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16 déc. 2012 (il y a 4 années et 9 mois)

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GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003























Groupe

Français

des Pesticides


33
ème
Congrès


Mediterranean
Group of Pesticide
Research


3
rd

Symposium


DEFENSE des CULTURES
-

CROP PROTECTION

UNICUM COLLOQUIUM,
AIX en PROVENCE, May 20
-

24
th
, 2003


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Welcome in Aix enProvence










































GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Scientific Committee

Chair:

Pr. Josette FOURNIER (Fr),



Pr. Paolo CABRAS (It)

Pr. Jean François COOPER (Fr)

Dr. Jean Pierre DECOR (Fr)

Dr. Miguel GAMON (Es)

Pr. Ah
med BOUHAOUS (Ma)

Pr. Rafik HADIDANE (Tu)

Pr. Urania MENKISSOGLU (Gr)

Pr. Marco TREVISAN (It)

Pr. Catherine REGNAULT
-
ROGER (Fr)


Organisation Committee


Chair:


Pr. Michel MONTURY ( U. Bdx1)

Pr. Jean Marc CHOVELON (U. Ly1)

Pr. Patrick RAVANEL (U. Gren1)

D
r. Fabienne TROLARD (INRA)

Dr. Guilhem BOURRIE (INRA)

Dr. Pierre CHOVELON (Arbois)











GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Contents


Wednesday, May 21

08h
-
09h00


Welcome to the attendees and registration
.

09h
-
10h15


Opening ceremony

10h15
-
10h45


Coffee Break


Invited Lecture

10h45
-
1
1h25

JP Descore











com. 1

L'évolution de la protection des cultures : Bilan d'un siècle de progrès


Session 1: accelerated attenuation of pesticides in environment

Chairman : J.C. Fournier

11h25
-
11h45

N. Oturan, C. Alliot, M.A. Oturan








com. 2

Degradation of pesticides used in viticulture by electrochemical advanced oxidation process


11h45
-
12h05

C. Ponce
, B. Lagacherie, R. Nouaim et J.C. Fournier





com. 3

Les biobacs : Deux années d'expérimentation sur le site de Dijon.


12h05
-
12h25

S. Gendr
ault,

M.
A. Alves, ,

R. Bayard,

O. C. Nunes,

R. Gourdon




com. 4

Combinaison d'une méthode physique et biologique pour le traitement d'une eau polluée par de
faibles concentrations en pesticides.


Lunch Break



Session 2: Biopesticides

Chairman : B. J.R.
Philogène

14h
-
14h30

Invited Lecture

B. J.R. Philogène










com. 5

From nicotineto

-
T: Biopesticides, not a simple question easily marketable molecules
.



14h30
-
14h50

A. Laarif, S. Fattouch, W. Essid, N. Marzouki, H. Ben Salah, M.H. Ben Hammouda


com
. 6

Phthorimaea operculella granulosis virus: a biopesticide to control potato tuber moth in Tunisia


14h50
-
15h10

C. Regnault
-
Roger










com. 7

Plant Biopesticides : a future for IPM ?


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


15h10
-
15h40

Invited Lecture

O. Khouldia











com. 8

The co
ntrol of the bio
-
attacks against dates in Tunisian palm groves


Present situation and
perspective


15h40
-
16h10:
Coffee Break and session posters



Session 3: Toxicity and Ecotoxicity tests

Chairman : J.F. Cooper

16h10
-
16h30

K. Hdadi
-
Saffih,
M. Amichot, L.

Bruckler







com. 9

Effects of sorption and biodegradation on toxicity of parathion and paraoxon to Nematodes:
experiments and modeling.


16h30
-
16h50

B. Gagnaire, F. Géret, J. Haure, J
-
L. Martin, T. Burgeot and

T. Renault



com. 10

Effect of pesticide
exposure on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes



16h50
-
17h20

Invited Lecture

N. Marquet (UIPP)










com. 11

Volatility potential of crop protection products : proposal for a classification


17h20

19h00

Session posters




Thursday, May 22


S
ession 4: Environmental impact and transfers

Chairman : M. Trevisan

08h50
-
09h10

J.G. Lacas, C. Dagès, C. Souiller, V. Gouy, J.J. Gril, N. Carluer.




com. 12

Pesticide transfer trough grassed or forested strips


09h10
-
09h30

A. Pusino, I. Braschi, C. Gessa








com. 13

Adsorption of Triasulfuron on Soils and Soil Colloid Components


09h30
-
09h50

A Boivin
, C. Perrin
-
Garnier, M. Schiavon







com. 14

Time effect upon bentazone behaviour


09h50
-
10h10

M. Nègre, I. Passarella, A. Baglieri, M. Gennari






com.

15

Adsorption of the herbicide prosulfocarb on model soil colloids.


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


10h10
-
10h40
Coffee Break and poster session


Chairman : M. Schiavon

10h40
-
11h00

S. Guimont
, C. Perrin
-
Ganier, M. Schiavon







com. 16

Soil structure role on the bentazone availbility t
o water transfer


11h00
-
11h20

R.
Cherrier
, C. Perrin
-
Garnier, M. Schiavon







com. 17

Compared leaching risk of atrazine and other maize herbicide (sulcotrione
).


11h20
-
11h40

M. Thiollet P. Girardin









com. 18

An indicators for pesticides vineyards
environmental assessment : IPHY indicator
.


11h40
-
12h00

L. Scarponi, D. Del Buono, C. Vischetti







com. 19

Pretilachlor and fenclorim in rice: p
ersistence, detoxification, safening effect and carbohydrate
formation.


12h00
-
12h20

M. Mojasevic,
D. Kov
acevic
, N. Protic, S. LJ. Vitorovic, I. Elezovic



com. 20

A survey of atrazine residues in Serbian soils.


Lunch Break


Transportation to the Europôle of Arbois

16h30


17h30

J.F. Narbonne











com. 21

UNEP/GEF regionally based assessment of persis
tent toxic substances in mediterranean region

: case of
pesticides.


Session 5 : Research for Education


17h30


18h

Phytopharma 2003 Award


18h


18h30

Discovering and Training 2003 Grants


19h00

:
Festive Party








GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Friday, May 23

Session 6 : New analy
tical methods. Crop quality

Chairman : A. Valverde

08h30
-
09h00

Invited Lecture

W. Schwack











com. 22

Formation and analysis of bound pesticide residues in fruits


09h00
-
09h20

M. Anastassiades, E. Scherbaum








com. 23

Improving the efficiency of

pesticide residue analysis.


09h20
-
09h40

A. Hormatallah, R. Salghi,

E. Ait Addi, E. Zine, A. Faouzi




com. 24

Persistance and residues of a new formulation of the fenamiphos in soil and tomatoes grown in
greenhouses.


09h40
-
10h00

M.L. Fernández
-
Cruz, M
. Villarroya, J.L. Alonso
-
Prados, J.M. García
-
Baudín
,


com. 25

Determination of fenitrothion and its main metabolites fenitrothion
-
oxon and 3
-
methyl
-
4
-
nitrophenol in kaki fruits.


10h00
-
10h30
Coffee Break and poster session

Chairman : W. Schwack

10h30
-
11h
00

Invited Lecture

A. Barba











com. 26

Pesticide Residues in viticulture and enology.


11h00
-
11h20

A. Persic, H. Roche, F. Ramade








com. 27

organochlorine pesticides residues in food web organisms from a camargue lagoon


11h20
-
11h40

A. Sannino
, L. Bolzoni, M. Bandini








com. 28

Determination of new pesticide residues in processed fruit products by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS

.


11h40
-
12h00

E. Génin (ThermoFinnigan)









com. 29

Applications récentes du couplage LC
-
MS à l'analyse de contaminants



Session 7 : European and mediteranean policies

Chairman : M. Montury

12h00
-
12h30

Declerck
(abstract not communicated)


Lunch break


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Session 8 : natural attenuation of pesticides in environment

14h00
-
14h20

Chairman : S.A. Bufo

S.A. Bufo, L. Scrano, M. D’A
uria, J.M. Chovelon






com. 30

Photochemistry of some sulfonylurea herbicides


14h20
-
14h40

O. Brahmia and C. Richard









com. 31

Photodegradation of carbaryl and metabolites in the aquatic environment


14h40
-
15h00

T. El
-
Sebai, B. Lagacherie, F. Marti
n
-
Laurent, C. Coste, G. Soulas



com. 32

Biodégradation de l’isoproturon et variabilité spatiale dans une parcelle agricole


15h00
-
15h30
Coffee break and poster session


Session 9 : session of your organisers (present and future)

Chairman : P. Cabras

15h30
-
15h50

P.F. Chaton
, M.H. Liégeois, R. Mauras, L. Perez, G. Merle du Bourg, J.C. Meyran, M. Tissut, P.
Ravanel
1











com. 33

The main characteristics of a chemical control on Agriotes populations


15h50
-
16h10

H. Barkani,

C. Emmelin, M. Elazzouzi, J.M.

Chovelon





com. 34

Photochemical degradations of imazaquin in aqueous solutions


16h10
-
16h30

M. Montury
, L. Urruty









com. 35

Pesticides analysis and environement. SPME multi
-
media sampling method


16h30
-
16h50

U. Kaya, M. Erkan, F.O. Altindisli, R.

Altincag, A. U. Duru




com. 36

Pesticide residues on raisins in Turkey



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Posters


A. Aajoud
, M. Raveton, P.F. Chaton, M.H. Liégeois, H. Aouadi, M. Tissut and P. Ravanel.

Fipronil activity and degradation in different ecosystems


M. Anastassiades, E. Sch
erbaum and D. Bartsch

Validation of a simple and rapid multiresidue method (QuEChERS) and its implemntation in
routine pesticide analysis


A. Angioni, V. L. Garau, A. Aguilera Del Real, M. Melis, E. V. Minelli, C. Tuberoso, P. Cabras

GC
-
ITMS Determination
and Degradation of Captan during the wine
-
making process


A.Balinova, C.Lentza
-
Rizos, J.Hajslova, E.Matisova, O.Sakaliene, U.Kaya

Minimisation of pesticide residues in processed food
-

An integrated study


A. Barba, J. Oliva.; C. Pérez, M.A. Cámara, P.J. T
ovar

Control of pesticide residues in wastewaters in non
-
regulated watercourses flowing into the mar
menor lagoon.


R. Barro, M. Llompart, R. Cela, C. García
-
Jares

Fast detemination of a group of pestides (polychorobenzenes) in air by SPE
-
HSSPME.


C. Bert
rand, J.F. Cooper, C. Coste., J.P. Roustan

In vitro potential inhibition of sulfonylurea metabolism by organophosphorus in vitis vinifera
.


J. Blais, S. Charpentié, L. Kimpe,
F. Pick, C. Regnault Roger

Altitudinal effect on organochloride pesticides concen
trations

in fishes from lakes of Western
Pyrénées.


J.M. Bonmatin, R. Charvet, M.E. Colin

Presence of systemic pesticide imidacloprid in crops and risk to non
-
targeted insect species


A.Bouhaouss,
K.El Khattabi, C.Perrin
-
Ganier, M.Schiavon

Repartition of

nonextractable residues between different fractions of organic matter of two
moroccan soils treated with isoproturon.


F. Breton, S.A. Piletsky, E.V. Piletska, K. Karim , J.P. Cambon and R. Rouillon

The way towards developing affinity materials for herb
icides


M. Brotons, I. López, M. Rodriguez, J. L. Viedma, S. Gómez, S. Rapallo, A. Martínez

Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables from Almería before Commercialization, 2002.


A.A Burçak, N. Delen

Decomposition of iprodion, vinclozolin and imazalil
in grapes


F. Cabitza, F. Dedola, S. Mura, G. Uccheddu, L. Zucca

Eight years of monitoring programme for pesticide residues in Sardinia


M. A. Carlos, I. Jimenez, J.A. Garrido

Development and validation of a liquid chomatographic method for simultaneous d
etermination of
benzimidazole residues in infant formula milk.

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



N. Carro, I. García, M. Ignacio, A. Mouteira

Influence of organochlorine pesticides levels on lipid content in mussels from galica coast (Spain).


H.
Chaabene, A. Boivin, C. Perrin
-
Ganier, M.

Schiavon.

Transfert de l’isoproturon et de la bentazone par l’eau de drainage dans trois types de sol soumis
aux mêmes conditions climatiques


J.Y. Chapot, J.E. Delphin, M. Schiavon

Effects of soil crusting on water transfer velocity and metolachlor conce
nration in the draining
water of lysimeters.


T. Dagnac

, R. Jeannot , S. Bristeau , L. Garelly, O. Vandenabeele
-
Trambouze, S. Ben Rejeb

Determination of glyphosate and amminotriazole in water after solid phase immunoextraction,
derivatization and detecti
on by UV and LC
-
ESI
-
MS/MS
.


A. Dahchour, A. Satrallah, J. Haouari, M. Alaoui Elbelghiti

Persistance et Mobilité du Tribenuron Methyl Dans Deux Sols Marocains


J.E Delphin and J.Y. Chapot

Evaluation of the migration depth of atrazine by preferential flow in

a fallow soil


M. Devers
, G. Soulas and F. Martin
-
Laurent

Quantification of atz gene expression in Chelatobacter heintzii and Pseudomonas sp. ADP two
atrazine
-
degrading strains isolated from adapted soil .


N. Domange,
C. Grégoire

Quality assurance assura
nce in field data acquisition of project about pesticide transfers


L. Dortignac, J. Ayele

Sorption of diuron and its metabolites on soil through columns experiments


Duniagro Laboratory

Analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables in the Dunigario Laborat
ory.


M. Eberius, D. Vandenhirtz, L. Bertal (Courtage analyses services)

Image processed biotesting


new options for effect analysis and test performance


S. Fattouch, K. Khanchouch, W. Essid, A. Laarif, I. M’Hadhbi
,

M.N. Marzouki

Antagonistic activity o
f ruminal bacteria isolated from goat and sheep rumen



F. Ferrari, A. Sanusi, M. Montury

Linearity and calibration curves to assess dichlorvos concentration in atmospheric air sampled by
SPME


F. Ferrari, M. Montury

Trapping pesticide vapours from air sam
ples by SPME. The case of pesticides with medium and low
saturated vapour pressures.


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


R. Finocchiaro, C. Messina, M. Nègre, S. Meli, M. Gennari

Behaviour of the insecticide clorpyriphos
-
methyl in soil: degradation kinetics and interaction with
the soil su
rfaces
.


A. Fuster, F. Melendreras, J. Garre, A. Barba, J. Oliva

Toxicological study of pesticide residues intake in vegetables in Spain (1998
-
2001)


F. Gallone, M.R. Taurino

Gas chromatographic determination of fosetyl aluminium residues in fruit and vege
tables.


A. García
-
Esparza, E. Capri, M. Trevisan

Field test of pesticide indicator for wine and grape farms


F. Gérault, G. Barbier, A. Madiot, P.Y. Communal

Comparison study between Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and traditional extraction by
macer
ation


E. Haouisee, O. Briand, B. Lebot, R. Seux

A simple and fast procedure to collect and analyse pesticides in urban atmosphere


M. Hensche

and W. Schwack

Photochemical behavior of parathion
-
methyl on citrus fruits


Y. Hisil, A.U. Duru, S. Ötles

The in
vestigation on analysis methods of some pesticide residues of some greenhouse vegetables


H. Hrenn

and W. Schwack

Protein
-
bound residues of the fungicide chlorothalonil


A.R. Jacobson
, S. Dousset, P. Baveye, and F. Andreux

Evaluation of copper
-
herbicide co
mplexation by potentiometric titration


G. Kaichouch
, N. Oturan, M.A. Oturan, A. El. Hourch

D
égradation de l'imazapyr par les procédés d'oxydation avancée chimiques et électrochimiques
.


V. Karanasios, D.G. Karpouzas, U. Menkissoglu
-
Spiroudi

Biodegradation

of the nematicide cadusafos in soil: the effect of metam sodium and methyl bromide
application on microbial degradation of cadusafos


G. Kearney

A Comparison of Approaches to Multi
-
Residue Screening of Pesticide Residues in Fruit and
Vegetables by LC/MS.


K. Khanchouch., S. Fattouch, M. R. Hajlaoui M. R, M.N. Marzouki, O.K. Ben Hassine

Antagonistic Activity of Bacteria against the most prevailing phytopathogenic citrus fungi.


S. Lazic, A. Mandic, B. Dedic, A. Djelmiš

Determination of the insecticide imid
acloprid residues in onion


Lig’Air (association agrée de surveillance de la qualité de l’air en région Centre)

Pesticides in the ambient air of Centre area (France)


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


X. Louchart
, B. Lennartz, M.Voltz

Diuron ad
-

and desorption under Mediterranean climate


M. El Madani, M. El Azzouzi, A. Zrineh, D. Marten, A. Kettrup

Capacity of retention of Imazethapyr herbicide by three selected Moroccan soils


C. Margoun, B. Barrere, R. Barrier, V. Gouy

Pesticide behaviour in farm ditches : a three scale study


F.
Martin
-
Laurent,

B. Barres, I. Wagschal, S. Piutti, M. Devers, L. Philippot and G. Soulas

Genetic characterization of atrazine
-
degrading bacterial consortia isolated from maize rhizosphere


E. Matisová, M. Dömötörová, M. Kirchner

Fast GC and Its Use in Pesticides
Environmental Analysis


J. Oliva, E. Matencio, M.A. Cámara, A. Barba

Dissipation rates of four herbicides, in lettuce and celery under cold storage condition.


D. Ortelli, P. Edder, C. Corvi

LC
-
MS/MS Multiresidue method used for the analysis of pesticides
in fruits and vegetables.


N. Oturan
,
E. Guivarch
, M. A. Oturan

In situ oxidative degradation of organophosphorus pesticides by electrogenerated Fenton's
reagent


N. Oturan
,
J.J. Aaron
, M. A. Oturan

Application of photo
-
Fenton and Electro
-
Fenton process to

eliminate aromatic pesticides


A.Ouassini,F.Mourabit, F.Frimmel

Optimization of the solid phase extraction SPE and chromatographic/mass
-
spectrometric
identification of pesticides and its metabolites


V. Pot, P. Benoit, A. Yra, M.
-
J. Martinez Cordon

Di
ssipation of isoproturon and metribuzin herbicides in undisturbed grassed buffer strip soil
columns


I. Ravier, O. Briand, R. Seux

Pratiques agricoles et conséquences sanitaires. Etude du comportement des agriculteurs bretons lors
de l'utilisation des pes
ticides.


B. Rung,
W. Schwack

Formation of polyphenol bound residues of aminoparathion catalysed by Polyphenol oxidase.


R. Salghi, E. Zine, L. Bazzi, E.A. Addi, A. Hormatallah

Amélioration des techniques d'application de l'imazalil sur agrume au niveau de
s stations de
conditionnement du Maroc


L. Sanchez
-
Prado, M. Lores, C. García
-
Jares, R. Cela, M. Llompart

"Photo
-
SPME", a fast and simple procedure to study the photochemical behaviour of pesticides.


P. Sandín
-
España, I. Santín, J. O. Magrans, J. L. Alon
so
-
Prados, J. M. García
-
Baudín

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Identification of the main alloxydim degradation byproduct in chlorinated water and bioassay study
to determine its phytotoxycity.


K. Sinderhauf,
W. Schwack
.

Photochemically induced reactions of the insecticide phosmet with
particular regard to nonpolar
lipid environments.


A. Valverde, M. Boulaid, A. Aguilera, F. Camacho, J. C. Herrera

Effect of Household Processing and Unit to Unit Variability of Azoxystrobin Residues in Zucchini.


N. Vela, L. Mena, G. Navarro, G. Pérez and

S. Navarro

Ferric Ion Promoted Photodecomposition of Endosulfan and Lindane in Wastewater.


N. Vela, G. Pérez, G. Navarro, L. Mena and S. Navarro

Degradation Rates of Simazine and Terbuthylazine in Wastewater by Photocatalysis with TiO
2

under Natural Sunl
ight


C. Vischetti, A. Esposito, G. Errera, M. Trevisan, L. Scarponi, M. Herbst, M. Ciocanaru, H.
Vereecken.

Modelling pesticide fate in unsaturated zone at catchment scale.



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 1



L’EVOLUTION DE LA PR
OTECTION DES CULTURE
S


BILAN D’UN SIECLE DE

PROG
RES


J.P. Descore


Ce n’est qu’à partir du XIXe siècle que le développement de la production agricole a fait disparaître
le risque endémique de pénurie alimentaire en France et en Europe de l’Ouest.

Toutefois, cette intensification relative des cultures a
vec le développement des transports
intercontinentaux a permis à de nouveaux ennemis des cultures introduits de proliférer en l’absence
des facteurs naturels limitants de leurs écosystèmes d’origine. Ils ont provoqué dans certains cas des
catastrophes soci
ales.

Les substances minérales disponibles comme le soufre, les sels de cuivre ou de mercure, qui se sont
révélées efficaces contre ces parasites ont été mises en œuvre dans l’urgence.

Pour certains composés, leur forte toxicité aigue a justifié la mise
en place du système
d’autorisation préalable de mise sur le marché à partir de 1934.

Dès 1945, suite à une pénurie conjoncturelle due aux années de guerre, on a fait appel à la chimie
organique pour découvrir des produits moins toxiques et plus efficaces.

Le champ de la protection
des plantes a été ainsi considérablement élargi.

De ce fait la stratégie défensive d’avant
-
guerre a fait place petit à petit à une stratégie préventive «
d’assurance de récolte », systématiquement appliquée culture par culture.
C’est la révolution verte
et le développement de l’industrie phytosanitaire.

Depuis le début des années 80, l’opinion publique s’est inquiétée de l’utilisation trop systématique
des produits chimiques, des déséquilibres écologiques, des contaminations des

eaux de surfaces et
souterraines, ainsi que la présence de résidus, même à dose infinitésimale dans les denrées
alimentaires. Les contraintes économiques des agriculteurs ont aussi aidé à l’émergence de
méthodes pour le raisonnement des applications et de
s principes de la lutte intégrée.

Les critères d’homologation des nouveaux produits ont été de plus en plus drastiques, avec pour
conséquence une concentration des sociétés agrochimiques impliquées dans la recherche des
principes actifs. Les études de mét
abolisme dans la plante, dans le sol, dans les organismes « non
cibles », le mode d’action précis, sont aujourd’hui des pre
-
requis à tout développement. C’est
l’avènement de la biochimie et de l’analyse au niveau moléculaire.

On peut considérer que la pro
tection par épandage en pleine surface d’une substance active atteint
sa limite.

Pour le siècle à venir, dans une nouvelle logique de développement durable, l’amélioration variétale
avec les horizons ouverts par les biotechnologies devrait permettre une p
arfaite adaptation des
cultures aux conditions environnementales au lieu de modifier l’environnement : tolérance à la
sécheresse plutôt qu’irrigation, tolérance à la salinité plutôt que défricher de nouvelles forêts,
résistance aux maladies, aux insectes p
lutôt que des pesticides. C’est l’avènement d’une agriculture
productive en harmonie avec les écosystèmes. Par cette voie, la protection contre les parasites sera
intégrée de plus en plus dans la plante cultivée elle
-
même, à l’exception de l’herbicide pour

lequel
la culture devra être tolérante.

Cet herbicide devra être parfaitement adapté à l’environnement, et l’on sait déjà éliminer toute trace
dans la récolte elle
-
même. Par exemple, des chercheurs de TSUKUBA ont récemment introduit le
gène de la mono ox
ygénase P450 (CYP1A1) sous contrôle du promoteur de la patatine pour obtenir
son expression spécifique dans les tubercules. Ce dernier détoxifie ainsi complètement les résidus
d’herbicides tels que l’Atrazine ou le Chlortoluron.

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


Les principales sociétés a
grochimiques ne s’y étaient pas trompés en s’engageant dès la fin des
années 80 dans le génie génétique.

Des querelles académiques, accompagnées d’une mauvaise communication ont exacerbé en Europe
la réticence d’une opinion publique de plus en plus soucie
use de son bien
-
être.

Cette révolution scientifique et économique est déjà largement amorcée, espérons que l’Agriculture
Européenne ne tardera pas trop à y participer, il en va de son avenir !

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 2


DEGRADATION OF PESTI
CIDES USED IN VITICU
LTURE BY
EL
ECTROCHEMICAL ADVANC
ED OXIDATION PROCESS


Nihal Oturan
1
, Christophe Alliot
2
,
Mehmet A. Oturan
1


1

Laboratoire des Géomatériaux, Université de Marne la Vallée, 5 bld Descartes, Bat. IFI, Champs
sur Marne, 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2, E
-
mail :
oturan@univ
-
mlv.fr



2

Centre Technique Interprofessionnel de la Vigne et du Vin, 17 rue Jean Chandon Moët
-

B.P.20046, 51202 Epernay cedex




The degradation of five pesticides used in viticulture is studied using Electro
-
Fent
on process,
which is an advanced oxidation technique. Electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent (
H
2
O
2

+ Fe
2+
)
is employed to generate the hydroxyl radicals:

H
2
O
2

+ Fe
2+


Fe
3+

+ OH
-

+ OH
.

The Fenton's reagent is generated in situ in aqueous solution by

electrochemistry in a catalytic
way by using only the air oxygen as chemical reagent.


The hydroxyl radicals, which are very powerful oxidizings agents, react with organic pollutants
and thus lead to their degradation. We have already applied this proces
s successfully to the total
mineralization of different organic pollutants
1
-
4
.


In this study we have applied this process to degrade some pesticides (under their formulation
form) used in viticulture. Each pesticide contains many active ingredients and a
djuvants. The
treated solutions were followed by HPLC analysis. The chemical oxygen demand (COD)
measurement during the Electro
-
Fenton processing was permit to evaluate the kinetic of organic
matter decay and the mineralization efficiency for each pesticid
e.



Références

1.

M. A. Oturan,
J. Appl. Electrochem
., 30 (2000) 475.

2.

M. A. Oturan, J. J. Aaron, N. Oturan, J. Pinson,
Pestic. Sci.,

55 (1999) 558.

3.

M. A. Oturan, J. Peiroten, P. Chartrin, A. J. Aurel,
Environ. Sci. Technol.
,34 (2000) 3474.

4.

M.
A
. Oturan, N. Oturan, C. Lahite, S. Trévin, J. Electroanal. Chem. 507 (2001) 96.


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 3


LES BIOBACS : DEUX ANNEES D'EXPERIMENTATION SUR LE SITE DE DIJON


Carmen Ponce
, Bernard Lagacherie, Rachida Nouaim et Jean
-
Claude Fournier


Laboratoire de Microbiolo
gie des Sols, Centre de Microbiologie du Sol et de l'Environnement,
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 17 rue Sully, B.P. 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex,
France. E. mail : fournier@dijon.inra.fr


Les biobacs sont des dispositifs rustiques qui permett
ent de confiner et de traiter les effluents
provenant du lavage des tracteurs ou du rinçage des pulvérisateurs. Utilisés depuis 10 ans en Suède
sous le nom de "biobed", ils sont maintenant expérimentés dans plusieurs pays Européens et
notamment en France s
ous ceux de Phytobac® et de Phytback®.

L'étude mise en place à l'INRA de Dijon a pour objectif de compléter l'approche pragmatique des
premières expérimentations par une description plus précise du fonctionnement du système
notamment d'un point de vue mic
robiologique. A terme, tout en contribuant à mieux définir le
cahier des charges d'un tel dispositif pour l'utilisateur, il s'agit d'en vérifier et si possible d'en
accroître l'efficacité. Il s'agit aussi de s'assurer de l'absence de risques écotoxicologiq
ues importants
liés au devenir des déchets secondaires que le dispositif peut engendrer (fonds de bacs).


Les résultats présentés confirment la capacité des populations microbiennes de s'adapter à la
présence de fortes concentrations d'herbicides et de dé
grader très rapidement certaines matières
actives. Ils démontrent que cette activité peut se maintenir même en présence de quantités
appréciables d'inhibiteurs potentiels (produits cuivrés, huile moteur, détergents...). . L'étude
comparative d'une série de

biomixes (mélanges de substrats utilisés pour emplir les biobacs) met en
évidence des interactions complexes entre la matière organique présente dans le milieu, les matières
actives et l'efficacité des microorganismes. La minéralisation accélérée du carbo
ne organique en
présence de fortes doses de pesticides et l'évolution de la biodisponibilité des matières actives en
fonction de la nature et de l'évolution de la matière organique présente dans les biomixes sont les
principaux phénomènes considérés.


Que
lques conseils concernant la conduite pratique des biobacs peuvent être déjà déduits de ces deux
premières années de travaux et seront présentés en conclusion.




GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 4


COMBINAISON D’UNE METHODE PHYSIQUE ET BIOLOGIQUE POUR LE
TRAITEMENT D’UNE
EAU POLLUEE PAR DE FAIBLES CONCENTRATIONS EN
PESTICIDE


1
Sophie Gendrault,

1
M.
A. Alves, ,

1
R. Bayard,

2
O. C. Nunes,

1
R. Gourdon


1
LAEPSI, INSA de Lyon, 20 av. Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France

2
LEPAE/LSRE
-

Dep. Chemical Engineering, Facu
ldade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto,
R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200
-
465 Porto, Portugal



L’atrazine est un herbicide de la famille des triazines utilisé mondialement dans les cultures
de maïs principalement, afin de limiter la présence de mauvaises
herbes. Elle est fréquemment
détectée dans les eaux de surface et les eaux souterraines avoisinant des champs agricoles. Sa
persistance dans l’environnement ainsi que sa toxicité pose le problème depuis de nombreuses
années du traitement de ces eaux pollué
es.


Les traitements les plus fréquents actuellement utilisant le charbon actif pour l’adsorption de
molécules polluantes génère des coûts importants. Le but de notre travail est de trouver une
alternative au traitement au charbon actif en utilisant l’écor
ce de pin qui est un déchet des industries
du bois (scieries, menuiseries...) et qui présente une certaine affinité vis à vis de molécules
organiques hydrophobes telles que l’atrazine.


Notre travail consiste à combiner ce traitement physique d’adsorption

avec un traitement
biologique en utilisant des bactéries connues pour leurs capacités à minéraliser l’atrazine,
Pseudomonas

ADP sp. (commercialisé par DSMZ 11735), susceptible de permettre ainsi une
élimination totale du polluant et d’assurer ainsi la déc
ontamination des filtres d’adsorption.


Nos expériences de laboratoire ont montré que

Pseudomonas

ADP sp. était capable de
croître dans un milieu contenant les composés solubles de l’écorce de pin et ceci à des pH
relativement acides (pH4
-
5) imposés par la

présence de l’écorce en milieu aqueux.

Il a également été observé que ces composés solubles pouvaient constituer une source de carbone
pour
Pseudomonas

ADP sp. évitant ainsi l’apport d’une source additionnelle de carbone lors du
traitement.

Dans un mili
eu constitué d’extrait aqueux d’écorce de pin, lorsque l’atrazine est la seule source
d’azote,
Pseudomonas

ADP sp. minéralise 75 % de l’atrazine présente initialement dans le milieu à
une concentration de 50 µg/l, en 300 heures.

Des essais en batch ont mon
tré qu’en présence d’écorce de pin préalablement stérilisée,
Pseudomonas

ADP sp. était capable de minéraliser environ 50% de l’atrazine en 300 heures. Les
50% restants sont en partie adsorbés sur l’écorce et une partie est utilisée par les bactéries pour l
eur
développement et leur reproduction.

Lorsque l’écorce n’est pas préalablement stérilisée, la microflore endogène de l’écorce
présente une certaine capacité à minéraliser l’atrazine (environ 12

% en 300 heures). Cette valeur
n’est pas négligeable par rap
port à l’activité de
Pseudomonas

ADP sp. La présence de cette
microflore inhibe cependant fortement la minéralisation de l’atrazine par
Pseudomonas

ADP sp

;
ainsi en présence d’écorce non stérilisée,
Pseudomonas

ADP sp. minéralise 20% de l’atrazine du
mili
eu soit 30% en moins par rapport aux conditions stériles.

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 5


FROM NICOTINE TO

-
T㨠䉉:PST䥃䥄䕓Ⱐ乏
T⁁⁓ MPL⁑啅ST䥏丠
但⁅䅓䥌夠
M䅒KT䅂A⁍佌䍕LS
.


Bernard J.R. Philogène


Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa,

Canada K1N 6N5


Molecules of plant origin have had an important role in the control of organisms regarded as pests
in agriculture and health, early in the game. They have been particularly in evidence at the end of
the 19
th

and the beginning of the 20
th

century. Following the introduction of synthetic pesticides,
biopesticides of plant origin (nicotine, rotenone, pyrethrum, etc.) faded into the background,
pyrethrum and its derivatives excepted.


Within half a century synthetic pesticides went from specta
cular results to serious problems for both
target pests and non
-
target organisms, and the environment (resistance, chronic toxicity, various
accidents).


While we are currently witnessing the resurgence of certain arthropod
-
borne diseases, the
emergence of

new infestationsd such as West Nile virus in North America, more severe restrictions
placed on the use of synthetic pesticides by government agencies, and more vocal an global
protests by environmentalists, scientists are actively looking for acceptable

methods of control.


Biopesticides are again in the limelight because they are seen as “natural products” not capable of
environmental contamination, There in fact hundreds of molecules of plant origin capable of
modifying insect behaviour (e.g. azadirach
tin) or which are simply toxic (e.e. alpha
-
terthienyl). An
examination of several of these molecules extracted from both cultivated plants, and less known
tropical species will demonsrtrate that there is a long way to go from chemical characterization to
m
arketability. We will discuss current research on potential biopesticides with a new mode of
action, capable of delaying if not preventing the onset of resistance in pests. Biopesticides will have
to be subjected to the same scrutiny for registration as th
e synthetic pesticides they seek to replace.






GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 6


PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULE
LLA GRANULOSIS VIRUS
: A BIOPESTICIDE TO
CONTROL POTATO TUBER

MOTH IN TUNISIA


Laarif A a., Fattouch S b., Essid W b., Marzouki N b., Ben Salah H a. & Ben Hammouda
M.H. c


a
Laboratoire d"Entomologie, INRAT, Ariana 2049 Tunisie ; e
-
mail: laarif.asma@iresa.agrinet.tn

b Laboratoire de Génie Biologique, INSAT, Tunisie. c Laboratoire de Physiologie et
Physiopathologie des Insectes, INAT,Tunisie.


Recent advances in the development

of biopesticides offer opportunities for the worldwide
exploitation of biological agents as replacements for more hazardous and environmentally
unacceptable chemical pesticides and for inclusion in Integrated Pest Management programmes.
The production and

use of biopesticides in a developing country as in Tunisia, can provide local
employment opportunities, reduce health risks and costs due to chemical poisoning and
environmental damage. In addition to this, there are the benefits obtained through the cont
rol
achieved by preserving natural enemies and indigenous biodiversity.


A number of qualities make baculoviruses attractive biological alternatives to chemicals for pest
control, including the ability to produce and apply them using methods similar to tho
se employed
for chemical pesticides.


One of the main pest of potatoes in Tunisia, responsible of very large losses in potato production
and storage, is the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (PTM). An alternative to
chemicals in PTM contro
l is a granulosis virus (Baculoviridae, Eubaculovirinae) isolated from this
specie (see Raman & Alcazar, 1988) and already used against this pest (Ben Salah & Aalbu, 1992).


The objective of this study was to carry out a screening and an evaluation of loca
l granuloviruses
naturally present in Tunisia pest populations and to isolate local strains of this virus allowing the
selection of a virus better adapted to the local host or ecosystems. On the basis of symptomatology,
P. operculella larvae have been coll
ected from different locations (the North, the Cap Bon and the
Sahel of Tunisia). Indirect Enzyme
-
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a serum raised
against the purified Tunisian isolate virus (Ben Salah & Aalbu, 1992) and applied for these samples
ha
d lead us to establish the geographical virus distribution. Comparative study of
symptomatological and immunological approaches demonstrates that the serological technique
complements the symptomatology for a better detection of the virus.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ben Salah H. and Aalbu R. (1992). Field use of granulosis virus to reduce initial storage infestation
of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in North Africa. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment, 38, 119
-
126.


Raman K. V. & Alcazar,

J. (1988): Biological control of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea
operculella (Zeller), using a granulosis virus in Peru. In Astun Potato association (APA), Proc., June
12
-
16, 1988, Kumming, China, 173
-
174.



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



com
. 7


PLANT BIOPESTICIDES
: A FUTURE FOR I
PM ?


Catherine Regnault
-
Roger


Laboratoire d’Ecologie Moléculaire

Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour
-
France

BP 11 55


F
-
64013 PAU Cedex

catherine.regnault
-
roger@univ
-
pau.fr



The intensi
ve use of organic synthetised pesticides after the Second World War pointed the
occurrence of sever ecological disorders. Nowadays, the urgency to develop alternative or
complementary approaches for friendly environmental agriculture and development is
de
monstrated. Among these alternative approaches, one of the ways being explorated now is the
plants biopesticides.


This strategy is not really recent. Secondary plant compounds were already used to control
phytophagous insects since the end of the XIX
° century. But it made great strides during the thirty
last years because of the technological and scientific progress in the area of analytical chemistry
and molecular biology. Consequently, the identification of semiochemical compounds improved
the co
mprehension of species relationships and the interest of some for plant protection . It is
pointed however that these kinds of compounds have difficulty to become a market success.

This communication intends to bring some arguments to the following quest
ions:

-

Which answer can bring the allelochemical molecules to the IPM current concerns ?

-

Which interest do they represent for a durable development?

-


Which are the obstacles with their marketing?

-

Does this alternative approach have a future for plant pr
otection?

The answers to these questions participate in the clarification of this significant debate for our
future.

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 8


THE CONTROL OF THE B
IO
-
ATTACKS AGAINST DATE
S IN TUNISIAN PALM
GROVES


PRESENT SITUATION AN
D PERSPECTIVE


KHOU
ALDIA Othman


IN
RAT/ CRPh 2260 Degache Tunisia






Although Date palm sector is in full expansion in Tunisia, the commercial quality of the date
didn't record a substantial improvement, by reason of damages caused by the pestes, notably
Ectomyelois ceratoniae

Zeller

(Le
p. Pyralidae) or pyrale of caroubes, that is a bug polyphage.
Besides pods of caroube, his larva feeds itself of very varied fruits as quinces, pomegranates,
oranges, figs and notably dates on which it causes some considerable damages, can reach 20% of
the

national production.


Oligonychus afrasiaticus

(MCGREGOR) became a major problem for the Date palm production,
because of the considerable damages that it causes on dates



The present situation and the perspective of date palm pests control are present
ed.



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 9


EFFECTS OF SORPTION
AND BIODEGRADATION O
N TOXICITY OF PARATH
ION
AND PARAOXON TO NEMA
TODES: EXPERIMENTS A
ND MODELING.


K. Hdadi
-
Saffih*, M. Amichot** L. Bruckler*


* Unité “Climat, Sol et Environnement” (Avignon, UR 403 INRA)

**
Unité “Réact
ions des Organismes aux Stress Environnementaux (Antibes, UMR INRA
-
UNSA,)


The parathion is an Organophosphaorus insecticide extensively used as agricultural and domestic
pesticide. The toxicity of parathion for non
-
target organisms has been the subject of

extensive
research. Under aerobic conditions parathion is activated by oxidative desulfuration to the oxygen
analogue paraoxon, that has a potent anticholinesterase effect and is more toxic than the parent
chemical. Tests using pure cultures are the mos
t widely used test methods for the toxicity
assessment of chemical compounds and effluents, however great differences can occur between
effects in pure culture and in soil. Testing toxicological effects in soil conditions is necessary
because taking into a
ccount chemical and biological transformations of pesticides in soils makes it
possible that competitive sorption may display reduced or increased toxicity as compared to the
parent compounds in solution. For these reasons, it has been suited in this work

to test the effect of
sorption and biodegradation of parathion and paraoxon in soil on their toxicity to nematodes. This
was made by testing the toxicity of organic chemicals freely dissolved in the pore water of soil on
nematodes and comparing it to the
toxicity of pure parathion and paraoxon applied directly to
nematodes. The capacity of prediction of the toxicity of parathion and its metabolite paraoxon in
soil was performed by developping a kinetic model for describing rates of sorption and
biodegradat
ion of parathion, and modeling the concentration in liquid phase of parathion and the
main metabolite paraoxon. The results indicated a good agreement between the prediction of
toxicity and direct effects of chemicals dissolved in the pore water of soil on

nematodes
.



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 10


EFFECT OF PESTICIDE
EXPOSURE ON PACIFIC
OYSTER,
CRASSOSTREA GIGAS
,
HAEMOCYTES


B. Gagnaire
1
, F. Géret
2
, J. Haure
3
, J
-
L. Martin
3
, T. Burgeot
2

and

T. Renault
1


1
Ifremer, Laboratoire de Génétique, Aquaculture et Pathologie, 17390 L
A TREMBLADE, France

2

DEL
-
PC, Ifremer, Rue de l’île d’Yeu, B.P. 21105, 44311 NANTES Cedex 3, France

3
Ifremer, Polder des champs, 85230 BOUIN, France


Shellfish industry has developed in an important way in France and particularly in estuarine areas
.

But t
hese areas are subjected to pollutions due to anthropic activities. Particularly, agriculture is
source of important quantities of several pesticides rejected in the rivers ; these pollutants may then
be conducted in the estuarine areas. The harmful effect
s of pesticides on animals inhabiting these
estuarine zones are poorly known. Among these animals, bivalve molluscs represent an interesting
model because they are sedentary, so they cannot escape in the case of a chronic or sudden
pollution. Moreover, the
y filter water intensively, which favour bioaccumulation of pollutants in
their tissues.

In this context, effects of pesticides on haemocytes functions were tested in Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas
.
A pesticide combination (alachlor, metolachlor, atraz
ine, therbutylazine,
glyphosate, fosetyl aluminium, carbaryl, diuron) in environmentals concentrations
was tested
in
vivo

on Pacific oysters. Animals used corresponded to two g
enetically selected populations
produced in hatchery.

Other experiments involved

in vitro

contact between pesticides and cells of the defence system,
haemocytes.

Concentrations used were higher in order to approach concentrations that may exist
within the animal tissues.

For all experiments, effects of pollutants on haemocyte activiti
es have been analysed. Haemocytes
were analysed by flow cytometry ; this technique allows to monitor different immune functions in a
short period. Viability and cellular activities have been analysed.

Results indicate modifications of activities with the
different treatments.


Key words
:
Crassostrea gigas
, flow cytometry, haemocytes, pesticides, immunotoxicity.




GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 11


VOLATILITY POTENTIAL

OF CROP PROTECTION P
RODUCTS:

PROPOSAL FOR A CLASS
IFICATION


On behalf of the UIPP Working Group Water
-

Soil
-

Air

Presented by
Nicolas Marquet


Union des Industries de la Protection des plantes (UIPP)

2, rue Denfert
-
Rochereau, 92100 Boulogne
-
Billancourt, France


In the last decade, some publications have shown that pesticides may be detected at trace amount
level
s in the atmosphere after their application on leaves or soil; this presence is linked to several
parameters which may influence volatilisation potential e.g. physico
-
chemical properties, climatic
factors, targets (leaves, soil), spray equipment.

Conditi
ons leading to such a transfer have been examined and one parameter identified which could
contribute to the prediction of the volatilisation.

Data of about 80 pesticides originating from on going studies performed during the development of
these products

have been compiled and analysed in order to propose a potential classification.




GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 12


PESTICIDE TRANSFER T
ROUGH GRASSED OR FOR
ESTED STRIPS


Lacas Jean
-
Guillaume, Dagès Cécile, Souiller Claude, Gouy véronique, Gril Jean
-
Joël,
Carluer Nadia.


Cemagr
ef

UR Qualité des eaux et prévention des pollutions

3 bis quai Chauveau, 69336 Lyon, France.

Jean
-
guillaume.lacas@cemagref.fr



Despite the legislation and continuous improvement of agricultural practices, pesticide may
hazardously move from the plots to t
he water resources and generate concentrations higher than the
maximum levels fixed by the 80/788/EEC directive for drinking water. Then, grassed or forested
buffer strips may represent possible management tools to avoid or reduce the transfer from the
app
lication site to the main water bodies.

Initially developed in the United
-
States to limit erosion and diffuse pollution by nutrients, the use of
these systems has been extended from the 1990s to the reduction of diffuse contamination by
pesticide. The moni
toring of natural grassed strips has shown their potential to reduce pesticide
transfer in runoff. Experiments led in controlled conditions (rainfall or runoff simulations,
laboratory soil columns or physical models) have permitted to better understand the

involved
mechanisms. Pesticide fluxes and concentrations abatements in runoff seem directly linked to the
soil infiltration capacity of a grassed or forested strip, which is often much higher than the one of
the agricultural field because of a more develo
ped root system and a higher organic matter content.
Pesticide in the remaining runoff can also be trapped by the strip organic surface material, but this
process mainly concerns the compounds with a high adsorption coefficient.

The broad existing results
on these systems however still need to be supplemented by specific
studies on pesticide fate into the soil and sub
-
soil layers in order to determine to what extent these
compounds can be retained into the soil matrix or move further to the ground or surfac
e water
resources, via a macroporous or sub
-
surface transfer.



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 13


ADSORPTION OF TRIASU
LFURON ON SOILS AND
SOIL COLLOID COMPONE
NTS


Alba Pusino
,
1

Ilaria Braschi
2

and Carlo Gessa
2


1
Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali Agrarie e Biotecnologie Agro
-
Ali
mentari, Università di Sassari,
Viale Italia 39, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
2
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro
-
Ambientali,
Università di Bologna, Viale Fanin 40, 40127 Bologna, Italy



The adsorption of the herbicide triasulfuron [2
-
(2
-
chloroethoxy)
-
N
-
[
[(4
-
methoxy
-
6
-
methyl
-
1,3,5
-
triazin
-
2
-
yl)amino]carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide] on three soils,
homoionic montmorillonite (Fe
3+
,
Al
3+
, Ca
2+
, or Na
+
-
exchanged),
soil organic matter (H
+

and Ca
2+
-
saturated), and an amorphous iron
oxide were studied using the batc
h equilibration technique.
The adsorption on Fe
-

and Al
-
exchanged montmorillonite was rapid, and equilibrium was attained after 5 min. In contrast, Ca
-

and Na
-
exchanged montmorillonite were ineffective in the adsorption of triasulfuron. A Fourier
transform

infrared (FT
-
IR) study of Fe
-

and Al
-
montmorillonite samples after the interaction with
triasulfuron suggests that the adsorption mechanism involves the protonation of triasulfuron at the
triazine moiety from acidic water molecules co
-
ordinated to the exc
hangeable cations. The lack of
adsorption on montmorillonite saturated with Ca and Na ions reflects the lower acidity of these
ions, compared with Fe and Al.
The extent of triasulfuron adsorption on humic acid is rather high at
low pH and decreases with in
creasing pH of the suspension. Humic matter is an important
adsorbent only at pH values lower than 5, when both triasulfuron and humic acids are partly in the
un
-
dissociated form. Experiments on amorphous iron oxide substantiated the same pH dependence
as
described above, although this adsorbent is the only colloid surface which exhibits a significant
affinity to the triasulfuron molecule at pH values near to neutrality. Adsorption isotherms on soil
conformed to the Freundlich equation. The highest level of

adsorption was measured on soils with
low pH and high organic carbon content. The adsorption on soils was negatively correlated with
pH.



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com 14


TIME EFFECT UPON BEN
TAZONE BEHAVIOUR


BOIVIN Arnaud.
, PERRIN
-
GANIER C. & SCHIAVON M
.


Laboratoire Sols et

Environnement, UMR n°1120 INPL/ENSAIA
-
INRA

2, avenue de la Forêt de Haye, BP 172 , 54505 VANDOEUVRE
-
lès
-
NANCY cedex FRANCE


arnaud.boivin@ensaia.inpl
-
nancy.fr


Bentazone is a post emergence herbi
cide used in many crops. Previous sorption / desorption
batch experiments indicated that only 20 % of the product is sorbed on soils. In addition, field
experiments have showed that 4 % of the sprayed quantity on cultivated areas can leach to surface
water
. Thus, surface water may be threatened by bentazone contamination. To complete bentazone
characterisation, our purpose was to assess time effect upon its behaviour in soils.

In laboratory studies, bentazone was added on three different soils (sandy, silty

and clay soil).
Bentazone degradation, sorption / desorption kinetics and isotherms measurements were achieved at
different times.

60 days after treatment, mineralization products amounts vary from 2 % (sandy soil) to 9 % (clay
soil). Maximum mineralizati
on occurs after 30 days for each soil. Sorbed quantities increase from
27 % after 7 days to 72 % after 60 days while desorbed amounts decrease from 65 % to 11 %, in
average for the three soils. Bentazone behaviour is similar in the clay and silty soils whi
le in the
sandy soil the adsorption is lower and the desorption more important (46 % and 20 % after 60 days
respectively). In aged soils, a large part of residues (bentazone and its degradation products)
becomes non
-
available to water and the proportion o
f non
-
extractable products increases. In
addition, bentazone releasing kinetics indicates a coupled effect of time and soil type upon
herbicide availability.

By coupling a quantitative and a qualitative approach, this study allows us to understand how
physicochemical interactions between soils and bentazone evolve with time. These data are crucial
to determine bentazone surface water potential contamination.


Keywords : bentazone, soil, time
-
effect



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 15


ADSORPTION OF THE HE
RBICIDE PROSULFOCARB

O
N MODEL SOIL COLLOID
S.


M. Nègre
1
, I. Passarella
1
, A. Baglieri
2
, M. Gennari
2


1
Università di Torino, DI.VA.P.R.A. Settore Chimica Agraria, Via Leonardo da Vinci, 44, 10095
Grugliasco, (TO), Italy

2

Università di Catania, D.A.C.P.A. Settore Scienze Agrochim
iche, Via S. Sofia 98, 95100, Catania,
Italy.


The purpose of this work was to assess the role of some soil colloids in the interaction of the
thiocarbamate herbicide prosulfocarb with the soil surfaces. The extent of adsorption of
prosulfocarb has been d
etermined on a humic acid extracted from an histosol, a synthetic
aluminium hydroxide and a natural montmorillonite. The amount adsorbed was negligible on
alluminium hydroxide, very high (> 95 %) on humic acid, and intermediate on montmorillonite (42
%). T
he affinity of prosulfocarb for the humic acid was predictable according to its low solubility
(13.2 mg l
-
1
), and its high Kow (44500), while the interaction with the montmorillonite was not
expected because of the low polarity of the molecule. The interac
tion with the montmorillonite
followed a S
-
isotherm typical of a collaborative adsorption indicating that the adsorbed molecules
promoved further adsorption. The desorption isotherm indicated that the process was completely
reversible. Adsorption isotherm
s on humic acid and alluminium hydroxide were not measurable
because of the respective too high and too low affinity of prosulfocarb for such adsorbents.

In order to obtain some information on the interaction of prosulfocarb with some soil surfaces
clos
er to the real one than pure soil colloids, adsorption has also been studied on the complexes
montmorillonite
-
aluminium hydroxide, and montmorillonite
-
aluminium hydroxide
-
humic acid. The
extent of adsorption on the binary system montmorillonite
-
aluminium h
ydroxide was lower than
that on pure montmorillonite confirming that the aluminium hydroxide did not play any role. The
ternary system montmorillonite
-
aluminium hydroxide
-
humic acid exhibited a higher affinity for the
herbicide than pure montmorillonite an
d the isotherm was C
-
type confirming the predominant role
of the humic acid in both the extent and the mecchanism of interaction.

The adsorption isotherms obtained on the model soil colloids have been compared to those obtained
on different soils.

The re
sults have pointed out that the use of artificial soil colloids, although not completely
representative of real soil surfaces, but much less complex, allows to improve the understanding of
the soil surficial interactions with pesticides.


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 16


SOIL
STRUCTURE ROLE ON THE BENTAZONE AVAILABILITY TO WATER
TRANSFER


Guimont S., Perrin
-
Ganier C., Schiavon M.


Laboratoire Sols et Environnement (ENSAIA/INRA/INPL)

2, avenue de la forêt de Haye 54500 Vandoeuvre
-
lès
-
Nancy FRANCE

Sophie.Guimont@ensaia.inpl
-
nanc
y.fr


Once organic compounds

penetrate the soil, their transport behaviour may be affected by soil
structure. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fine porosity on the retention of
pesticides during their water transfer through the soil.

We
performed micro
-
columns experiments using six types of agricultural soil, distinct by
their texture and organic matter content. As a model of pesticide for this work, the herbicide
bentazone characterised by a high water solubility (570 mg.L
-
1
) was selecte
d.
14
C
-
labelled
bentazone solution droplets were applied on the columns of soils brought to different initial water
content. After six days under controlled conditions (air protected, darkness, 20°C), micro
-
columns
were first leached with distilled water a
nd centrifuged at two successive increasing speeds. Three
water fractions were collected representative respectively of “mobile water”, “mesoporosity” and
“microporosity” filled water. Volumes and radioactivity level were measured for each fraction.

The r
adioactivity analysis of the different soil
-
water fractions shows significant influence of
the initial water level. When applied in dry conditions, according to the soils, the bentazone is
distributed mainly in the mobile water (from 40 to 80 %) revealing
the high transfer potential of
bentazone, and from 7 to 22 % in the meso and microporosity water fractions. The resting part stays
in the soil. On the other hand, in wet conditions, the residues found in the mobile water decrease on
behalf of the part stay
ing in the soil, 3 to 13 % are measured in the meso and microporosity water
fractions. Two of the studied soils
-

one silt sand texture and 5,8 % of humified organic matter, and
the other silty and low organic matter


reveal rather different behaviours. T
he residue proportion
found in the microporosity is ten times higher for the first soil. We can conclude that studying
impact of soil structure and water content on the soil transfer of organic molecule is of great interest
to reveal pesticide transport dy
namics from surface to groundwater.


Keywords

: transfer, bentazone, soil structure, water content



GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 17


COMPARED LEACHING RI
SK OF ATRAZINE AND O
THER MAIZE HERBICIDE

(SULCOTRIONE).


CHERRIER Richard
, PERRIN
-
GANIER Corinne and SCHIAVON Michel


Soils
and Environment Laboratory,

ENSAIA
-
INRA/INPL, UMR 1120. 54 505 Vandoeuvre
-
lès
-
Nancy. France

e
-
mail: richard.cherrier@ensaia.inpl
-
nancy.fr


Keywords: Organic micro pollutant, atrazine, sulcotrione, soil and water pollution


Atrazine is frequently recovered
in surface and underground water. Recommendations in terms of treatment
for maize are most of the time corresponding to a diversification in the products used. Amongst these,
sulcotrione already proved its agricultural performances and could be used system
atically. However, at an
environmental level, its fate remains poorly elucidated. It is also important to assess its risks of soil and
water pollution and also to compare with that of atrazine. The aim of the present work was to investigate the
possibiliti
es of sulcotrione and atrazine transfer by leaching on soil columns under natural climatic
conditions.

The soil selected presents a sandy
-
silty texture and the soil columns were taken
in situ

in order not to alter
the soil structure. Column treatment was p
erformed with a solution of either sulcotrione or atrazine labeled
with
14
C on the benzene ring. The treatment corresponded for both sulcotrione and atrazine to an input of
agricultural recommended rates. Columns received natural rain and artificial irriga
tion because of a low
pluviometry. Soils columns were collected 0, 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment. Herbicides concentrations
were measured in soil after extraction and in leachates by


liquid scintillation counting.

The results of this work underline
that sulcotrione leaches easily and in the same range than
atrazine. When we compare sulcotrione leaching and concentration in different depths of soil, we
can conclude that sulcotrione has a behaviour rather similar to atrazine’s. Risk of soil and water
p
ollution with sulcotrione is therefore comparable to that of atrazine, when studied in same
conditions.

We can conclude that a general use of sulcotrione in maize treatment could lead to the same
environmental situation than that of atrazine.




GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 18


AN INDICATORS FOR PE
STICIDES VINEYARDS E
NVIRONMENTAL ASSESSM
ENT :
IPHY INDICATOR.


Marie THIOLLET, Philippe GIRARDIN
.


INRA, 28, rue de Herrlisheim 68000 Colmar. FRANCE.


To do the evaluation of pesticide field diagnosis, we propose a viti
-
ecological indi
cator

: Iphy. Its
purpose is environmental evaluation of risk for water, air, soil and beneficial organisms. Iphy is
based on a expert system associated to fuzzy logic. Several variables are distinguished

: some
dealing with active compounds of pesticides,

others dealing with the field and finally variables
dealing with pesticides application way. This indicator has been tested during three years with
pesticide programs of 45 vineyards farms in the Northeast of France. The Iphy software is adapted
to build
pesticides risks lists usable by the winegrowers and vineyards advisers. Key words

:
environmental impact, vineyard, indicator, field scale, pesticide, expert system, fuzzy logic,
instrument panel, field scale.


















Figure 1 : Decisions rule
s for modules aggregation (1) ; Reso module « leaching risk » ; Resu
module « runoff risk » ; Rair module « air risk » ; Rate «

rate of application

».

















Figure 2 : Decisions rules for modules aggregation (2). Env

: aggregation of modules Res
o, Resu,
Rair et Rate; Raux module « beneficial organisms risk ».


Rate

Rate

9

Rate

Rate

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)

(*)


Reso

Rair

Resuu

Reso

Rair

Resu

Rate

Rate

Rate

Rate

2

7

1

6

10

0

5

unfavourable variable

favourable variable

ENV

Raux

Rau
x

ENV

10

6,8

0

unfavourable variable


favourable variable

GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003







Figure 3 : Iphy calculation for Burgundy farms between 2000 and 2002




0
2
4
6
8
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Exploitations bourguignonnes
IPHY
2000
2001
2002
GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 19


PRETILACHLOR AND FEN
CLORIM IN RICE: P
ERSISTENCE, DETOXIFI
CATION,
SAFENING EFFECT AND

CARBOHYDRATE

FORMATION.


Luciano SCARPONI
a
, Daniele DEL BUONO
a
, Costantino VISCHETTI
b


a
Dipartimento di Scienze Agroambientali e della Produzione Vegetale


Università degli Studi di
Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno 72, 06121, Perugia (Italy)

b
Dipartimento

di Biotecnologie A
grarie ed Ambientali


Università degli Studi di Ancona , Via
Brecce Bianche 60131 Ancona, (Italy.)


The content and persistence of pretilachlor (P) and of the safener fenclorim (F) in rice treated with
P, F and their mixture P+F were investigated in relat
ion to

their detoxification mechanism and in
connection with starch and glucose formation, checked as a disturbance index following the
treatments
.

The
presence of

F did not reduce the accumulation of P in rice shoots, whereas it was able to reduce
P per
sistence; on the other hand, the presence of P did not reduce the persistence of F whereas it
determined a greater than two
-
fold F accumulation in the shoots. Therefore, a detoxification
mechanism common to both the compounds but favourable to P occurred.

It proved to consist in an
activation of the glutathione
-
S
-
transferase enzyme towards P as substrate [GST(P)], in response to
all the treatments. The activation levels were found to be proportional to the amount of P or F
residues in the plant, and addit
ive following the P+F treatment. The kinetic parameters, V
max

and
K
m,

of GST(P), evidenced an increased expression of the enzyme in the rice plant following all the
treatments, and a safening effect of F, consisting in the induction of enzyme
-
isoforms m
ore
sensitive to P.

During the time required for the P and F detoxification, decreases in starch, almost counterbalanced
by increases of glucose, were ascertained in the P
-
treated seedlings, and decreases in both starch
and glucose were observed in the F
-
treated seedlings as compared with the untreated seedlings.
These effects were produced at a sublethal level, and proved to be related to reduced activities of
the glucose kinase and of the ribulose
-
1,5
-
bisphosphate carboxylase enzymes in response to P a
nd F
treatment, respectively.


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 20


A SURVEY OF ATRAZINE

RESIDUES IN SERBIAN
SOILS


M. Mojasevic
1
, D. Kovacevic
1
, N. Protic
2
, S. LJ. Vitorovic
1
, and I. Elezovic
1


1

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, Zemun

2

Institute of Soi
l Science, Teodora Drajzera 11, Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro



Atrazine has attracted much attention recently because of its frequent detection in surface and
ground water and the potential problem it may present. As a result, its usage has been severely

restricted and is currently being reassessed with the possibility of it being banned in EU countries.
In Serbia, atrazine is still widely used, especially for maize production and the maximum residue
concentrations in agricultural soils are regulated
for rotational crops.


With a view of providing more information on this controversial issue, a summary of atrazine
residues in soils was obtained from the study “The control of soil fertility and the presence of
harmful and hazardous materials in the

soils of Serbia”. The study was first designed for the
Province of Vojvodina and completed in 1991
-
1993. There some 926 surface soil samples (0
-
30
cm) collected from predefined locations were analyzed. The survey was extended to cover other
regions of Ser
bia in 1993, but due to financial constrains the project was held in abeyance until
2002.

The

data indicated that atrazine was present (>0.01 ppm) in 23% of the 878 samples analyzed
in 1993
-
1997 and in 28% of the 223 samples collected in 2002. The percent
age of samples with
residues > 0.06 ppm, which is considered to be the threshold value for most sensitive rotational
crops, was found in both batches of soils samples to be quite small (< 1.5%).


Based on these data , the question if detected atrazine co
ncentrations have no other significance but
to pose a low risk to rotational crops, might be further elaborated.


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 21


UNEP /GEF REGIONALLY BASED ASSESSMENTOF PERSISTENT TOXIC
SUBSTANCES IN MEDITERRANEAN REGION:
CASE OF PESTICIDES


J.F Narbonne


B
iochemical Toxicology, LPTC UMR 5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux 1


SOURCE CHARACTERISATION and TRANSPORT


The main sources, vectors and reservoirs of PTS pesticides are summarised in Table 1.

Comp
ound
type

Air sources

Soil sources

Freshwater sources

Seawate
r
sources

Pestici
des

Agriculture use,
sprying/land
application

Stockpiles,

production
waste
DDT, dicofol
production

Runoff from
agriculture use.DDT,
dicofol production.

Major rivers
and coastal
runoff


For PTS pesticides, including lindane, the sources
are multiple and diffuse. Although, these
compounds have a tendency to disappear as a result of the implementation of the PIC procedure and
the associated conventions, there is a worrisome lack of control regarding the existing stockpiles in
the countries
of the Mediterranean region. The use of lindane is severely restricted in the Region,
but in countries like France and Spain the estimated atmospheric emissions are quite large. DDT is
still being used in the Region as precursor of dicofol, information abo
ut the amounts being used is
uncertain. In the case of toxaphene and other pesticides, the dumping of obsolete stocks in the
southern countries of the region is deemed to have created potential hot spots.

Due to climatic and physiographic characteristics
of the Mediterranean region long range transport
of air pollutants may occur during all seasons, with the warm period of the year being the most
effective. Transcontinental scale transport between Europe, Asia and Africa is evident based on
meteorological
modelling, the Europe to Africa direction prevailing over the others.

Modelling of long range transport of PTS developed by the MSC
-
East Center, from EMEP data,
and the issued deposition estimates are rather comprehensive for northern and central Europe b
ut
much less reliable for the southern part. More emission data and environmental measurements of
known quality are needed for an accurate assessment of sources and receptors in the region and the
transport pathways. The long
-
range transport of PTS have se
veral implications in the Mediterranean
Region. Air masses from Europe should reach the mid
-
tropospheric layers of the Equatorial Zone
within a time period of a few days (4
-
6).

Localised inputs or "hot spots" of PTS have been identified near sewage outfal
ls from highly
industrialised and populated cities such as Marseille, Barcelona, Naples, and Nice. And from the
major rivers (e.g. Rhône, Po, Ebro, Seine, etc). However, 80% of the terrestrial sediments are
trapped on the continental shelf and only current
s to deep
-
sea sediments transport the finest
particles. Therefore, it appears that these discharges have limited significance regarding the
transport of PTS at regional scale.

LEVELS and EFFECTS


Contamination levels and trends in biotic and abiotic compa
rtments
: A large number of
determinations of OC pesticides in abiotic compartments were performed in the 80’s. These
historical data were difficult to assess due to changes in analytical methodology and results
expression. In the Northern Mediterranean lon
g
-
term temporal trend monitoring in fish, mussels and
seabird eggs indicate a general decline of DDTs has been reported for marine biota between 1960s
and 1990s, A similar trend was observed in the Ebro River for all DDT and HCB for the period
GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003


from 1980 to

1990; and for all DDT and HCHs in the French monitoring network of coastal
pollution during the period 1979
-
1998.

Based on a few dated sediment core studies levels DDTs, HCHs, HCB and chlordane compounds in
the coastal lagoon of Manzala (Egypt) increased

rapidly from early 60’s to a maximum recorded in
the 80’s. However, HCHs were still increasing till 1993. A similar trend was observed in the Nile
River except for HCB which exhibits a steady increasing trend. Comparison between Western and
Eastern Medite
rranean basins has been approached using the Audouin’s Gull (
Larus audouinii
)
eggs. Levels are significantly and consistently (less variable) higher in the Western than in the
Eastern basin. Total DDT medians are significantly higher in the Mediterranean t
han in the North
Atlantic or the Arctic. The results obtained confirm that in Mediterranean dolphins the
accumulation of contaminants is higher than in similar species living in the Atlantic.

Ecotoxicology effects
. Many laboratory experiments have investi
gated the acute toxicity of
persistent pesticides to invertebrates (mainly marine organisms). Subacute effects refer to growth,
endocrine disruption, CYP and drug metabolism induction, biochemical parameters and
genotoxicity. Bioaccumulation in fish is the

main element in biomagnification and trophic transfer
of PTS from the aquatic reservoir to humans. Redistribution of OCs from maternal tissues to the
developing eggs, represent the important route to exposure for critical early life stages.

A number of r
eports illustrated the development of the ecotoxicology studies in the region::.
However specific effects of pesticides are generally part of the global response of living organisms
to exposure of a mixture of contaminants and natural stressors. Protocols
including specific
biomarkers are able is some situations to discriminate pesticide effects.

Different approaches have been proposed for risk assessment: PEC / PENEC, Hazard Quality ratio
(HQs), biomarker scales. Most of them have been developed in northe
rn countries and there is a
need for their adaptation and testing also in the southern countries.

Contamination levels and effects in humans


Because of the variety of biologic mechanisms (uptake, transport, metabolism, bioaccumulation)
which makes the ex
ternal exposure to OCs different from their concentration in tissues, the
assessment of their levels in the human body ("internal dose") is the most accurate procedure to
correlate PTS dose and the related adverse effects.

For many OCs toxicological effec
ts are stillnot fully clarified, specially for low
-
dose, subtle and
long
-
term effects. Number of studies indeed suggests that OCs can cause biological effects at levels
far below of deemed safe doses, specially for developing organisms, in utero and via br
east feeding,
may result in subtle effects with respect to highly sensitive endpoints (i.e. neurodevelopmental,
endocrine).

Temporal trends


Decreasing trends have generally been observed for organochlorine insecticides in surface streams
during the 80s a
nd 90s. Temporal trends of chlorinated pesticides have also been assessed using
dated sediment cores collected in the mouths of the rivers (e.g. Ebro, Nile, etc.), showing increasing
discharges until mid 80’s and further decrease, although HCHs are still i
ncreasing at present times
in the Nile. The French monitoring network of coastal pollution using bivalves as sentinel
organisms indicated that during the period 1979
-
1998 the decreasing trends were found in more
than 60% of the sites. In human tissues Ocs
levels generally decreased except for certain countries
(Egypt, Jordan).


GFP and MGPR


Aix en Prove
nce, France, 20


24 May 2003



Com. 22


FORMATION AND ANALYS
IS OF BOUND PESTICID
E RESIDUES IN FRUITS


W. Schwack


Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hohenheim (170),

70593 Stuttgart, Germany


Bound pest
icides in plants are usually referred to as residues getting non
-
extractable by metabolic
pathways including activation, conjugation, and incorporation into biopolymers, e.g. lignin or
cellulose [1].

However, in fruit peels formation of bound residues may
also occur by reactions between pesticides
and cuticle constituents (as the cutin polymer or lipid transfer proteins), directly or after
photochemical activation.

Additionally, bound residues can be formed by thermal and enzymatic reactions during fruit
pr
ocessing, reactions which sometimes are also responsible for low recoveries in residue analyses.

Using radiolabelled pesticides in metabolism studies, bound and non
-
extractable residues can easily
be localized and quantified, but structural information on

the residue’s nature is rather low.

If possible, liberating methods hydrolyzing the covalent link can be used successfully, as was
shown for citrus peel bound 2,4
-
D [2]. Using suitable antibodies we were able both to localize (dot
blot immunoassay) and
to quantify (ELISA) bound residues, structurally specific. Furthermore, if
the linking bond is resistant to acid conditions, plant polymers containing the residue can be
depolymerized, and the monomer/pesticide conjugate can be analyzed by immunochemical
(
ELISA) or chromatographic (TLC, LC) methods.