Computer robot

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14 déc. 2013 (il y a 3 années et 6 mois)

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A robot is a mechanical or virtual, artificial agent. It is
usually electromechanical system, which, by its
appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it
has intent or agency of its own.

It is a machine made in imitation of a human being. It
is a mechanical device that does routine work in
response to commands.

World Book Encyclopedia/

The word

was introduced to the public at large
by Czec writer Karel Canec in his play
(Rossum’s Universal Robots)

which premiered in
1920.[18] The play begins in a factory that makes
'artificial people'

they are called
, but are
closer to the modern idea of androids or even
clones, creatures who can be mistaken for humans.
They can plainly think for themselves, though they
seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the
"Robots" are being exploited and, if so, what
follows? (see also Robots in literature for details of
the play) [19

writer Josef Capek, as its actual inventor.[18] In
an article in the Czech journal
Lidove noviny

1933, he also explained that he had originally
wanted to call the creatures

(from Latin
, work). However, he did not like the word,
seeing it as too However, Karel Čapek himself
was not the originator of the word; he wrote a
short letter in reference to an article in the
Oxford English Dictionary etymology

in which he
named his brother, painter and artificial, and
sought advice from his brother Josef, who
suggested "roboti".

The word

comes from the word

meaning literally self labor, and, figuratively,
"drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech, Slovak and
Polish. The origin of the word is the Old Church

"servitude" ("work" in
contemporary Bulganian and Russian), which in
turn comes from the Indo
European root


is cognate with the german word


The Robot Hall of Fame inducted five robots on June 21, 2006,
representing the best of both real and fictional robots. The Sony
AIBO (1998
2005) and the SCARA industrial robot arm (1978) are
brilliant robotic achievements in consumer entertainment and
industrial assembly.

The three fictional robot inductees include a female icon, an android
child, and a macho intergalactic bodyguard

Maria of Metropolis
(1927), David of Artificial Intelligence:AI (2001), and Gort of The Day
The Earth Stood Still (1951). These robots are among the most
enduring and influential images in science fiction.

The third Robot Hall of Fame induction ceremony was held at the
RoboBusiness2006 Conference, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Both
celebrities and distinguished scholars participated in the event.
Anthony Daniels, the British actor who portrayed C
3PO in the Star
Wars film cycle, was master of ceremonies for the program. Daniel
Wilson, author, How To Survive A Robot Uprising, presented his
humorous vision of the ways robots will impact our world.

Gort’s induction included actor Billy Gray’s personal plea to keep the
world safe from nuclear weapons. Scholars Sherry Turkle (MIT) and
Anne Balsamo (Annenberg School of Communications, USC)
praised the enduring influence of David and Maria. The AIBO was
lauded by Sony’s Katsumi Muto and Carnegie Mellon University’s
Manuela Veloso, professor of computer science and a leader in
international RoboCup competition. SCARA’s distinguished inventor,
Professor Emeritus Hiroshi Makino (University of Yamanashi)
traveled from Japan to accept the honors on behalf of his creation.

AIBO, for the sophistication of your software that wins RoboCup
competitions and the beauty of your design that wins our hearts …
SCARA, for proving that less can be more on the assembly line and
for revolutionizing electronics production … DAVID, for giving us a
vision of emotional relationships between humans and robots …
MARIA, for providing popular culture with one of the earliest female
robotic images, unforgettable and powerful … and GORT, for your
acceptance of the most famous command in science fiction to stop
your mission of destruction…we welcome each of these landmark
robots to the Robot Hall of Fame!

The Lego Group had a very humble beginning in the
workshop of Ole Kirk Christiansen, a carpenter from
Rillund, Denmark. Christiansen began creating wooden
toys in 1932; the company began calling itself "Lego" two
years later in 1934. The company expanded to
producing plastic toys in 1947. In 1949, Lego began
producing the now
famous interlocking bricks, calling
them "Automatic Binding Bricks". These bricks were
based largely on the design of Kiddicraft Self
Bricks, which were released in the UK in 1947. The first
Lego bricks, manufactured from cellulose acetae, were
developed in the spirit of traditional wooden blocks that
could be stacked upon one another; however, these
plastic bricks could be "locked" together. They had
several round "studs" on top, and a hollow rectangular
bottom. The blocks snapped together, but not so tightly
that they could not be pulled apart.

The company name Lego was coined by
Christiansen from the Danish phrase
leg godt
which means "play well". The name could also
be interpreted as "I put together" or "I assemble"
in Latin, though this would be a somewhat
forced application of the general sense "I collect;
I gather; I learn"; the word is most used in the
derived sense, "I read". The cognate Greek verb
"λέγω" or "lego" also means "gather, pick up",
but this can include constructing a stone wall.

Lego Mindstorms

is a line of Lego sets combining
programmable bricks with electric motors, sensor, Lego
bricks, and Lego technique pieces (such as gears, axles,
beams and pnuematic parts) to build robots and other
automated or interactive systems. It embodies the
constructionism learning theory described in the book
Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas

by Seymour Papert.

The first retail version of Lego Mindstorms was released
in 1998 and marketed commercially as the Robotics
Invention System (RIS). The current version was
released in 2006 as Lego Mindstorms NXT. Lego
mindstorms can use double motors from the same port
which do the same thing.

The original Mindstorms Robotics Invention System kit contained
two motors, two touch sensors, and one light sensor. The NXT
version has three servo motors and four sensors for touch, light,
sound, and distance. Lego Mindstorms may be used to build a
model of an embedded systems with computer
electromechanical parts. Many kinds of real
life embedded systems,
from elevator controllers to industrial robots, may be modelled using

Mindstorms kits are also sold and used as an leducational tool,
originally through a partnership between Lego and the MIT Media
aboratory. The educational version of the products is called
Mindstorms for Schools
, and comes with the ROBOLAB GUI
programming software, developed at Tufts University using the
National Instruments Lahview as an engine. The only difference
between the educational series, known as the "Challenge Set", and
the consumer series, known as the "Inventor Set", is another
included light sensor and several more gearing options.

The first generation of LEGO Mindstorms was built around a brick
known as the RCX. It contains a Renesas H8/300 microcontroller as
its internal CPU. The brick is programmed by downloading a
program (written in one of several available programming
languages) from a PC or Mac to the brick's RAM via a special
infrared (IR) interface. After the user starts a program, an RCX
enabled Mindstorms creation may function totally on its own, acting
on internal and external stimuli according to the programmed
instructions. Also, two or more RCX bricks can communicate with
each other through the IR interface, enabling inter
brick cooperation
or competition. In addition to the IR port, there are three sensor input
ports and three motor output ports (also usable for lamps, etc).
There is also an LCD that can display the battery level, the status of
the input/output ports, which program is selected or running, and
other information

Version 1.0 RCX bricks feature a power adapter
jack to allow continuous operation instead of the
limited operation time when using batteries. In
version 2.0, the power adapter jack was
removed. Power adapter
equipped RCX bricks
are popular for stationary robotics projects (such
as robot arms) or for controlling Lego Model
trains. In the latter context, the RCX needs to be
programmed with Digital Command control
(DCC) software required for automated model
train operation.

Each RCX, including 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, has a
unique number printed on it. Little is known
about the reasoning behind this number, except
for the use of technical support

LEGO Camera

The LEGO Camera on its own is technically not a robotic
toy; rather, it is a normal webcam (a Logitech Quickcam
Web) packaged into a LEGO shell. Being a normal
webcam, the LEGO Camera is, unlike most Mindstorms
products, not programmable and is only usable
connected to a PC or some other device that supports
USB webcams.

The LEGO Camera is meant to be used with the
included Vision Command software which can also
interface with an RCX and thus enables creating robots
with "vision". The software is capable of detecting
different lightings, motion, and colors. It can also be used
with any other software that uses a webcam. The
webcam is capable of recording up to 30 frames per
second. It also contains a microphone to record sound
for videos.