Lecture Notes

stubbornnessuglyBiotechnologie

12 déc. 2012 (il y a 8 années et 7 mois)

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Mendel Prinicples:

1.

Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from both its “parents”

2.

When an organism produces its own gametes, those two sets of genes must be separated from
each other so that each gamete contains just one set of genes.

Chromosome Number:

Homologous


each of the chromosomes that come from a male parent have a corresponding
chromosome from the female parent

Diploid


a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes, 2N, “two sets”

Haploid


gametes of sexually pro
ducing organisms contain only a single set of chromosomes, N, “one
set”

Meiosis


a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half
through the separation of homologous chromosomes into a diploid cell.

Crossing over



as homologous chromosomes pair up to form tetrads in meiosis I, they exchange
portions of their chromatids in a process called crossing
-
over. (an exchange of alleles between
homologous chromosomes and produces a new combination of alleles)

Compare Mitos
is and Meiosis:

Mitosis produces two genetically identical diploid cells

Meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells





DEFINE:

Selective breeding



allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next
generation

H
ybridization


crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms

Inbreeding


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics, ensures that the
characteristics that make each breed unique will be preserved, this ty
pe of breeding always has the
chance that a cross between two individuals will bring together two recessive alleles for a genetic defect

Mutations


inheritable changes in DNA, increases the genetic variation in a population (mutants


individuals with mu
tations)

Polyploid


many sets of chromosomes

Genetic engineering



making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

Restriction enzymes


cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

Gel electrophoresis


procedure used to separate and analyze DNA f
ragments by placing a mixture of
DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel





Gel Box with powersource



Gel Electrophoresis Sample

Recombinant DNA


DNA produced by combining
DNA

from different sources

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a
particular gene

Plasmid


circular DNA molecule found in bacteria

Genetic marker


gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmi
d with foreign
DNA from those that don’t

Transformation


process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another
strain of bacteria

Cloning


genetically identical cells produced from a single cell