Quarterly Update on Technology 6

slicedmitesSécurité

16 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 4 mois)

87 vue(s)

1





FP7
-
SECT
-
2007
-
217862


DETECTER

Detection Technologies, Terrorism, Ethics and Human Rights



Collaborative Project




Quarterly Update on Technology

6

D12.2.6




Due date of deliverable:

Actual submission date:



Start date of project:

1.12.2008




Duration: 36 months



WP02
Professor
Tom Sorell

Author(s)
:

Dr.
John Guelke

UoB











Project co
-
funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme
(2002
-
20
06)

Dissemination Level

PU

Public

X

PP

Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services)


RE

Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission
Services)


CO

Confidential, only for members of the
consortium (including the Commission
Services)


2



Detection Technolog
y Survey

no. 6


This is the
sixth

of
1
0
surveys and as such is a work in progress

and should not be treated in
any way as a ‘final analysis’
. The taxonomy of risks and harms employed here is evolving and
will not necessarily be the same used for subsequent survey
s. Any comments, suggestions,
errata or requests for more information should be sent to the author, John Guelke, at
guelkej@adf.bham.ac.uk.


Alternative Approaches


The PRISE project categorises privacy dangers arising from applications of security techno
logy.
It conceives basic technologies (e.g. sensor, communications technology) and identifies specific
vulnerabilities each suffers from. Thus more complex applications which involve a variety of the
above inherit the problems of all: e.g. Machine Readab
le Travel Documents involve
communications technology, sensors, data storage and biometrics.


However, the

categorisation dep
arts from those used by industry quite substantially



there is
no systematic presentation of the risks posed by the categories of
DT as understood by
industry
. My categorisation of the technologies is written so as to be as continuous with
,

and
user friendly to
,

industry as is practical.


Note on the Table of Moral Risks


The table introduced in this survey is designed to
visualise

some of the analysis of the relative
risks of detection technology from DETECTER Deliverable D05.2. Each table compares the
moral risks incurred by CCTV in public places, full body scanners, substance detectors, covert
cameras, bugging, phone monitoring,
location tracking, internet monitoring and databases and
datamining. There are four tables in total. Three dealing with the three key moral risks
identified in D05.2


intrusion, error and chill


and one final table summarising this
information. Necess
arily the analysis presented in the tables is simplified but in all cases more
detailed argumentation backing up the conclusions reached can be found in paper D05.2.

3


The table highlights the severity of moral risks taken on the basis of a colour code: gree
n to
indicate the least risk, yellow to indicate an intermediate risk, and red to indicate the greatest
risk.

In the table on intrusiveness I identify four sources of intrusion: invasions that penetrate the
privacy of the home and what I call after deliv
erable D05.2 ‘home spaces’;
1

Invasions that
penetrate the zone covering the body;
2

invasions into private life;
3

and accessibility of
information acquired by further agents.

In the table on error I examine four issues affecting each technology’s risk of
producing
mistakes. First, whether the information acquired is itself prone to false positives/ambiguity.
Second, whether sanction against the individual is possible on the basis of errors generated.
Third, whether errors can result from the storage of
information. Fourth, whether errors can
result from a lack of training. In the case of each of these four issues I further consider
whether these sources of error raise problems of a particularly significant species of error:
discrimination.



News


Euro
pe




1

“This is a person’s default environment of choice, that is, the place he willingly occupies when he has
nowhere else to go, and the place from
which he typically sets out when he enters public space. Home is
also the place to which others have to be invited if they are legitimately to join an individual who is
willingly on his own. It is in this sphere that intimate relationships with family and
friends are developed
over time, and where the liberty to do things as one likes


irrespective of public conventions of
cleanliness, tidiness, profanity and so on


is at its greatest.” (Guelke and Sorell, 2010, 8)

2

“...the naked body, and especially th
e parts of the body associated with activities that are
conventionally shielded from public view: sex and excretion, dressing and undressing.” (ibid)

3

“The principle that certain matters are beyond the legitimate interest of the state is an important
feat
ure of liberal societies. Matters of individual conscience, such as religion, or political beliefs are
considered to not be legitimate matters of concern, and for the state to require such information would
be seen as overreaching


as upsetting the balan
ce of power between the state and the individual.” (ibid,
20)

4


-

The
European Parliament ratifies SWIFT agreement allowing US access to EU
member states’ citizens’ banking data
.
4


-

The
European Parliament proposes clear framework on

the concept of

‘the
internet of things’



the proposal to increase the capacity to mo
nitor the
location of everyday items through the use of RFID technology.

The
statement calls for a strengthening of public trust by clarifying privacy and
health implications; a clear legal framework for the regulation of use

and

possible
changes to the Eu
ropean Data Protection Directive
. The statement
also notes with approval the European Data Protection Supervisors calls for
increased privacy by design.
5

Subsequently

a privacy impact assessment on
RFID

is jointly produced by the Federal Office for Infor
mation Security and
the Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility Germany
.
6

-

The
Council of Europe issues draft recommendation on profiling
, noting
human rights dangers arising from lack of transparency, error susceptibility
and the discriminato
ry nature of the technique
.

It
recommendations insist
upon the respect for fundamental rights and freedoms, including under this
heading the right to privacy and the principle of non
-
discrimination, and that
procedures must be designed from the beginning
in accordance with privacy
and data protection law, possibly through the use of privacy enhancing
technologies.
7


-

The
Article 29 Working Group on Privacy issue
s

its

opinion on cookies

for
behavioural advertising

in

the

E
-
Privacy directive
.

The opinion

sta
tes that
such practices should not take place at the expense of the right to privacy
and data protection

and

declares the placing of cookies or gathering of
information on the user as only permissible with informed consent
, often
inadequate with current av
ailable browsers.

8




4

See
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10552630

and
Parliament statement
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=
-
//EP//TEXT+TA+P7
-
TA
-
2010
-
0279+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN


5

See
http://www.edri.org/edrigram/number8.13/european
-
parliament
-
on
-
internet
-
of
-
things

and official
Parliament statement
http://www
.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=
-
//EP//TEXT+TA+P7
-
TA
-
2010
-
0207+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

6

Document at
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/enet/documents/t
g
-
rfid
-
templates
-
for
-
pia
-
framework.pdf

7

See official Council draft recommendation
http://www.coe.int/t/e/legal_affairs/legal_co
-
operation/steering_committees/cdcj/documents/2010/87th%20CDCJ
-
BU%20meeting/T
-
PD
-
BUR_2009_02rev6_en_Fin%20_2_.pdf

and European Digital Rights summary and critique
http://www.edri.org/edrigram/number8.13/council
-
of
-
europe
-
recommandation
-
profiling
.

8

See official statement
htt
p://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/docs/wpdocs/2010/wp171_en.pdf

and
http://www.edri.org/edrigram/number8.13/article
-
29
-
cookie
-
eprivacy

5


-

Google Street View admits to
inappropriately
acquiring WiFi data
. They are
strongly criticized in a number of countries

and quickly

told

they must

destroy

this

data
.
9

Privacy International
threatens to

file criminal
proceedings
,
10

and
the

UK police

begin an

investigation
.
11


-

The
E
uropean
D
ata
P
rotection
S
upervisor

calls

on the European Commission

for

a wide ranging

update to

the

Data Protection Directive
. The main
recommendations he calls for are the integration of privacy by design and

privacy by default in information and communication technology; increased
accountability for those granted power over data and stronger enforcement
powers for data protection authorities.
12


-

The
European
Commission

issues
a
green paper on body scanners
.
E
xamining both health and privacy threats, amongst its conclusions is a
recommendation that
“there ought to be alternatives to Security Scanners
based on ionizing radiation technology where specific health related risks
apply” (e.g. pregnant women, children

and the disabled).
13



Macedonia

-

The Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, the Directorate for Personal Data
Protection, various NGOs, the opposition and the public prosecutor all come
against proposals to allow the Ministry of the Interior direct access t
o
communication networks, citing incompatibility with the constitutional right
to privacy
.
14






9

See
http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/may/18/google
-
destroy
-
wi
-
fi
-
networks

10

See
http://www.ft.co
m/cms/s/2/cdc2a96e
-
73f3
-
11df
-
87f5
-
00144feabdc0.html

11

See
http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/jun/22/google
-
wifi
-
crime
-
privacy
-
international

12

S
ee official press release
http://www.edps.europa.eu/EDPSWEB/webdav/site/mySite/shared/Documents/EDPS/PressNews
/Press/2010/ED
PS
-
2010
-
08_Future_privacy_EN.pdf

13

See the official document
http://ec.europa.eu/transport/air/security/doc/com2010_311_security_scanners_en.p
df

and a summary and
critique

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/libertycentral/2010/jun/24/european
-
commission
-
fence
-
si
tting
-
body
-
scanners

14

See for example
http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/main/news/29380/

6



U
nited Kingdom

-

Two large I
nternet Service Providers, TalkTalk and BT,
force a judicial review
of the Digital Economy Bill

objecting that the law could “infringe
basic rights
and freedoms”. The act applies to ISPs with more than 400,000 customers,
prompting fears of mass migration to smaller ISPs to escape the Bill’s
provisions.
15

-

P
rivacy
I
nternational

and

the

Law society

collaborate on a project

to aid
individuals

who want to resist “oppressive surveillance technologies”
.
16


-

A
programme

of smart cameras targeting the largely Muslim area of
Sparkbrook in Birmingham is revealed and found to be funded with money
reserved for counterterrorism measures.
17


-

The new
Home S
ecretary

Theresa May insists that the use of Automatic
N
umber
P
late
R
ecognition systems

must be regulated
.
18


-

The n
ew coalition government launches website for public consultation on
reforming unnecessary law
s



with a
particular

emphasis

on
those
concerne
d with
civil liberties and
surveillance
.
19



Belgium

-

Following a case in the Belgian Court of Appeal,
Yahoo
will
not

be legally
forced court to disclose

information about users

as originally directed.
20



Italy




15

See
http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/jul/08/bt
-
talktalk
-
challenge
-
digital
-
economy
-
act

16

See
http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/65126a0e
-
6376
-
11df
-
a844
-
00144feab49a.htm
l

17

See
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/17/birmingham
-
stops
-
spy
-
cameras
-
project

18

See
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jul/04/anpr
-
surveillance
-
numberplate
-
recognition

19

See the official
site
http://yourfreedom.hmg.gov.uk/

and
http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/jul/01/nick
-
clegg
-
red
-
tape
-
privacy

20

See
http://www.yhu
manrightsblog.com/blog/2010/07/06/a
-
win
-
for
-
yahoo
-
and
-
for
-
privacy
-
in
-
belgium/

7


-

Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi

proposes a law

restricting the use of wire
tapping.
21

There is wide criticism that the motivation is a political attempt to
resist the repeated exposure of corrupt practices in his government and the
proposals are subsequently attenuated.
22





New Products


Trends

-

More
IP cameras and more facilities for analytic searching of footage

(including as an
upgrade option to more basic CCTV functionality)
.


-

Improved technology for tracking the locations of mobile phones
.


-

More spyware marketed to businesses and parents
.



Camer
as



NDI Recognition System’s ST200


Portable Automatic Number Plate Recognition
system.
http://ndi
-
rs.com/ukrs/st200



Samsung Techwin SCP


Fixed dome Internet Protocol cameras with video analytics
.
http://www.samsungtechwin.com/prd/pro_view.asp?pro_uid=5502&cat_uid=129&cat
_biz=CTV&cat_lev=AG



Sanyo HD CCTV Cameras
http://www.fullhdcctv.com/

and
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Analogue_an
d_HD_Cam
eras/Full_HD_Cameras_Draw_IFSEC_Visitors_to_Sanyo_Stand.asp




21

See

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/09/silvio
-
berlusconi
-
media
-
gag
-
law

22

S
ee
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/20/silvio
-
berlusconi
-
waters
-
down
-
wiretaps
-
bill

8




iOmiscient Smart Cameras
http://iomniscient.com/index.html

and
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Video_Analytics_and_A
NPR/Crowded_Scene_Analysis_Brings_BAE_Award_To_iOmniscient.asp



Vivotek’s IP7361


Internet
Protocol Bullet Camera
http://norbain.co.uk/go.php?structureID=S3EC0C6423876F&ref=G4C04CB7326550



Samsung/Techwin SCB
-
3001


Analogue day and night camera with built i
n video
analytics
23

http://www.sourcesecurity.com/docs/fullspec/SCB
-
3001ENG%20Catalog.pdf




Vista VBC 300


Day and night bullet cameras
http://www.vista
-
cctv.com/go.php?structureID=S45C8A2209666D&ref=I4C07631ADF13A



Human Recognition System’s Mguardian


Video analytic management system
(including facial recognition)
http://www.hrsltd.com/solution.php?page=27



Vi
-
System Event Dispatcher


Sends real time notifications of particular events
identified by video analytic systems
http://www.agentvi.com/61
-
Products
-
62
-
Vi_System



Smart
-
tec STC
-
3
002


Day and night CCTV camera

http://smartec
-
security.eu/en/new/2010/stc
-
3002.htm



Vista VBC440


Day and night

bullet CCTV camera
http://www.vista
-
cctv.com/go.php?structureID=S45C8A2209666D&ref=I4C0FB953DAE45



Bosch Autodome Easy


Internet Protocol dome camera. Can be a
dapted to have
point, tilt and zoom, day and night or motion tracking functionality.
http://www.autodome.com/



Nanjing Yuan Tuo’s HRC
-
168
-
IIATM


Digital Video Recorder designed for use of
footage of bank atm machine
s.

Enables search by, for example, card no. Date or
time. Also certain algorithms can be set to trigger alarms.
http://yuantuo.en.alibaba.com/product/298405830
-
20983634
6/ATM_DVR.html




23


One of the most impressive features of the SCB
-
3001 is tha
t it brings straight out of the box Intelligent
Video Analytic (IVA) functionality to analogue installations, making it possible to enhance security
applications with features such as optical tripwire, enter/exit direction detection and an appear/disappear

function to detect changes within a pre
-
defined area. IVA also has a scene change tampering function which
creates an alert if, for example, paint is sprayed on a camera lens or there is unauthorised movement of a
camera away from its usual field of view”

http://www.securitypark.co.uk/security_article264878.html

9




Nextiva S5000


Internet Protocol dome camera
http://verint.com/video_solutions/section2b.cfm?article_
level2_category_id=7&article
_level2a_id=359&article_level2b_id=759



Scanners



Iscon 1000D


Full body scanner based on infra
red screening to detect objects of a
different temperature. Image does not show the body underneath clothing but does
highlight fo
reign objects. Stores images and makes use of facial recognition
technology.

http://www.isconimaging.com/iscon1000d.html



Iscon GamechangeIR


Handheld scanner based on infrared scanning.
http://www.isconimaging.com/gamechanger.html



Thruvision TS4


Passive body scanner revealing minimal body detail
. Detects
weapons, drugs and other contraband.
http://www.thruvision.com/Our_Products/TS4_Sub_Pages/TS4%20Info%20Page.htm




Biometrics



Validity VSF5111


Biometric Fingerprint Sensors
http://www.
validityinc.com/post.aspx?id=228



Human Recognition System’s Msite


Biometric access control aimed at construction
companies
http://www.hrsltd.com/solution.php?page=32



Human Recognition System’s M
secure


Biometric Access control system designed for
airports
http://www.hrsltd.com/solution.php?page=28



Authenware 2.0


Identifies individuals

through the development of a user specific
‘signatu
re’ based on the way a person types, for example, username and password
information
.
http://www.authenware.com/whatis.php



10


Computer Monitoring



Spector 360


Internet
m
onitoring software package aimed at

employers. Records

email/webmail, online searches, file transfers, chat/instant messages, key strokes,
document, websites visited and programme use.
http://www.spector360.com/



PC Pandora 6.0


Internet monitorin
g software package aimed primarily at parents.
Records email, instant message and keystrokes and allows live remote monitoring.
http://www.pcpandora.com/



Trackers



Trueposition LMU
-
Universal
-

S
oftware
-
defined re
ceiver, installed at wireless cell
towers and used to locate people who dial emergency numbers from their mobile
phone
.
http://www.trueposition.com/web/guest/press
-
releases?p_p_id
=62_INSTANCE_lSc3&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=maximized&p_p_m
ode=view&p_p_col_id=column
-
2&p_p_col_count=1&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_struts_action=%2Fjournal_articles%2Fvie
w&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_groupId=10124&_62_INSTANCE_lSc3_articleId=28038&_62
_INSTANCE_lSc3_version=1
.0



Ascom Wireless Solutions
t
ele
PROTECT



Designed for use

by warders

in prisons
:
location based duress alarm system.
http://www.ascom.co.uk/uk
-
en/index
-
uk/news/ascom_provides_high_security_prison_with_teleprotect_duress_system/new
s
-
country.htm



Portman Security’s CTS 100


compact covert

GPS

vehicle tracker
. GPS and GSM
antenna.
http://www.portmansecurity.com/tcomm.php



Bugs



Connexion 2’s Lone Worker Device


covert bug to designed to be worn by social
workers going in to potentially hostile situations. When activated works as a bug.
Also available as softw
are to be loaded onto a blackberry smart phone.
http://www.connexion2.com/content/88/index.html

and



11




Previously Surveyed Products


Cameras




Secura Systems Mobile Video Unit
-

Stand
-
alone co
ntainer equipped with pneumatic
telescopic pole of 6 meters, 230V power connector with inverter, backup power supply
with a 1000 Ah battery and cameras and recording equipment
. Optional intra red
illuminators. Can be equipped with
GPRS / UMTS / HSDPA and/

or Wavesight Wireless
Transmission products.

http://www.securasystems.de/index_en.php?content=mobile&item=p04



OnSSI’s NetDVMS


multi site, multi server, network video record
er and camera
management system, with integrated video analytics.
http://www.onssi.com/component/option,com_product
/Itemid,30/attributes,2/option_i
d,2/task,attributes/id,1/detail,description/



Redvision RV Dome Camera


Built in infra red illumination
http://www.norbain.co.uk/news/ref:N4B1E3AA8A0276/



Pen
tax Atmospheric Interference Reduction Technology


Enables surveillance cameras
to continue working effectively in adverse weather conditions.
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Optics_and_components/
Surveillance_lens_overcomes_weather_interference.asp



Samsung SID
-
70


Day and night dome camera.
http://www.samsungtechwin.com/product/pro_view_eng.asp?pro_uid=4753&cat_uid=
16&cat_biz=CTV&cat_lev=AC



Xeno Bullet Cameras


Discrete CCTV cameras.
http://www.norbain.co.uk/go.php?structureID=search&searchType=products&keywor
ds=xeno&x=0&y=0



IndigoVision PTZ 11000


IP HD dome camera.
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Fixed_and_PTZ_dome_c
ameras/Low_bandwidth_High_Definition_IP_dome_camera.asp



Napco IVR25
0


Internet based video recorder. Access to footage via password
protected website (actively marketed at security dealers who can maintain control and
12


cut off access in the event of non
-
payment).
http://www.napcosecurity.com/images/web%20pdf/A594_Napco%20iSee
-
IVT
-
250.pdf



Samsung iPOLIS Dome Camera Range


Features MPEG
-
4 and JPEG codecs to enable
multiple streaming.
http://www.sovereigncctv.co.uk/cat
--
Samsung
-
Techwin
-
IP
-
Monitoring
-
home
--
7.8.9.html



FLIR SR 304


Long range infra red camera. Can identify human at 2 km.
http://www.flir.com/uploadedfiles/Eurasia/MMC/Comm_sec/SS_0020_EN.pdf



Mel Secure Systems Talkback System


Enable user of a CCTV system to communicate
via a loudspeaker with the subject.
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Alarms/Alarm_signalling_transmission
_and_notification/Talkback_system_enable
s_warnings_to_be_broadcast.asp



Smartvue Network Video Surveillance Systems:
An integrated network video system with
wireless and wired cameras, network video recorders, and remote access.

http://ww
w.kanecomputing.co.uk/smartvue.htm



Genetec


Security Center Unified Security platform: Integrates IP camera network, IP
access control and licence plate recognition.
http://www.genetec.com/English/Products/Pages/security
-
center
-
unified
-
security
-
platform.aspx



TSS DVR: Mobile CCTV (mounted on police vehicles)
-

http://www.tssltd.co.uk/mobile
-
cctv.h
tml



Agent Vi Analytics: Allows search of CCTV video “
by
event (e.g. crossing a line,
movement) or target parameters, including type (people, vehicle, object),

size and
color”
and performs
real time ‘analysis’ which identifies and generates alerts for a
va
riety of user
-
defined events “relating to people, vehicles and objects”


http://www.agentvi.com/category.aspx?catid=2



Ioimage Ioicam Sc1dn: Integrated system combining IP CCTV cameras (with night
vision) with onboard video analytics (
for example can
Intrusion Detection, Tripwire
Crossover, Fence Trespassing and Camera Tampering. The unit can also be easily
configured to detect unattended baggage, object removal, loitering and stopped
vehicles. )


http://www.ioimage.com/?p=ProductDetails&ClusterID=1599&ParentID=624&FatherI
D=775



Smart Witness Journey Recorder: Camera and GPS device for evidence gathering o
n a
vehicle


13


http://www.smartwitness.com/product/3/vehicle_journey_recorder_with_cctv_camera
_and_gps_logging



Panasonic SD5 cameras: has video mot
ion detection (can be configured to detect and
track intruders, and also detect left or removed objects)


http://www.prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/IP_and_Megapixel_
cameras/SD5_technology_cameras_available_from_Norbain.asp



Panasonic IP Cameras
-

http://catalog2.panasonic.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/ModelDetail?displayTab=O&
storeId=11201&catalogId=13051&itemId=373000&catGroupId=14471&surfModel=W
V
-
NW502S
;
http://catalog2.panasonic.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/ModelDetail?displayTab=O&
storeId=11
201&catalogId=13051&itemId=360500&catGroupId=14471&surfModel=W
V
-
NP502



ONSSI Ocularis: IP Video Management System, incorporating BriefCam
24

search and
review analytics, enabling


http://www.onssi.com/ocularis
.html



Vista Bullet Camera VBC520: Discrete IP camera


http://www.vista
-
cctv.com/news/ref:N4AC47CCD37F0D/



Copper Eye IPRS: IP Camera data retention and retrieval system


http://www.coppereye.com/news_press/pressreleases/?id=46



Napco iSee Video: Products enabling remote viewing of CCTV camera feeds over
internet connections, including
“live video on the Apple iPhone, and..
.live Motion JPG
images on any web enabled cell phone”. Latest addition “Single Channel Gateway”
extends this ability to analogue camera feeds


http://www.napcosecurity.com/video.html



Samsung Techwin
SDC
-
435: Day and Night camera


http://www.samsungtechwin.com/prd/pro_view.asp?pro_uid=4682&cat_uid=14&cat_b
iz=CTV&cat_lev=AA



Vista SmartDisc:
IP ca
mera recording and alarm transmission system
-

http://www.vista
-
cctv.com/news/ref:N4AE01F49D923B/




Axis M3203 Network Camera


Fixed Dome Cameras
http://www.axis.com/products/cam_m3203/index.htm




Axis P3304 Network Camera


HDTV Fixed Dome Cameras
http://www.axis.com/products/cam_p3304/





24

http://www.onssi.com/component/opti
on,com_news/task,detail/nid,203/id,7/

14




SUI Goodrich’s SU320KTX


Infrared ca
mera, publicised as suitable for covert
surveillance
http://www.sensorsinc.com/downloads/SU320KTX.pdf




SUI Goodrich’s SU640KTSX


Infrared camera, publicised as suitable for covert
surveillan
ce
http://www.sensorsinc.com/downloads/SU640KTSX.pdf




IQeye’ Minidome


IP Dome camera
http://www.iqeye.com/com
ponent/content/article/120.html?lang=en




Texas Instrument’s DMVA1


IP Camera with built in video analytics
http://focus.ti.com/apps/docs/mrktgenpage.tsp?contentId=41246
&appId=79




Behavioural Recognition Systems’ AIsight 2.1


Video analytics system that derives
models of ‘abnormal behaviour’ on the basis of previous footage, ‘learning’ as it goes
ht
tp://www.brslabs.com/files/pdf/AISight_2%201_Final.pdf




Vista CCTV VBC500


long range bullet camera with in built infra red illuminators
for night vision
http:/
/www.vista
-
cctv.com/go.php?structureID=S45C8A2209666D&ref=I4BAB37EA36149




SightLogix Sightsensor Camera


Built in GPS based analytics and night vision
http://www.sightlogix.com/visible
-
sig
htsensor.html




Audio Surveillance



Range of bugs
using GSM, UHF an
d

VHF technology
disguised as clocks, plugs etc.

e.g.

http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/spy
-
phones
-
c
-
52.html?spyid=7f03f93e6286532489e51fbcf141f859


15


Scanners



L3 Provision ATD


Active mill
imeter wave
-

full body scanner adapted to output a non
individualized person image (‘cookie cutter’ image) and highlights areas of concern on
it. Feature also available as an upgrade to the previous scanner.
http://www.sds.l
-
3com.com/products/advancedimagingtech.htm



Qinetic SPO
-
20


Passive millimeter wave scanner that claims to automate detection of
threats in high traffic areas at a distance of up to 20
metres
. Does not rely on im
age
screening, instead raises the alert via a red light/green light. Detects a range of
threats, including liquids.
http://www.qinetiq.com/home/products/spo_20.html



Link Microtek’s Emili+1
-

Identifies whether liquid held in plastic container is ‘aqueous’,
‘inflammable’ or ‘corrosive’.
http://www.linkmicr
otek.com/pdfs/Emili%20data%20sheet%20DS280909.pdf




Brij
ot Gen 2


Passive
Millimetre

wave full body scanner. Claims to be only checkpoint
system in industry not to emit radiation or energy at subject during the screening
process.
25

Image outputted of subject’s body is not very detailed (brochure claims you
wo
uld not be able to tell if subject was male or female). Saves all information by time
and date and takes snapshot of the subject.
http://www.brijot.com/assets/pdf/products/SafeScreen.
pdf



Millimetre Wave technology Body Scanners for catching people smuggling e.g. weapons.
For use at airports.

http://www.smithsdetection.com/eng/threat_people_screening.php



Body Orifice Security Scanner (Boss). A chair which will search the subject’s body

cavities while they are fully clothed. For use in prisons.

http://www.bodyorificescanner.com/



Cargo container/Truck scanner
http://www.smithsdetection.com/eng/narcotics_x
-
ray.php



Narcotics/explosives trace detector. Will pick up traces of TNT, C4, RDX, PE
TN, Semtex,
Detasheet, TATP and Urea Nitrate and Heroin, Cocaine,

Amphetamine,
Methamphetamine, MDA, THC, LSD and Ecstasy with other substances available on
request.
http://www.scenttech.com/index.aspx?id=3334



Walk throug
h narcotics/explosives detector

http://www.smithsdetection.com/eng/Sentinel.php



American Science and Engineering Z Backscatter X
-
ray scanners
-

http://www.as
-
e.com/products_solutions/z_backscatter.asp



Rapiscan Secure 1000: Back Scatter X Ray Body Scanner


http://rapiscansystems.com/rapiscan
-
secure
-
1000.html
.
26




25

http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/New
s/Detection/Bomb_and_explosives_detection/Safe_millimetre_w
ave_imaging_systems_ready_for_airport_deployment.asp

26

Rapiscan 1000 machines now being used in UK and USA, and OSI have just won a contract to supply them to the
Nigerian government
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X
-
Ray_Detection/Single_Pose_Advanced_Imaging_Scanners_for_Nigeria.asp

16




Thermo Fischer Scientific
Mobile
Advanced Radioisotope Identification System:
Radiation
detecter


http://www.prosecurityzone.com/Custom
isation/News/Detection/Radiation_Detection/
Washington_Police_successfully_test_dirty_bomb_detector.asp



Universal Detection Technology TS 10 5: Handheld device to test sample for presence of
anthrax, ricin toxin, botulinum, Y.

pestis and staphylococcal



http://www.udetection.com/productDetail.asp?ProdID=38



OD Security Soter RS Body Scanners


X Ray Full Body Scanner
http://www.odsecurity.com.web06.intention.nl/downloads/soter%20rs%20brochure%
202008July.pdf
.
27



L
-
3’s ProVision


Millimetre Wave Full Body Scanner
http://www.dsxray.c
om/products/mmwave.htm



ASE’s Z
-
Backscatter Van Mobile Screening System now being used by the Bulgarian
Customs agency
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X
-
Ray_Detection/Mobile_X
-
Ray_Inspection_System_For_Bulgarias_Border_Control.asp



Morpho Detection’s System of Systems


Luggage X Ray scanner and explosives
detection
http://www.morphodetection.com/products
-
services/xrd
-
explosives
-
detection/system
-
of
-
systems/
.
28



Smiths Detection’s Bio
-
Act


‘Confirmation technology’ for detecting t
he presence of
‘chemicals, bacteria and bacterial spores, bio
-
toxins and viruses’
http://www.smithsdetection.com/media/SD_Bio
-
ACT_Flyer_web.pdf



Implant Sciences Quantum Sniffer Q
S H150 Portable Explosives Detector


detects
explosive ‘vapors and particulates’
http://implantsciences.com/QS_H150.html







27

Machines recently donated by the US government to Ghana
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Dete
ction/X
-
Ray_Detection/US_Government_Donates_Through
-
Body_X
-
Ray_Scanner_to_Ghana.asp

and have previously been
donated to Nigeria to combat drugs
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/X
-
Ray_Detection/Low_Dosage_Body_Scanners_Improve_Security_At_Nigerian_Airports.asp


28

Recently contracted by the Israel Airports Authority for up to $50 mil
.
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Detection/Bomb_and_exp
losives_detection/Explosive_detectio
n_system_for_checked
-
in_baggage_to_be_used_at_Israels_Airports.asp

17


Vehicle Trackers



Vehicle tracking equipment.
http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/vehicle
-
tracking
-
c
-
48.html



Elsagna’s MPH
-
900


Automatic licence plate recognition, works from a stationary
location or while mobile and cross references against an onboard ‘
hotlist’. Can record
100s of plates a minute and keeps record of image and GPS coordinates of every plate
scanned for future reference. Soon to be incorporating i2 analytic capabilities,
combining numberplate info with other sources of information.
29

http://www.elsagna.com/mph_900_applications.htm



TruePosition’s Location Platform


Location tracking technology
http://www.trueposition.com/web/guest/trueposition
-
location
-
platform
30


Phone Monitoring



Landline



Mobile



Software for mobile phones that, without any change to normal functioning, will notify a
third party

-

Whenever the phone is switched on

-

Whenever a text
is sent/call is made

-

Will send information on what number has been called/texted

-

Will send a copy of the text

-

Enables you to ‘phone in’ and listen to the call

-

Enables you to phone in and listen in to whatever the microphone can pick up,
effectively turning

the phone into a bug

http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/interceptor
-
software
-
with
-
nokia
-
phone
-
list
-
included
-
p
-
746.html



Range of Mobile Phone Tr
acking Services
http://www.mobilelocate.co.uk/
,
http://www.google.co.uk/latitude/intro.html



Storacall Voistore Systems: Makes recording of all mobile phone calls made on device
and can store them
on a central server


http://www.storacall.co.uk/svs_voistore.htm



ASC InspirationPro 9.0 and EvoIP 9.0: Voice over Internet Protocol products.
InspirationPro provides analysis of recorded call data

and screen activities.

EvoIP



29

http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Intelligence_Software_and_Knowledge_Managem
ent/ANPR_data_integration_with_intelligence_software_from_i2.asp

30

C
ontracted by Murcia region of Spain to provide locati
on tracking service for emergency services calls
http://prosecurit
yzone.com/Customisation/News/Surveillance/Tracking_and_EAS/Location_Positioning_System_I
n_Use_By_Wireless_Emergency_Callers_in_the_Murcia_Region_of_Spain.asp

18


captures telephone calls from the network and enables storage, playback and archiving
of the entire interaction.
http://www.asctele
com.com/download/presse/ASC_Gitex_INSPIRATIONpro_EVOip_9_
0.pdf



Computer Monitoring



Key logging equipment: easily installed, keeps a reco
rd of the input into a computer

http://www.spycatcheronline.co.uk/type
-
logger
-
p
-
585.html



Device for recovering delete
d texts from mobile phones
http://www.eyetek.co.uk/section/0/deleted
-
text
-
spy



Guidance Software’s Encase Portable Version 2


USB device which enables searching
of computers by keyword and

hash value, and viewing of all images stored
http://www.guidancesoftware.com/popup.aspx?B=Content&id=2908&terms=usb+enca
se+portable



Mykonos Security App
liance


counter hacking tool that claims to enable real time
monitoring, profiling and countermeasures against computer hackers: “
Information
within the profile includes the location of the hacker, the environment of the attacking
computer and details the

activities the hacker is employing”

http://www.mykonossoftware.com/appliance.php



Genetec’s Unified Security Platform


Integrates IP CCTV cameras, access control and
automatic numberplate recogn
ition systems
http://www.genetec.com/English/Products/Pages/security
-
center
-
unified
-
security
-
platform.aspx




Data
bases and Data
mining



Vodafone Bes
poke Service for South Yorkshire Police: Mobile access (via Blackberry) to
Criminal Records Database:
http://www.vodafon
e.com/start/media_relations/news/local_press_releases/uk_press_re
leases/2007/south_yorkshire_police.html



CEM Systems
S3020f Portable Fingerprint Reader


handheld device for fingerprint and
card reading. Carries up to 100,000 card and bio
metric records in

its onboard database
and can store a
round 8,000 offline card swipe transactions for on
-
line transmission to
the AC2000 system via built
-
in 802.11g WiFi connection
.
http://www.cemsys.com/product.php?id
=47



i2 iBase


Database applicatio
n enabling the
capture, management of data and the
dissemination of actionable intelligence
http://www.i2group.com/products/analysis
-
suite/ibas
e

19





http://www.backgroundchecks.com

online resource
for general identification
information (such as address, occupation etc.) and also checking criminal records,
driving records and whether someone is a registered sex
offender. It alternatively offers
the ability to keep your own records clean.


Biometrics



CEM Systems
S3020f Portable Fingerprint Reader


handheld device for fingerprint and
card reading. Carries up to 100,000 card and bio
metric records in its onboard da
tabase
and can store a
round 8,000 offline card swipe transactions for on
-
line transmission to
the AC2000 system via built
-
in 802.11g WiFi connection
.
http://www.cemsys.com/product.php?id=47



Cem System
s AC2000 Lite System Controller


Intelligent Network device for access
control.
http://www.cemsys.com/product.php?id=37



Validity Fingerprint Sensors


For controlling access to laptops
http://www.validityinc.com/product.aspx?id=1
31



Neurotechnology’s Megamatch 3.1 SDK
-

Face, fingerprint and palm
32

recognition.
http://www.neurotechnolog
y.com/mm_sdk.html



Neurotechology’s Verieye


iris recognition technology.
http://www.neurotechnology.com/verieye_sdk.html



Neurotechnology’s Verilook


Face recognition technology.
http://www.neurotechnology.com/vl_sdk.html



10 finger and palm print Livescan systems
-

digitises finger/palm print for cross
referenci
ng with central (FBI) databases
http://www.crossmatch.com/10print_live_scanners.html




Single/dual fingerprint scanner
http://www.crossmatch.com/single_finger_scanners.html




Mobile Finger Scan
ners

http://www.crossmatch.com/mobile_finger_scanners.html




Enroll
s
, identify and verify detainees, suspects and perpetrators
.
Match
es

fingerprints
captured at terrorist crime scenes ag
ainst terrorist and criminal watch databases

http://www.crossmatch.com/jump_kits_Guardian_R.html




31

Now being bundled with HP notebooks

http://www.validityinc.com/post.aspx?id=200

32

http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Fingerp
rint_recognition/Palm_print_recognition_ad
ded_to_MegaMatcher.asp

20




Document Reader

http:
//www.crossmatch.com/D_SCAN_Authenticator_CF.html



Document Scanner

http://www.crossmatch.com/D_SCAN_Authenticator_100.html




Access Control
http://www.crossmatch.com/id_management.html



Facial recognition software
http://www.crossmatch.com/facial_recognition_solutions.html



Iris
recognition software
http://www.crossmatch.com/I_SCAN_2.html



Fingerprint Matching Applications

http://www.crossmatch.com/matching_server.html



Software for fingerp
rints from multiple systems. Centralises Electronic Fingerprint
Transmission records for transmission to a receiving agenc
y (for example law
enforcement)
http://www.crossmatch.com/store_
forward_solution.html



Cognitec FaceVACS
-
DBScan matches photographs to images from trusted databases of
images
-

http://www.cognitec
-
systems.de/FaceVACS
-
DBScan.21.0.html?&L=0



Cogni
tec FaceVACS
-
VideoScan compares faces in video streams to “possible ‘watch
-
list’
matches”
-

http://www.cognitec
-
systems.de/FaceVACS
-
VideoScan.20.0.html?&L=0



Cognitec FaceVACS
-
Se
ntry compares face on video feed with prior photographs
-

http://www.cognitec
-
systems.de/FaceVACS
-
Sentry.14.0.html?&L=0



Crossmatch Lookout Matcher: Facial recognition software that

compares inputted
images to a database or “watchlist” for potential matches
-

http://www.crossmatch.com/LookoutMatcher.html



Crossmatch Lookout Collecter:
A combined digital video recorder and fac
ial collection
software locate and extract facial images from video footage for automated identification
and verification. Available as a standalone unit or can be networked to Lookout Matcher


http://www.crossmatch.com/LookoutCollector.html



Cogent Systems Mobile Ident III:
Multi
-
biometric handheld fingerprint identification
device for “remote subject identification, disaster scene management, ID document
authentication, traffic citation, etc”


http://www.cogentsystems.com/MobileIdentIII.asp



Crossmatch Be.U Mobile: Range of handheld fingerprint and smartcard readers. The
Be.U

SMC
-
800MC3 ePassport reads RFID chips



http://crossmatch.com/BeU_Mobile.html



L1 Identity Solution’s 4G FingerVein Reader


Biometric identity recognition on the basis
of veins in the fingers
h
ttp://www.l1id.com/pages/735
-
4g
-
finger
-
vein
-
reader



AOptix Insight


Iris scanner that works at a distance of 2 metres
http://www.aoptix.com/biometrics.html

21




Megamatcher Accelerator 2.0


Fingerprint mat
ching system
http://www.neurotechnology.com/download/MegaMatcher_Accelerator_Brochure_2010
-
04
-
07.pdf



Security Systems Technology’s Time and Attendence S
olutions


Record time and
attendance, enabling people to ‘clock in’ by scanning a palm print
http://www.sstgroup.co.uk/go/products/time
-
and
-
attendance/t
ime
-
and
-
attendance
-
solutions



Cogent’s Automatic Fingerprint Identification System


range of fingerprint and palm
print identification systems including CAPFIS explicitly designed for police forces
http://www.cogentsystems.com/downloads/CAFIS_60_EN_sm.pdf
;
http://www.cogentsystems.com/downloads/CAFIS_EN_sm.pdf
;
http://www.cogentsystems.com/downloads/CAPFIS_Prime.pdf
.
33



Cross Match’s Mobile Rapid ID


mobile fingerprint identification system
http://www.crossmatch.com/mobile
-
rapid
-
id.php
34



Telos’s Mobileassure Access Control


Biometric access control system. Optional add
-
ons include vehicle tracking
http://images.telos.com/files/external//MobileAssure
_Access_Control.pdf



AuthenTec Biometric Fingerprint Authentification Device


Range of fingerprint scanners
enabling access control for mobile device
http://www.authentec.com/products
-
wireless.
cfm
35



Persay’s Vocal Password


Voice biometric identification system. Claims to be language
and accent independent
http://www.persay.com/vocal
-
password.asp?round=1

Security
services provide
r G4S are planning to use it for “electronic monitoring projects around
the world”
36




33

Cogent
win

a contract from the UK National Police Improvement Agency to provide a mobile system for real
time identification in the field.

http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Fingerprint_recognition/UK_National_MobileID_Ser
vice_Ch
ooses_Cogent_Systems_for_Automatic_Fingerprint_Identification.asp

34

Report on use

by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement
http://www.crossmatch.com/news/Mobile
-
Rapid
-
ID
-
Certified
-
by
-
FDLE.php


When coupled with FALCON [the FDLE’s system for crossreferencing biometric
information with state and national crime databases], the system provides instantaneous submission of biometric
data and access to vital information for u
se at traffic stops and crime scenes.”

35

For example being used to provide security for Fujitsu Smart Phones
http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Fingerprint_recognition/Fingerprint_Sensors_for_W
aterproof_Fujitsu_Smartphones.asp

36

http://prosecurityzone.com/Customisation/News/Biometrics/Voice_Recognition/VocalPassword_Voice_Biometric
s_Package_Chosen_by_G4S.asp

22




















Tables of Relative Moral Risks

Intrusion


Intrusion into
‘Home Spaces’

Intrusion into
Bodily Privacy

Intrusion into
Private Life

Is information
accessibl
e to
further people?

CCTV in
public places

Only problematic if cameras
overlook windows into people’s
homes, or other ‘home spaces’.

Otherwise the use of CCTV in
public is only mildly intrusive.

Only problematic if cameras
overlook windows into people’s
h
omes or other ‘home spaces’.

Otherwise does not invade bodily
privacy.

Smart cameras with video
analytics create the possibility
of revealing intimate details
of private life.

Otherwise information is too
disparate to constitute a
threat.

An additional so
urce of intrusion
only if, through the use of video
analytics, revealing details of
private life are made available to
others, or if information from a
‘home space’ is acquired and
transmitted.
37




37


See claims of the insecurity of the increasingly widespread practice of transm
itting CCTV pictures using Internet
Protocol
23


Full Body
Scanners

Since these are used in explicitly
‘publi
c’ places such as airports
there is no intrusion of a ‘home
space’.

Very intrusive into bodily privacy
if an image of the naked body is
produced.


Much less intrusive if the process
is automated, with no need for a
viewer to look at an image of the
subject
’s actual body.

If detailed image is produced
this may reveal some
intimate details of private life


embarrassing medical
conditions or surgery for
example.

This is avoided if the process
is automated, revealing only
strictly relevant information.

Would b
e very intrusive for an
intimate visual image to be
available to others.

Much less intrusive if no image is
recorded, as is the case with
many scanners.

Substance
Detectors

Since these are used in explicitly
‘public’ places such as airports
there is no in
trusion of a ‘home
space’.

If these involve scanning of the
human body this constitutes an
intrusion, but, as the information
acquired is not personal in any
way the intrusion is mild.

Does not penetrate sphere of
private life

Even if information is availa
ble
more widely, as the information
is not personal, this is not
intrusive.

Covert
Cameras

Very intrusive when used in
homes and ‘home spaces’.


When used in home spaces this
is likely to result in great bodily
intrusion.

Less revealing of the details
of
private life than bugging,
but still very intrusive.

More intrusive still if information
is accessible to a wider audience.

Less intrusive the more
restricted this further audience
is.


Bugging

Though less intrusive into bodily
privacy than covert camera
s, but
the intrusiveness of others
hearing sounds of bodily function
mean this is still an issue.

Very intrusive into the most
intimate details of private life.

Phone
Monitoring

Listening in to some calls made
in private may be considered to
invade the s
phere of the home.



Not intrusive into bodily privacy

Very intrusive into private
life.

Databases
and
Datamining

Does not penetrate privacy of
the home

Does not intrude upon bodily
privacy

May intrude into private life is
enough information is
aggregate
d.

More intrusive the more people
who have access.

Location
tracking

Does not reveal details of activity
in home.

Does not intrude into bodily
privacy.

May reveal details of private
life


how one chooses to
spend one’s leisure time or
who one chooses to
associate
with.

If details of private life become
accessible to a wider audience
this worsens the intrusion.

Internet
Monitoring

For a person who spends much
of their home life interacting on
the internet, detailed monitoring
can be seen to penetrate home

life

Does not penetrate sphere of
bodily privacy.

Very intrusive into private
life, potentially revealing
matters of conscience,
association and sexuality.

More intrusive still if information
is accessible to a wider audience.

Less intrusive the more
rest
ricted this further audience
is.





Error and Discrimination


Is the information
acquired prone to
false
positives/ambiguity?

Is sanction
possible on the
basis of these
errors?

Are errors
possible as a
result of storing
information?

Can a lack of
traini
ng by users
result in error?

Are certain social or cultural groups more likely to be subject to error?

CCTV in
public
places

Potential for unclear outputs.


Video Analytics that makes use
of a category of ‘abnormal
behaviour’ derived from
majority activ
ity may
disproportionately target
Errors, including those that
discriminate against
particular groups, can result
in sanction if the judgement
of individual officers


Some have claimed that
Little risk from errors
resulting from storage.

Discrimination of users can
be reinforced by Analytics
which disproportionately
target minorities.







http://prosecurityzon
e.com/Customisation/News/IT_Security/Network_Security_Routers_and_Data_Centres/ISF_
Comments_On_Converged_IP_Security_Networks_Threat_Profile_Increase.asp


24


social/cultural minorities.


CCTV disproportionately
results in ha
rassment of
minorities, seeming to
confirm that this does
occur.
38

Full Body
Scanners

Some risk of ambiguity
from
unclear outputs
.

As the technology is being
used to indicate areas for
further investigation, errors
are likely to be corrected
before significant sanction is
suffered.


In most cases information
is not stored.


Viewers may be unfamiliar
with certain
objects that
have been implanted as a
result of surgery.

Substance
Detectors

Some risk of false positives.

Lack of training may lead to
errors,

but unlikely to do so
in a way that disadvantages
any particular group.


Covert
Cameras

Potential for unclea
r outputs.

If intelligence is recorded,
widely shared, and acted
upon the various sources of
errors may result in
significant sanction. A
particularly significant
example is no fly lists.

If intelligence collected is
recorded incompletely,
suspicion may b
e
registered without
adequate opportunity for
correction.


Bugging

Conversations may be
ambiguous out of context.
39


Lack of understanding of
political or religious writings
may result in the
significance of exchanges
being misjudged.
40


Phone
Monitorin
g

Location
tracking

Information can be misleading,
seeming to provide evidence of
certain associations or
engagement in certain
activities.


Lack of training may lead to
errors,

but unlikely to do so
in a way that disadvantages
any particular group.

Internet
Monitoring

Lack of understanding of
political or religious writings
may result in the
significance of exchanges
being misjudged.

Databases
and
Datamining

Datamining techniques may
cast suspicion on large
numbers of innocent people,
often dis
proportionately
targeting members of particular
social and cultural groups.

Discrimination of users can
be reinforced by datamining
programmes which
disproportionately target
certain groups.


Trust and Chill


Perceived
Intrusion

Perceived Risk
of Error

Perceived
Discrimination

Perception of
Function Creep

CCTV in public
places

Widely known about and
regarded as moderately
intrusive.

The gathering of footage
on legitimate (and non
-
violent) public protests is
likely to have a chilling
effect on public pr
otest.

Perception of
discrimination and the
targeting of particular
groups may undermine
trust in the police.

Widely circulated reports of
function creep. Lack of
clarity surrounding who has
access to footage.

Full Body
Intrusive scanners widely

known about: if made
Not significant source of
Not significant source of
Not significant source of



38

“Surveillance therefore seems to be capable of abuse, in terms of unjustified harassment


especia
lly to those
from minority communities” Liberty citing the Information Commissioner’s Office
http://www.liberty
-
human
-
rights.org.uk/issues/3
-
privacy/pdfs
/liberty
-
privacy
-
report.pdf


39

See Detecter Deliverable D05.2 p 29 and 29n.

40

See Detecter Deliverable D05.2 p 32 and 32n

25


Scanners

mandatory likely to be
regarded as illegitimate.

Less so if alternatives,
like the pat down search
are permitted,

or
automated scanners are
used.

damage to trust or chill.

damage to

trust or chill.

damage to trust or chill.

Substance
Detectors

Mildly intrusive, but as it
is narrowly focussed on
information of strictly
related to criminal
activity likely to be
perceived as legitimate.

Not significant source
of
damage to trust or chill.

Not significant source of
damage to trust or chill.

Not significant source of
damage to trust or chill.

Covert Cameras

Very intrusive,

but less
widely known about
.


Worry about the
possibility of erroneously
becoming a target
of
suspicion adds to ‘the
chilling effect’.

Perception of
discrimination, the
targeting of particular
groups and the
misunderstanding of
evidence may undermine
trust in the police.

Purposes for which
techniques may be used is
not transparent enough,
addin
g to chill.

Bugging

Phone
Monitoring

Internet
Monitoring
Location tracking

Location tracking

Perceived as intrusive
where known about.

Databases and
datamining

Fairly unintrusive except
where private
information is gathered

The haphazar
d manner in
which suspicion may be
cast on innocents by
profiling techniques
provides a motivation to
avoid behaviour
associated with crude
profiles.


Perception that
discriminatory profiles
are in operation likely to
undermine trust in police.





Overv
iew


Intrusion

Error and discrimination

Trust and Chill

CCTV in
public places

Mostly only mildly intrusive.

Use of smart cameras may be
more so.

Possibility for errors.

Because use is widespread, widely
known about and there is perception of
function cre
ep, the use of CCTV may
have significant impacts on trust in the
police and political participation.


Covert
Bugging

Very intrusive.


Potential for ambiguity and
misunderstanding due to context
dependence of understanding by third
parties.


Although where

discovered the
intrusiveness of such measures are
likely to weaken trust
, they are more
likely to remain secret and unknown to
the public.


Phone
Monitoring

Covert
Potential for ambiguity.

26


Cameras

Full Body
Scanners

Very intrusive if outputting
in
timate visual image.
If less
detailed image outputted, or
process is automated, intrusion
greatly reduced.

Possibility of false positives,

but unlikely
to result in lasting errors.

Where intrusive scanners are made
mandatory as a condition of flight, this
is likely to weaken trust in authorities
and have a ‘chilling effect’.

This is
greatly reduced by offering alternatives

or using less intrusive scanners.

Substance
Detectors

Although scans of the body can
be considered an invasion of
bodily privacy, wher
e this detects
only the presence of substances
this is a mild intrusion.

Possibility of false positives,

but unlikely
to result in lasting errors.

Use likely to be seen as legitimate
intrusion by authorities.

Databases
and
Datamining

Only intrusive if inf
ormation
collected is intimate or sensitive in
a way that penetrates the sphere
of privacy, or reveals such
information as a result of
aggregation.

Otherwise
unintrusive.

False information can endure for long
periods of time without adequate
opportunity f
or correction. Datamining
is at great risk of casting suspicion on
large numbers of innocent people, often
disproportionately affecting social and
cultural groups.

Damaging to trust in the authorities if it
is understood to result in sanction for
innocent

people,
especially so if
members of ‘suspect communities’ are
disproportionately likely to be victims.

Location
Tracking

Potential for intrusion into private
life.

Potential for misjudging the significance
of visiting certain places.

To the extent that i
ts use is known
about, likely to weaken trust in
authorities and chill political
participation.

Internet
Monitoring

Very intrusive into private life.

Great potential for misjudging the
significance of visiting certain websites.

Awareness of internet monit
oring is
likely to have a severe impact on
people’s willingness to seek out
information on certain topics.