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23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 7 mois)

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Meta
-
Cognition, Motivation,

and Affect

PSY504

Spring term, 2011

February 7, 2011

Andy Montalvo

Planning

1.
Disambiguation

2.
Theories

3.
Research

Important Terms


Plan and Planning


Different levels are referred to.


Study Plan


Problem level plan


Are there different parts to this?


Strategy


In education, it seems to be often spoken at a different level
than most people do


Underlining is spoken of as a strategy. This is a strategy?


Goals


There are goals,
subgoals


Goals are really its own subject, but we will touch on them here


Planning


To plan


Can anyone suggest a definition for planning?


Any suggestions for how to make this
definition better?

Plan/Planning Dictionary Definitions


Oxford: (a plan) an intention or decision about
what one is going to do


Cambridge: the act of deciding how to do
something


American Heritage: a scheme or method of
acting, doing, proceeding, making, etc.,
developed in advance


WordNet
: an act of formulating a program for
a definite course of action


Plan/Planning other definitions


Winne
,
Hadwin
: creation of sub
-
goals
(implicit)


Azevedo
, Guthrie, Seibert: A plan involves
coordinating the selection of operators. Its
execution involves making behavior
conditional on the state of the problem and a
hierarchy of goals and sub
-
goals


Plan/Planning other definitions


Muis

(2007):


Planning includes selecting the types of learning
and meta
-
cognitive
strategies an individual may
use to carry out the task


A plan is a course of action an individual decides
to implement prior to solving a problem


Plan/Planning other definitions


Schraw

(2006):



Planning involves the selection of appropriate
strategies and the allocation of resources


Planning includes goal setting, activating relevant
background knowledge, and budgeting time


Strategy


How is a strategy different?

Strategy
-

Definitions


Dictionary


American Heritage: A plan of action resulting from
strategy

or intended to accomplish a specific goal


Merriam Webster:


a

:

a careful plan or method
:

a clever stratagem


b

:

the art of devising or employing plans or stratagems
toward a goal


MacMillan: a plan or method for achieving
something, especially over a long period of time


Strategy


Synonyms by American Heritage


plan, blueprint, design, project, scheme, strategy


These nouns denote a method or program in
accordance with which something is to be done or
accomplished:
has no vacation plans; a blueprint
for reorganizing the company; social conventions
of human design; an urban
-
renewal project; a new
scheme for conservation; a strategy for survival.


Strategy


Any thoughts?

Attempts to Disambiguate


From Center for Management and
Organization Effectiveness


A plan is an arrangement, a pattern, a program, or
a scheme for a definite purpose. A plan is very
concrete in nature and doesn’t allow for deviation.


A strategy, on the other hand, is a blueprint,
layout, design, or idea used to accomplish a
specific goal. A strategy is very flexible and open
for adaptation and change when needed.

Attempts to Disambiguate


Answers.com


A plan is basically "what to do" while a strategy is
"how to do it“


Peggy Schoen (IMF)


how to downsize


Strategy :Doing the right thing


Plan: Doing things right


Dignath

(
Schraw
)



Planning involves the selection of appropriate
strategies and the allocation of resources

Goals


How do goals fit into this?

Goals
-

Definitions


Merriam Webster: the end toward which
effort is directed


WordNet
: the state of affairs that a plan is
intended to achieve and that (when achieved)
terminates behavior intended to achieve it


American Heritage: The purpose toward which
an endeavor is directed; an objective

Goals
-

Definitions


Winne
,
Hadwin
: A set of standards by which a
task might be judged


Azevedo
, Guthrie, Seibert: Consist either of
operations that are possible, postponed, or
intended, or of states that are expected to be
obtained. Goals can be identified because
they have no reference to already existing
states.

Questions? Comments?

How I will use the terms


Goal


an objective, something you wish to
achieve (not a wish), an end to which
effort

is
directed


Strategy


an approach used to achieve a goal
that includes plans, plan monitoring (not the
action, but the intent), and breaking goals into
sub
-
goals


Plan


list of procedures or tasks to perform to
achieve a goal

Theories


As far as I can tell there is only one theory. It’s
the stake in the ground


It’s
not just
for planning, so I’ve attempted to
extract the planning portion.


COPES model

Winne
,
Hadwin



Conditions



Operations



Products



Evaluations



Standards

Theory: Models


Winne
,
Hadwin

Task Definition

Goal setting and
Planning

Enacting study
strategies and Tactics

Meta cognitively
adapting

Theory: Models


Winne
,
Hadwin


More complicated than shown, but this is simplified to
focus on planning


For planning and sub
-
goals, it may be better to
defined sub
-
goals for students


(Morgan, 1985, cited)


Students not good at setting sub
--
goals


But students with sub
-
goals faired better


3 types of goals: proximal goals, 1 distal goal, 1 time goal


(
Schrunk
, 1996, cited) Goals externally set are better if
learning oriented rather outcome


Notice that planning is seen as goal setting

Theory: Models


Andy

Task

Goal

Task evaluation

Plan

Strategy

Sub
-
goals

Evaluate goal
in context

conversion

Enact

Evaluate

Action

Evaluate
Plan

Good

Bad

Bad, branch

Bad

Planning

Looking at Research


Research that measures


Research on instruction


Research on computer tutoring


Meta
-
analysis


AI


Other research

Research: Measuring


Azevedo
, Guthrie, Seibert (2004)


Students studying circulatory system


Used think
-
alouds

to record different self
-
regulated learning


Setting “learning goals” did not help low
-
jumpers,
but seemed to help high
-
jumpers


High
-
jumpers were better at


Planning


Creating sub
-
goals


Not recycling goals

Research: Direct Instruction


Azevedo
,
Cromley

(2004)


Students (experimental group) were taught what self
-
regulated learning was


Roger
Azevedo

actually sat with students and
explained self
-
regulation by describing it and showing
diagrams


These students amazingly did better than the control
group in learning, as measured by a post
-
test, on the
circulatory system.


Think
-
alounds

were used to measure meta
-
cog as
before

Research: Meta
-
analysis


Charlotte
Dignath
,
Buttner

[
Langfeldt
] (2008)


Primary school and secondary


Since these are meta
-
analyses, they look across
papers and therefore don’t address specific methods.


Student training of planning plus either monitoring or
evaluation strategies. Other combinations not as
good.


Teaching the planning and strategies was not enough,
students needed feedback on strategy use (related to
motivation)


Researcher interventions were better than teacher
interventions


Research: Tutoring


Corbett (1996)


Used ACT
-
R for planning scaffolding in Lisp tutor


Uses knowledge tracing


Basically adds scaffolds for getting students to
create sub
-
goals


Showed significant learning gains.

Research: AI


Mooney (1990)


How is planning learned? Use AI system called
GENESIS


GENESIS is a natural language program that reads
texts and attempts to figure out people plans and
intentions.


It extracts goals and plans (plan schemata) from text
and stores them


It can then use these to help it figure out other plans


It tests plans schemas to make sure they fit actions


Attempts to draw parallel to human reasoning

Somewhat connected research


The following set of research was interesting
and shed some light on planning, but seemed
less important to our discussion

Research: Tutoring


Rus
,
Lintean
,
Azevedo

(2010)


Used
MetaTutor

to scaffold sub
-
goals in
circulatory system tutor


Could tell if goals too general or specific


I’m not sure if there were any learning gains

Research: Tutoring


Manlove
: Process coordinator in PC+


Mostly better results, but it seemed that using the
tool sometimes took time away from other activities
like model building


White,
Federicksen
:
ThinkerTools


Anybody know about this?


Paper I had was 118 pages


Jackson, et al (1996):
ModelIt


Any one?


William, et al (1996): ASK Jasper


Any one?

Research: Model
-
Tracing


Koedinger, Anderson (1990)


Experts and novices create plans differently


Like in problem solving experts skip steps

Research: Hidden as something else


Sandoval,
Reiser

-

ExplanationConstructor


Part of Explanation driven inquiry


Questions need to be answered and answers are
to be explained.


Student creates hierarchy of questions that need
to be explained to get to back to the main
question.


Basically, this formulates a plan for how to answer
the question

Research: Hidden as something else


Bell, Davis


KIE (Knowledge Integration Environment


Use the pedagogical agent Mildred (a cow) to
provide “Thinking Ahead” prompts

Questions? Comments?

The End

Papers

1.
Azevedo
, R., &
Cromley
, J. G. (2004). Does training on self
-
regulated learning facilitate students'
learning with hypermedia?
Journal of Educational Psychology, 96
(3), 523
-
535

2.
Azevedo
, R.
Cromley
, J.G., Winters, F.I.,
Xu
, L., &
Iny
, D. (2003, July). Is strategy instruction
effective in facilitating students' ability to regulate their learning with hypermedia? In U. Hoppe,
F.
Verdejo
, & J. Kay (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: Shaping the future of learning
through intelligent technologies (pp. 193
-
200). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

3.
Azevedo
, R., Guthrie, J.T., Siebert, D. (2004) The Role of Self
-
Regulated Learning in Fostering
Students' Conceptual Understanding of Complex Systems with Hypermedia.
Journal of
Educational Computing Research
, 30 (1&2), 87
-
111.

4.
Corbett, Albert (2000)j Instructional Interventions in Computer
-
Based Tutoring: Differential
Impact on Learning Time and Accuracy; In Proc. of CHI'2000, The Hague; 97
--
104

5.
Dignath
, Charlotte and
Büttner
, Gerhard (2008) . Components of fostering self
-
regulated learning
among students. A meta
-
analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level.
Metacognition

and Learning;
3 (3) 231
-
264

6.
Dignath
, Charlotte;
Buettner
, Gerhard;
Langfeldt
, Hans
-
Peter, How can primary school students
learn self
-
regulated learning strategies most effectively?: A meta
-
analysis on self
-
regulation
training
programmes
, Educational Research Review, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2008, Pages 101
-
12

Papers

7.
Koedinger, K. R. and Anderson, J. R. (1990), Abstract Planning and Perceptual Chunks: Elements of
Expertise in Geometry. Cognitive Science, 14:

511

550

8.
Manlove
, Sarah;
Lazonder
,
Ard
; de Jong, Ton (2007);
Software scaffolds to promote regulation
during scientific inquiry learning.
Metacognition

and Learning;

2(2) 141
-
155

9.
Mooney, Raymond J., Learning plan schemata from observation: Explanation
-
based learning for
plan recognition, Cognitive Science, Volume 14, Issue 4, October
-
December 1990, Pages 483
-
509

10.
Muis
, Krista R. and Franco, Gina M. (2010) Epistemic profiles and
metacognition
: support for the
consistency hypothesis.
Metacognition

and Learning
; 5 (1) , 27
-
45

11.
Rus
, V.,
Lintean
, M., &
Azevedo
, R., (2010). Computational Aspects of The Intelligent Tutoring
System
MetaTutor
. Proceedings of the
23st International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research
Society Conference
. Daytona Beach, FL.

12.
Schraw
, Gregory (2007) The use of computer
-
based environments for understanding and
improving self
-
regulation.
Metacognition

Learning (2007) 2:169

176

13.
Winne
, P.,
Hadwin
, P. (1998) Studying as Self
-
Regulated Learning. In Hacker, D.J.,
Dunlosky
, J.,
Graesser
, A.C.
Metacognition

in Educational Theory and Practice
, 277
-
304.