Progress on Proposed Project

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 7 mois)

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Progress on
Proposed Project

Chernobyl Cooling Pond as Case Study

for Improving the Scientific Basis for Multimedia Environmental
Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Database Development



2011 Annual Public Meeting of the

Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia
Environmental Modeling (ISCMEM)

November 28
-

29,
2011


1

Outline


Timeline of the Proposal Preparation and Overall Objective of
the Case Study


Brief Information about the Chernobyl Cooling Pond


Benefits
and Relevance to the U.S. Federal
Agencies
and
International Agencies Missions


Information about the International Meeting on ”Feasibility
Study of the Chernobyl Cooling Pond Decommissioning and
Remediation” organized by the ChNPP Administration


IAEA Involvement and Recommendations


Potential Case Studies at DOE sites


Project Organization


2

Timeline


February 2010



Preliminary discussion of the proposal to NRC Staff


April 10, 2010



Submitted 1
st

draft of the proposal to ISCMEM


June 10

and September 8, 2010







Presentation to ISCMEM Working Group 2


September 16, 2010







Presentation to the ISCMEM
Annual
Meeting, Vicksburg
,
MS


July 29, 2010


Submitted a revised proposal which was uploaded to the






EPA Integrated Environmental
Modeling
Hub








iemHUB:
http
://iemhub.org/


August 3, 2011


Presentation to joint meeting of ISCMEM WGs 1
, 2
, 3 and 4



November 29, 2011


Steering Committee vote to approve 1
st

ISCMEM international test case

3

O
verall Objective of the Case Study


Provide an opportunity for Federal Agencies to review
and select
information
from
the
long
-
term
observations
at the Chernobyl Cooling Pond and the
surrounding
watersheds, which
can be used as an
analogue for improving the scientific
basis
and
developing linkages, in the areas of
multimedia
environmental modeling,
focusing on:


parameter
estimation and modeling uncertainty,


site characterization and
monitoring,


human
health risk and safety,


loss
of natural resources,


cleanup, and
evaluation of remediation technologies on a
large scale.



4

5

137
Cs Fallout in Ukraine, Belorussia, Russia

ChNPP


Area ~ 23 km
2

, ~ 10
8

m
3

of water


Water is pumped from the Pripyat River to the
Cooling Pond

Sources of Contamination




Dispersed fuel particles



Heavily contaminated water from the reactor basement and soils.



Total radioactivity
>
200 TBq, including
137
Cs
-
80%,
90
Sr
-
10%,
239,240, 241
Pu
-
10%



Routine releases of contaminated water into the pond


Chernobyl Cooling Pond

Cs
-
137

Sr
-
90

6


Complete
remediation of the Cooling Pond
would significantly damage the ecosystem
whilst not significantly reducing doses;


Phytostabilisation

of some small areas may
be worthwhile;


Drawdown of water level should be as slow
as practicable;


Monitored natural attenuation is the most
environmentally sound remediation option.

Chernobyl Cooling Pond Radio
-
Ecological Study

RESRAD
-
BIOTA: A Tool for Implementing a

Graded Approach to Biota Dose Evaluation
(Argonne Lab)



EU (INTAS); Royal Society



AQUASCOPE
--
Aquatic
modeling

study



AQUACURE
--
Countermeasures



EU INCO


Copernicus


Jim Smith
--

School of Earth and Environmental
Sciences, University of Portsmouth, UK, Oleg
Voitsekhovich



Ukrainian
Hydrometeorological

Institute, Kiev, Ukraine

7

Expected exposed
area 58%
.

137
Cs
-

78%,
90
Sr
--
74%, Pu
-
85
%

will

remain

u
nder

water

in

bottom

sediments
.

Chernobyl Cooling Pond Decommissioning is an
Opportunity to Study the Effect of Changes in Climatic
Conditions on Contaminated Water Bodies

Expected e
xposed
area 80%

Dry scenario

Normal scenario

Bugai et al. 2006

8

Microbial
communities

Dissolved
r
adionuclide
s


Radionuclide
s in


suspended sediment
s

Radionuclide
s

in bottom
sediments

Advection

Diffusion
/Dispersio
n

Adsorption

Desorption

Adsorption

Desorption

Sedimentation

Resuspension

Uptake

Radionuclide Transport Processes

in the Chernobyl
Cooling Pond

Suspended
sediments

Modified after
M.Zheleznyak

Hot particles

9

Case Studies Stemming from the
Chernobyl
Cooling Pond Monitoring and
Modeling

(1)
Evaluation of hydrologic and geochemical processes for unsaturated
-
saturated soils and bottom
sediments;


(2)
Modeling of coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes,
including parameter estimation, aleatory, epistemic, and scenario
uncertainties;


(3)
Design and implementation of appropriate site characterization and
monitoring techniques for highly contaminated
soils
and groundwater



-

geophysical monitoring, natural and radioactive isotopic methods, remote




sensing
;


(4)
Assessing the efficacy of different remediation approaches
including
monitored natural
attenuation (MNA)
.


(5) DOE ASCEM project, NRC/EPA/USGS Integrated Environmental
Modeling.


If endorsed by ISCMEM, Chernobyl Cooling Pond International case study will provide
the opportunity for collaboration between different Federal agencies, and international
organizations in accomplishing their missions associated with predicting the
post
-
accident,
long
-
term behavior of radionuclides and remediation of radioactively
contaminated
sites.




US NRC

ensure adequate protection of public health and
safety,
and to protect the environment;



US DOE
and
DoD

advance science, engineering, and cleanup
technologies
to help ensure that it
meets its national environmental cleanup strategic goals;
testing high performance computing
capabilities, parameter estimation, UQ, data management, visualization;



US EPA

protect human health and the environment;



US
Army Corps of Engineering


evaluate watershed
modeling
codes,
and



USGS

provide information to effectively and responsibly utilize natural resources, and to protect the
health, safety, and well
-
being of the people.



IAEA



develop recommendations for member states;



European
Network of Excellence in
Radioecology (STAR)
:
Chernobyl observatory.





Benefits and Relevance to the U.S. Federal and
International Agencies Missions

10

Meeting
on ”Feasibility
Study of the Chernobyl Cooling
Pond Decommissioning and Remediation”
organized by
the ChNPP Administration (Sept 2011)


Goals
of the M
eeting:
Provide the background information and
direct the scientific organizations involved in the project.



This project on the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning was
stipulated by the
Law of Ukraine
886
-
VI “On National Program of
Chernobyl
NPP Decommissioning
and Shelter object transformation
into environmentally safe
system,” starting January 1, 2010.



ChNPP Administration will
fund the project. Partial funding will be
provided by
IAEA.



Tender
to select a company to perform the Feasibility Study was
announced

at the meeting.

11

Meeting
on ”Feasibility
Study of the Chernobyl
Cooling Pond Decommissioning and Remediation”
organized the ChNPP Administration (Sept 2011)



Ukrainian Organizations Involved in the Project:



State
Special Enterprise “Chernobyl NPP”


Institute of Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the National Academy
of
Sciences
of Ukraine


Ukrainian Scientific
-
Research Hydrometeorological Institute


Ukrainian Scientific
-
Research
Institute
of Agricultural Radioecology


Institute of Geological Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,


Institute of Mathematical Machines and
Systems
of the National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine


Institute
of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine


Scientific
-
Research Institute of Radiation Protection


Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, and


International Radioecology Laboratory


State Specialized Scientific and Industrial Enterprise Chernobyl Radioecological
Center (GSNPP ECOCENTER)

12

The Most Critical Problem is Monitoring During
the Water Level Drawdown



Structure and Main Types of Monitoring of the Chernobyl Cooling Pond





S
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1

2

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2

2

2

2

3

3

After
S.I. Kireev

13

Monitoring System
:


1


Center


2


Adjacent area


3


Bottom sediments


Monitoring Media:


Surface water


Groundwater


Hydrobiota


Precipitation


Near
-
surface atmosphere


Landscape


IAEA Point of Contact: Horst Monken
-
Fernandes,

IAEA
Waste Technology
Section



IAEA supported
three missions
of international technical experts
to Chernobyl (October
2009, July 2010, September 2011)
to
initiate the development of a
roadmap and modeling of
groundwater flow and contaminant transport
for the feasibility
study of the Chernobyl Cooling Pond
decommissioning
and
remediation

IAEA Involvement and Recommendations

14

IAEA

猠䱩L琠潦⁓畧g敳t敤eT慳as

Collate existing data of monitoring, modeling and
risk assessment of the Cooling Pond and
groundwater system.

Consultation with
regulators and
stakeholders.

Key objectives
: agree
on remediation
endpoints, gaps in
data/risk assessment
and action plan

Identify gaps in monitoring and modeling data and
risk assessment. Conduct research to address gaps.

Develop an improved monitoring plan and conduct
an initial experimental 1
-
2 m drawdown


Stage
1 of Feasibility Study.

Complete experimental drawdown and provide data for
Stage 2 Feasibility Study

Regulatory approval for
complete, staged
drawdown

Finish installation of a monitoring
system prior to full, staged drawdown.
Begin full drawdown.

YES

NO

IAEA report, 2009

15

List of Potential Projects in Support of Cooling Pond
Decommissioning and Remediation

Potential Projects

Tentative
duration

1. Data collation and development of
GIS/Database/Data Management
System

6 months

2.
Risk assessment research,
with focusing
on fire risk/wind
resuspension
, flooding, dam failure and
surface water
-
groundwater flow
and radionuclide transport
modeling and uncertainty evaluation.

2 years

3.
Experimental (pilot) drawdown project and associated monitoring and
modeling; improved experimental/modeling assessment of
remediation
technologies and monitored natural attenuation

2 years

4. Planning, testing and installation
of an upgraded adaptive monitoring
system, including a timeline of expanding the system as the
Cooling
Pond
water level declines.

2
-
3 years

5.
Monitoring and risk assessment, including
modeling of
impacts of
drawdown on ecology and radioecology of the area surrounding
Cooling
Pond,
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and the
Pripyat


River System.

3
-
5 years

IAEA report,
2009, with changes.

17


Constructed in 1958 as a Cooling Pond for the
Savannah River Site's P and R Reactors



After the water level drawdown in 1991:


Exposed 5.3 km
2

of contaminated
sediments.


Mobility of the radionuclides was much
greater than expected (Hinton et al. 1999;
Whicker et al. 1999).



Cs
-
137 concentrations increased, probably
resulting from the Cs
-
137 increase in
sediments.



Sedimentation rates and water turbidity
increased due to erosion processes.

Savannah River PAR Pond

Oak Ridge Reservation
--
White Oak Lake



DOE EM Points of Contact:

Kurt Gerdes,
DOE EM
-
32, Director
,
Kurt.Gerdes@em.doe.gov


Mark Williamson,
DOE EM
-
32
, ASCEM
Lead
,

Mark.Williamson@em.doe.gov


Case Studies to Test
DOE Field
Remotely Operated
Monitoring Techniques

Savannah River Site


ADCON Telemetry
-
a real
-
time soil moisture
monitoring
system (
D
-
Area
Phytoremediation).


FDTAS
-
tritium analysis
system in surface and
groundwater in
near real
-

time.


Sol
-
Gel Indicators for
Process and
Environmental
Measurements
.

INL Soil and Surface Assay Systems
for Gamma, Beta, and Alpha
Radiation Sources

Case Studies to Test
DOE Field
Remotely Operated
Monitoring Techniques

18

Project Organization


Lead
Agencies and Coordinating
Managers
:


DOE
-
EM

Kurt Gerdes and Skip Chamberlain


NRC

Thomas J. Nicholson, Ralph E. Cady, Mark
Fuhrman


Subject Area
:


Modeling
and Uncertainty Evaluation, Parameter Estimation
, Monitoring
, and Risk Analysis


USA Agencies Potentially Interested in the Project
:


DOE
, EPA, NRCS, DOD, USGS, US Army Corps.


International
Organizations Potentially Interested in the
Project
:


International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiation Protection (France)
.


Ukrainian Organizations Involved in the Chernobyl Cooling Pond Studies
:


Administration of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant,
National


Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine (Institute of Geological Sciences, Institute of
Mathematical
Machines
and Systems,
Hydrobiological Institute, Institute of
of Safety Problems of Nuclear
Power
Plants)
,


State
Nuclear Regulatory Committee
of Ukraine
, Radioecology Center,


State
Scientific
-
Technical Centre Nuclear Radiation
Safety (
SSTC NRS)
,


Hydrometeorological
Institute
.


Data/reports/publications exchange and coordination



EPA
Integrated Environmental Modeling Hub (iemHUB)


http://iemhub.org/, Gene Whelan
,
US
EPA.

19