Networks and consciousness

siennaredwoodIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 4 années et 7 mois)

105 vue(s)

Networks and consciousness

Donald Steiny

Overall


Won’t even try to solve AI


More about problems than solutions


Introduce the idea of networks and how they
relate to some of the problems in this area


Today


Review of behaviorism


Review of cognitive psychology


Review of systems and the AI paradigm


Discussion of relational thinking and networks


Examples of how networks lead to new
descriptions


Some potential applications

Basic behavioral model

The idea


No such thing as cause and effect


Hume


Not a property of things.


Just a consequence of repeated observations


A matter of faith


the fallacy of induction


The solution?


Scientific laws are based on repeated observation


Psychology could become “scientific.”

But …


It is not possible to recognize a balanced set of
symbols without memory.

Aaabbbbaaa

It is, however, possible to precisely describe the
memory required by push down store automata,
which lead to computer languages like C and
Pascal.

This lead to “mental processes” and cognitive
psychology

Meanwhile


Shannon and Weaver


Formulation of information and redundancy


Norbert Weiner


Cybernetics


Feedback


Control


Representation of everything as symbols and a
complete science of symbols

And in economics


Revealed preferences


Failure of micro explanations


Coase

and Williamson


Behavioral explanations


Bounded rationality (Simon)


Heuristics and biases (
Kahneman
)


Still at dyad level


Macro structures are epiphenomena

Systems


Systems


Have inputs and outputs


They transform their inputs


They have a boundary


They have subsystems


They are part of a larger systems


Inputs/Outputs can be viewed as symbols

But …


Symbols are always dependent on context.
What Bateson called a frame was extensively
developed by Erving
Goffman
.


He’s a student


ASCII interpreted as EBCDIC

Over in sociology land


Harvard Department of Social Relations


Talcott

Parsons


Functionalist sociology


The dream of a unified paradigm


Harrison White


Network sociology


Methods that assume heterogeneity


The middle range of action



Atomic Actors


Where is action located?


What is space?


Cartesian space locates action at a point


Minds


Consciousness


Etc


Atomic theories


Rational action


Systems theory

Relational View


boys and girls

Networks as spaces


Analogy: each of are members of multiple
networks.


This is similar to an n
-
dimensional space, the
difference being that any point can be in an
arbitrary intersection of dimensions.


Over time the configuration of dimensions
switches so points are generally not in a fixed
set of dimensions.

Identity


Each network provides a frame of reference


Different things are salient in each network.

Structural equivalence

Advice leaders

Expressive leader

Is the dot at the front or back?

What is a person?


When you talk to me who are you talking to?


My immortal soul?


My lips?


A story you tell yourself?


Folk psychology
is key


Is an action mine or your interpretation of it?
How could we know? How could we remember?


“a god” existing at the confluence of networks.

Style


Holds us together across identities


Helps choose our stories or actions


Persons are styles


Napoleon


Bill Clinton


War/fashion


Sets the tone for our actions


What about a company?


Or a country or “big business” or anything that
causes things.


Back to the old problem that behaviorism had


These live in our heads so the same problem
of making repeated observations about
people applies to larger structures

Social roles


Preexisting (structure)


Fairly fixed


Live in everyone’s heads


Held in place
by control.


Stories and accountings


We account for, explain what we observe


The swinging rope
experiement


Hume’s cause


Wittgenstein’s intention


Standard sets of stories are both guides for
action explanations


Durkheim/
Heddigger



We are tied together into networks by these
rhetorics


Common sense is an underlying accounting


Our location


Is point of view


Determines what we can access as
accountings.


Is affected by control pressures from others
(our interpretations are in the light of others)


Social networking



New security models use networks:
Granovetter diagrams


We have multiple identities, seeing it on line
makes it salient


Facebook security model problem


Assumes single identity


Culture and meaning


Culture is the set of available accountings and
the control effort to adopt it.


Meaning is carried across network domains as
we go from pointing.

A source of
-

disciplines


Like situated cognition (Hutchens)


The way we work together


Very hard to see, no ties


Influenced by style


Chinese making a company


Finns making a company


Silicon Valley making a company


Source of stories and accountings (ties)

The problem of action


Magical thinking


Fundamental Attribution Error


The great man hypothesis


Creativity and innovation as combinations of
borrowing and salience


Accountings and stories


Beliefs and values are explanations, not causes

How does this relate to AI


The problem is more complex than it is made
out to be


Reducing reality to symbols won’t work