THE AMAZON RIVER

swedishstreakMécanique

22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 7 mois)

58 vue(s)

THE AMAZON RIVER

DONE BY:

BRANDON LIN (1)

GREGORY WONG (9)

AGENDA


Brief background/statistics of
the Amazon River


Map
view of the river course


Historical
development of the
river


Human Settlements


Man
-
made
features


Environmental issues


Bibliography

OBJECTIVES


To showcase the Amazon River’s features


To learn more about the river’s history


To shed light on its issues

STATISTICS


Countries
-

Brazil,
Colombia and Peru


Region


South America


Length


7,000
km (4,300 mi) approx.


Basin


7,050,000 km²
(2,720,000
square
mi) approx.


Average discharge


209,000 m³/s
(7,381,000
cubic
ft
/s) approx.

STATISTICS


Source


Andes Mountains


Location
-

Nevado

Mismi
, Arequipa, Peru


Elevation


5,170 m (16,962
ft
)


Coordinates


15
°
31

5

S

71
°
45

55

W


Mouth


Atlantic Ocean


Elevation



0
m (0
ft
)


Coordinates



0
°
10

0

S

49
°
0

0

W



STATISTICS


Tributaries


Left



Marañón
,
Japurá

/ Caquetá
, Rio
Negro / Guainía,
Putumayo


Right


Ucayali
,
Purús
, Madeira, Xingu,
Tocantins

STATISTICS


City



Iquitos (Peru)


Leticia (Colombia)


Manaus (Brazil)


Santarém



Belém

do
Pará

(Brazil)


Macapa

(Brazil)

Iquitos

Macapa

VIEW

MAP

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT


Indigenous Indians lived in the Amazon River basin before white people first
came to the
area


Year 1500


Vincente

Pinzon, a Spanish explorer, first European see the
Amazon


Year
1541 to 1542



Francisco de Orellana, another Spaniard, led the first
exploration of the
river


Followed
the Amazon from the mouth of the Napo River in Peru to the
Atlantic


Attacked
on their journey by fierce female Indian
warriors


Called
their attackers Amazons, after the female warriors in Greek
mythology


Name
was later given to the river and the nearby
area


HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT


Mid
-
1800's



Amazon basin became an important source of rubber until
about
1910


Plantations in Southeast Asia began to produce rubber more cheaply


Economy
of the region
collapsed


S
ince 1960's


Brazilian government built roads and airports in the Amazon
basin

New towns and farms have been established


Population
has
grown

RIVER FEATURES


UPPER

RIVER FEATURES


UPPER


V
-
Shaped
V
alleys


S
mall
river
channels


Gorges


RIVER FEATURES


MIDDLE

RIVER FEATURES


MIDDLE


B
roader
valley


Meanders


Riverbed
load with silt and sand


Flood plain

RIVER FEATURES


LOWER

RIVER FEATURES


LOWER


Depositions


Flood
Plains


Beach
Mud Flats


Estuary


HUMAN SETTLEMENTS


No inhabitants in Amazon
River


Inhabitants
in Amazon Rainforest


11,200
years
ago



Human inhabitants
settled in Amazon
Rainforest


Sparsely
populated
as
the soil there is barren for
agriculture


HUMAN SETTLEMENTS


5
million people live in Amazon Rainforest in AD 1500


People
living in Amazon are called Amazonians


Amazon
tribes include
Yanomani
,
Waura

Indians etc.


U
se
modern tools such as cooking pots, pans, utensils and
wear western
clothes


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES


Deforestation


Erosion


S
oil
loss


S
edimentation
in the rivers


U
nbalance
in vital
ecosystems


M
ore
than 1,000
tons/km
²

per year
of sediment flowing toward the
Atlantic Ocean


Expansion of the urbanization causes destruction of the fragile
ecosystems


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES


Water pollution and quality
degradation


Use
of agriculture pesticides


inadequate wastewater treatment from populated areas


contamination of the rivers by mercury


Change in the hydrologic cycle which is related with climate change

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Wikimedia Foundation Inc.
Encyclopedia

on
-
line (
21 August
2013).
Amazon
River. Retrieved From:
http
://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_River


administrator@bernhardt.net.nz (25 May 2009). Amazon River facts and
history in brief. Retrieved From:
http://erwin.bernhardt.net.nz/america/brazilamazonriverfacts.html


Eusebio

Ingol

(Spring 2008). Amazon River, CE397


Transboundary

Water
Resources. Retrieved From:

http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/mckinney/ce397/Topics/Amazon/Amazon(2
008).pdf

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Snivvy931.
Date
Posted Unknown
. What features does the lower course of a
river have
?.
Retrieved
from:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_features_does_the_lower_course_of_a_riv
er_have


Williammtrent
. Date Posted Unknown. What features does the middle course
of the river have
? Retrieved
from:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_features_does_the_middle_course_of_the_
river_have



BIBLIOGRAPHY


Critters. Date Posted Unknown. Features in Upper course of a
river.
Retrieved
from:
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080802110455AAERrE0


Rhett
A Butler.
2010.
People in the Amazon
Rainforest.
Retrieved from:
http://rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/amazon_people.html


BIBLIOGRAPHY


The Terrific Twists Of The Amazon River
. Digital image.

H
ttp
://
all
-
that
-
is
-
interesting.com/amazon
-
river
-
photo
. The
PBH Network, 2 Mar. 2013. Web. 26 Aug.
2013
.


Mouths of Amazon
Geocover

1990
. Digital image
.
Http
://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mouths_of_amazon_geocover_1990.png
.
Wikimedia Foundation Inc.
Encyclopedia

On
-
line, 21 Mar. 2006. Web. 26 Aug.
2013
.


The Andes Vanishing
Quelccaya

Ice Cap
-
Largest Tropical Body of Ice in the World
.
Digital image.

Http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2009/02/the
-
andes
-
vanis.html
. The Daily Galaxy, 6 Feb. 2009. Web. 26 Aug. 2013.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Ocean)
. Digital image
.
Http
://www.tiptopglobe.com/images2.php?fotka=atlantic
-
ocean_3&dd=22645
.
Unknown,
n.d.

Web. 26 Aug. 2013
.


Amazonas Floating Village, Iquitos, Photo by
Sascha

Grabow
. Digital
image.
Http
://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amazonas_floating_village,_Iquitos,_P
hoto_by_Sascha_Grabow.jpg
. Wikimedia Foundation Inc.
Encyclopedia

On
-
line, 10
Dec. 2009. Web. 26 Aug. 2013
.


Noite

Em

Macapá

AP
. Digital image
.
Http
://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Noite_em_Macap%C3%A1_AP.jpg
. Wikimedia
Foundation Inc.
Encyclopedia

On
-
line, 27 Dec. 2005. Web. 26 Aug. 2013.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Upper Reaches of the Young Amazon River
. Digital image
.
Http
://www.wunderground.com/wximage/TheDeanofTravel/149
. Weather
Underground, Inc., 30 Dec. 2011. Web. 26 Aug. 2013
.


Fact File about the Amazon
. Digital image
.
Http
://www.mbarron.net/Amazon/factfile.htm
. Unknown,
n.d.

Web. 26 Aug.
2013
.


Islands Covered with Grassland during Dry Season
. Digital image
.
Http
://jangoux.photoshelter.com/image/I0000DZRJB63MEGI
.
JungleView
,
2007. Web. 26 Aug. 2013.