of nitrogen compounds


Precipitation of metals


Use of intensification methods (aeration and reactive
medias to accelerate treatment)

Natural vs. Mechanical Systems

LEAST

MOST

Natural Systems

Intensified
Wetlands

Mechanical
Treatment Systems

Area Requirements

MOST

LEAST

Energy and O&M Needs

Treatment Wetland Design Basis

N
i
Nh
k
C
C
C
C












1
*
*


P
v
i
P
k
C
C
C
C





1
1
*
*

Tanks
-
in
-
series,
N

typically ranges from 3 to 6




Value of
N

is different for reactive chemicals vs. tracers


Spatial variability of biodegradation rate represented by
P








Important for complex organic chemistries (such as
produced waters


Climate Range of

Treatment Wetlands

Wellsville, New York

Northern Sahara,

Libya

Casper, Wyoming

Casper

BP


Casper, Wyoming Refinery


Operated 1912 to 1991


37,000 m
3

of LNAPL recovered to date


Extensive smear zone due to river flooding


50 to 100 years to remediate site


High mountain west:
-
35
o
C

BP


Casper Wyoming Refinery

Casper Reuse Plan

SF Wetlands

HSSF Wetlands

Casper Pilot Wetland System


With and without insulating mulch


Vertical upward flow


With and without aeration


4 cells

Phytokinetics, Inc
.

Casper Rate Coefficients

Aeration

No Aeration

Compound

Wetland

Mulch

No Mulch

Wetland

Mulch

No Mulch

Benzene

518

456

317

226

BTEX

356

311

257

244

TPH

1058

965

725

579

MTBE

64

60

35

22

k
A
, m/yr, based on 3 TIS

Wallace &
Kadlec
, 2005

Full
-
Size System from Pilot Data

Wallace &
Kadlec
, 2005

Casper Intensified Wetland Cell



Wetland Aeration System



Casper System Construction



Casper Benzene Data 2004
-

2006

Benzene effluent at Outfall 001

consistently below detection levels

<0.01 mg/L

Wellsville, New York

Wellsville

Wellsville Wetland
System



Wellsville Treatment Concept


Cascade Aerators (iron oxidation)


Sedimentation Pond (iron precipitation and settling)


Surface Flow Wetlands (hydrocarbon removal)


Vertical Flow Wetlands (pH adjustment)

November 2008 Start Up


Cold climate design (ice formation)


Thermal calculations necessary

Sedimentation Pond (Iron Removal)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Concentration (
mg/L)

Former
Sinclair Refinery Site OU2

Wellsville, NY

Iron

Influent

Effluent

System
Startup

12.4.08

Aeration
Startup

Wetland
Plantings

5.15.09

Initiate Monthly
Sampling

Surface Flow Wetlands

(Hydrocarbon Removal)

0
300
600
900
1200
1500
1800
2100
Influent and Effluent Analytical Results

(ug/L)

SPDES Monitoring Results Summary

Former Sinclair Refinery Site OU2

Wellsville, NY

Aniline

Influent
Effluent
Proposed SPDES Limit 10.0 µg/L
Influent
Effluent
Influent

Effluent

System Startup
12.4.08

Aeration Startup

3.2009

Wetland Plantings

5.15.09

Initiate Monthly
Sampling

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
Influent and Effluent Analytical Results

(ug/L)

SPDES Monitoring Results Summary

Former Sinclair Refinery Site OU2

Wellsville, NY

Nitrobenzene

Influent
Effluent
Proposed SPDES Limit 5.0 µg/L
Influent
Effluent
Influent

Effluent

System Startup
12.4.08

Aeration Startup

3.2009

Wetland Plantings

5.15.09

Initiate Monthly
Sampling

Vertical Flow Wetlands for

Alkalinity Addition

Wellsville New York

Wallace et al., 2011

Wellsville New York pH Buffering

6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
Influent
Effluent
SPDES Limits
Overall Wellsville System

Conclusions


Industrial treatment wetlands are already being used in
North America, South America, Europe, Asia and
Australia


Surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow, vertical flow,
and intensified wetlands are all being used by industry


Use of wetlands for industrial treatment wetlands is
increasing on two major fronts:


Range of applications in different industries


Construction of wetlands in different geographic regions



Thank you for your time

Treatment Wetlands for Industry