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CCM 432
0

Network Systems and
Services


Module Handbook



Autumn/Winter term


Sept start (24 week module)



Academic Year

2012/13


Dr G.E. Mapp


School of
Science and Technology

Hendon Camp
us

London

United Kingdom



2

Contents




Contents

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....................

2

Module Summary/Introduction

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................

3

Introduction

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..........

3

Contacting the Module Leader

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.............

3

EIS Student Office

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3

Module Aims

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................................
........

3

Learning Outcomes

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..............................

3

Assessment Scheme

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.............................

3

Assessment Weighting

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.........................

4

Reading Materials

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................................
................................
.

4

Core Texts

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................................
........

4

Additional texts

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................................

4

Book Purchase Suggestions

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..............

5

Study hours outside class contact

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................................
.........

5

Brief Guide to Web
-
based Module Material

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........................

5

Coursework

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................................
................................
................................
..............

6

Details of Coursework

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................................
................................
..........................

6

MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY

................................
................................
................................
..................

7

School of Engineering and Information Sciences

................................
................................
....................

7

Deadline for Submiss
ion of Coursework

................................
................................
.........................

8

Where to submit

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................................
................................
...............................

9

Group Coursework

................................
................................
................................
...........................

9

Intellectual Property

................................
................................
................................
.........................

9

Feedback to students on coursework

................................
................................
................................

9

Teaching Plan

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

10

Useful Information

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

11

MyUniHub

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

11

Attendance Requirements

................................
................................
................................
...................

11

Academic Dishonesty

................................
................................
................................
.........................

11

Plagiarism

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

11

Appeals

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

12

Examples of all Typical/Previous Examination Papers

................................
................................
.....

12

Sample Cover Page for Coursework

................................
..............

Error! Bookmark not defined.

Laboratory/Se
minar Materials

................................
................................
................................
................

14

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 1

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................................
................................
......................

15

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 2

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......................

17

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 3

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......................

19

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 4

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21

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 5

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24


3


Module Summary/Introduction



Introduction


T
his module is taught as a core module in
the MSc Networks

Suite of Programmes

here at Middlesex
University and looks at Network Sy
stems and Services. The module introduces the concept of
Network Operating Systems, looking particularly at Linux and Windows. The course also examines
Protocol Stacks, Network programming using sockets, Client/Server Systems, Web Servers, Network
processo
rs, Blade Servers, Grid and Cloud Computing.



Contacting the Module Leader

You can contact your module leader in the following ways:


Email




g.mapp
@mdx.ac.uk

Telephone



020 8411 6871

MyUniHub

pages


https://m
yunihub.mdx.ac.uk


EIS
Student Office

On the Hendon campus, the School of Engineering and Information Science
Student Office

is located
in
Room TG18

of the Town Hall building.


Office hours: 09.30


16.30, Monday


Friday


Module

Aims

This module looks at

the design, implementation and maintenance of network systems and services.
It examines concepts such as a network operating system and explores networking paradigms
including socket and thread
-
based programming, Remote Procedure Calls (RPC), CORBA, Java
RMI
and the .NET platform The course concludes by looking at new developments in networking including
Network Processors, Blade Servers, Grid and Cloud Computing.


Learning Outcomes

Knowledge:

1.

Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses in the design of commerc
ial operating systems.

2.

Compare different protocol architectures.

3.

Appraise different networking programming techniques including sockets, RPC, CORBA, Java
RMI and the .NET Platform.

4.

Elucidate the issues in designing global servers such as Web or FTP Servers
.

5.

Explain new distributed technological architectures such as Grid and Cloud Computing.


Skills:

6.

Gauge the performance and benefits of new operating systems.

7.

Implement new protocols for future mobile architectures.

8.

Design and implement global services.

9.

Cri
tically assess the performance and benefits of new networking technology.

10.

Assist in the building of new distributed computing and storage platforms.



A
ssessment Scheme

The course is divided into four main activities:
lectures, tutorials, seminars and labs
.


Lectures introduce new concepts and topics. Students
MUST ATTEND

the lectures for this course.

In
addit
ion, at the end of each lecture
a Multiple
-
Choice Test Sheet is given with question
s

covering the
topics introduced in the lecture. The answers to the
se questions are reviewed at the start of the next

4

lecture. Students
MUST ANSWER

the Multiple
-
Choice questions given at the end of the previous
lecture.


Tutorials are used to revise and clarify topics that have been covered in the lectures.

Students
MUST

DO

the tutorials. Please make sure that you have
WRITTEN
answers to
ALL

tutorial
questions.


Seminars provide a way of learning about current thinking and practices in Network Systems and
Services. The topic list covers a wide area of interests. Please
AT
TEND ALL

your seminars.


Labs are used to learn about practical systems and services. The Labs will be based around Linux,
Windows and Networking. Please have a logbook for your Labs and a folder for your Lab sheets. You
MUST COMPLETE ALL

your Labs.


It i
s the policy of the Scho
ol

that s
tudents must pass all the

assessed components of a module
individually, coursework and examination in order to pass the module overall. Failure in one of the
components will result in a failure of the module.


The assessmen
t for this course comprises an unseen three hour examination and two types of
coursework. See the Details of Coursework for further information
.


Assessment Weighting

COURSEWORK


30 %

EXAMINATION


70 %



Reading Materials

The topics being covered in this c
ourse are not contained in a single textbook. In fact the course is a
unique blend of two large areas


operating systems and networking
-

that have traditionally been
covered using separate texts. So a series of books should be sought. Some topics covered
in this
course are
NOT
currently found in any textbook. However you are expected to read relevant
published technical papers on
ANY

topic.


Core Texts

1.

The Lecture Presentations for this course. These will be put on the UniHub system. Please make
a thoroug
h study of these notes.

2.

Tutorials. PLEASE attempt ALL your tutorial questions.

3.

William Stallings, "Operating Systems", Prentice Hall, Sixth Edition. This is a key textbook for this
course and several topics will be taught directly from it. It is also very
good as a reference book on
Operating Systems and has good Web site support.

4.

Andrew S. Tanenbaum. “Distributed Systems


Principles and Paradigms” Prentice Hall 2002.
This book introduces key ideas in Distributed Systems.


Additional texts

1.

Andrew S Tanenba
um, “Modern Operating Systems”, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall 2008.

2.

Gary Nutt, “Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective”, Addison Wesley.

3.

Andrew S Tanenbaum and David J Wetherall, “Computer Networks”, Fifth Edition, Pearson 2011.
A good book on networking
, covers the main issues well.

4.

W. Richard Stevens, “Unix Network Programming”, Second Edition. Volume 1: Networking APIs:
Sockets and XTI. Prentice Hall. Does socket
-
based programming very well.

5.

Douglas Comer and David Stevens, “Internetworking with TCP/I
P, Vol. III” Prentice
-
Hall. A good
book on sockets and RPC mechanisms


5

6.

Michael Donahoo and Kenneth Calvert, “TCP/IP Sockets in C: A practical Guide for
Programmers”. Morgan Kaufmann A good small book on practical socket programming.

7.

Robert Orfali, Dan Harke
y and Jeri Edwards, “Instant CORBA”. March 1997 Wiley

8.

Andrew Troelsen, “Pro C# 2010 and the .NET 4 Platform, Fifth Edition, Apress, 2010.

9.

Barry Wilkinson, “Grid Computing: Techniques and Applications”, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press,
Computational Science Series
, 2010.

10.


Guatam Shroff, “Enterprise Cloud Computing: Technology, Architecture and Applications”.
Cambridge University Press 2010


Book Purchase Suggestions


William Stallings, Operating Systems

Andrew Tanenbaum, Distributed Systems


Study hours outside cla
ss contact



T
he out
-
of
-
class study commitment
expected of students is
228
hours in total.


Brief Guide to Web
-
based Module Material

http://www, williamstallings.com/OS4e.html

This is an excellent Web si
te. Please make good use of
this site because it contains some good material.

http://www.williamstallings.com/OS/OS5e.html

Also very good

http://www.williamstallings.com/OS/OS6e.html

Also very good

http://www.protocols.com

A key site to find out about protocols and protocol stacks

http://www.citeseer.com

Th
is is an important site for looking at recent technical papers on research
topics.

http://scholar.google.co.uk

is also a key site for technical papers

http://www.mdx.ac.uk/research/areas/software/ycomm_research.aspx

is a site for the Y
-
Comm
Framework

http://www.intel.com

A good site for looking at modern microprocessors. Also has a bit on network
pr
ocessors

http://www.microsoft.com

A good site for the latest developments in Windows technology.

http://www.unixtools.com/tutorials.html

This is a great site for

starting to learn UNIX and Linux.


Be
CREATIVE
, there is a lot of information about the Network Systems and Services on the Web.
Typing texts into Google such as:

History of xxxx

or
Tutorial on xxxx
, will usually yield good results.





















6

Cou
rsework


Details of Coursework

1.

Laboratory work will follow two main themes. The first theme will be Network Operating Systems,
in particular Linux and Windows. The second theme will be based around Networks Services such
DHCP, NFS and DNS. Details of work

will be provided during laboratory sessions. You will be
required to keep a logbook of laboratory work. You will be tested on each of the themes. You will
only be allowed to do the tests if there is evidence that you have actually completed the laboratory

work. (This will constitute 50% of the coursework mark)

2.

Group work: A research topic will be given to

each group (no more than

two students). Groups
are expected to give a presentation using electron
ic aids, starting from
the third week. A group
report
will also be submitted. Details to be given during seminars.


Your seminar tutor will assign you a topic. Your group will research the topic given, prepare an
electronic presentation and do your presentation on the date given to your group. Please note tha
t
presentation dates
CANNOT
be changed. Failure to do your presentation when assigned will
result in failing that component unless you can obtain a deferral for that particular day through
official channels. Both oral and written presentations must be tech
nical in their orientation.
Seminar work will constitute 50% of the coursework mark.

Marking scheme:

Each component will be marked out of 100. The relative weighting of each component is shown
below:

Report
: 40%,
Team presentation
: 30%,
Individual presenta
tion
: 30%.

Presentation
:

Prepare a group presentation using electronic means (e.g. PowerPoint). You will be given 30
minutes to present with 10 minutes of questions. All presentations must start promptly. All group
members must take part in the presentatio
n. Marks will be given according to the following points:
preparation, contents, knowledge, communication skills, organisation
and
answers to
questions
.

Report:

Your report must be on the same topic that you did for your presentation. The report must be no

more than 30 pages in length. You CANNOT submit the PowerPoint Slides of your presentation
as part of the report. The report must be in your own words and other materials MUST be properly
referenced. All reports must have a Turn
-
It
-
In log to ensure that y
ou have not plagiarized
someone else’s work. Your report
MUST

contain the following:



Title page



giving University, School, module, and author details, title and date


4 Marks



Abstract

-

a short summary of the work presented in the report


5 Marks



Lis
t of contents

-

with page numbers


3 Marks



Main body



Presenting the topic given. Use citation, diagrams, and tables as appropriate


63
Marks



Conclusion

-

A short summary of the work done


20 Marks



References

-

a full list of all sources used; books, j
ournals/magazines/research papers, electronic
sources (including web sites)


5 Marks










7

MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY

School of Engineering and Information Sciences




CCM4320, Network Systems and Services


Presentation topics
:


1.

What are the significant issue
s with regard to the development of operating systems for small
devices, such as mobile phones and watches? Compare and contrast these systems with
traditional multi
-
user, multiprogramming operating systems such as Linux and Windows. Your
discussion shoul
d include memory
-
management, power management, scheduling, support for
I/O devices, etc. D
escribe the ideas behind Contiki

and Tiny OS.

Will small operating systems
play any part in the Internet of Things?


2.

For decades Intel has dominated the Microprocesso
r market however most of the new Smart
Phones use the ARM architecture. How did this come about? Discuss architectural
differences between Intel and ARM. How should Intel respond to ARM’s challenge?


3.


The Apple iPhone has been a phenomenal success. Inve
stigate the factors that have made it
so successful


from its hardware, its Operating System to its User Interfaces. Also investigate
the concept of the App Store as a way of getting third parties entities to write software for the
iPhone platform. How co
uld other companies emulate Apple’s success?


4.

The release of Android, a new operating system for mobile phones with its development
environment, is beginning to provide serious competition for Apple iPhones. Describe the
Android Operating System in deta
il as well as its application/software development
environment. Do you think Apple will manage to stay ahead of Android and why?


5.

Traditional Operating Systems were built to optimize support for local applications and local
components. With the developmen
t of the World Wide Web however, everything is now being
placed on the Internet. Should we not optimize the OS for Web Access? Describe this idea by
looking at Chrome OS, Google Docs and Google Wave in detail. Will this ever work?


6.

Windows and Linux are bo
th competing for the Web Server market. The battle has ebbed and
flowed. What features of an operating system are essential for good Web performance?
Discuss issues of reliability, network security, performance of storage hierarchy, as well as
security. Wh
ich system do you think will win this titanic battle and why?


7.

Discuss the development of an operating system using an open
-
source platform as is used in
the development of Linux. By contrast, trace the evolution of the Windows Operating System
from Window
s 3.1 to the recently released Windows 7. Discuss the strengths and
weaknesses of each developmental model. Do you think one model is better than the other? If
so, why?


8.

In the late 1980’s, micro
-
kernels were all the rage. Discuss how the micro
-
kernel ap
proach
differs from that of a traditional operating system. Describe the features of the MACH micro
-
kernel. Discuss the reasons for the relatively poor performance of Mach and show how second
generation micro
-
kernels such as L4 overcame these drawbacks. Di
scuss how the micro
-
kernel concept has been used in modern operating systems such as Windows and Mac OS.


9.

Mobile devices will soon have a number wireless interfaces, e.g. 3G, WLAN, WiMax, etc.
These networks need to work together seamlessly as users move
around. In order to do this,
a new technique called vertical handover has been invented. Discuss the mechanisms
involved in vertical handover, including Mobile IPv6, FMIPv6, and the Y
-
Comm Framework.


10.

Discuss the concept of Quality
-
of
-
Service (QoS) when ap
plied to systems and networks.
Describe IntServ and DiffServ, two well
-
known Internet QoS models. Explore why these QoS

8

models have failed to gain universal acceptance.

The Y
-
Comm Group is proposing a new
Hybrid model. Will it work?


11.

Discuss how operating
systems for real
-
time applications differ from traditional operating
systems. Discuss the features of QNX or Nucleus. Do you think that real
-
time operating
systems will replace traditional ones or vice
-
versa, and why?


12.

Virtual machines are now being looke
d at again. What are the benefits of using virtual
machines? Discuss commercial systems such as VmWare. Investigate the Xen platform (now
part of Citrix) as well as XenSource. Discuss
the use of virtual machines in the Cloud.


13.

Cognitive Radio is a new tech
nology for spectrum management. Describe the main concepts
behind Cognitive Radio. Describe a Mitola Radio. When do you think Cognitive Radio will be a
widely used technology and why?


14.

Routers and switches also need operating systems but they have to be ve
ry specialised.
Discuss how these systems will differ from a traditional operating system. Discuss in detail the
features of Cisco’s Operating system (IOS) used in its routers and switches.


15.


Integrated processors are becoming very fashionable. What are in
tegrated processors and
how do they differ from ordinary ones? Discuss the features of Motorola’s Coldfire Family of
integrated processors. How would the operating system for integrated processors differ from a
traditional operating system?


16.

What are the d
ifferences between a network operating system such as Linux or Windows and
a distributed operating system? Amoeba is an example of a distributed operating system.
Describe some of its key features as well as its strengths and weaknesses when compared
with
traditional operating systems.


17.

The Apache Web Server now rules the Web world. How did this situation come about?
Describe the key features of Apache and any operating system changes that were made to
make it more efficient. What changes have been made to

Apache so that it could be more
easily ported to other operating systems?


18.

Discuss the increasing use of Network Storage Architectures. Explain the basic concepts
including Direct Attached Storage (DAS), Network Attached Storage (NAS) and Storage Area
Net
work (SAN). Discuss different commercial network storage platforms including products
from EMC and Network Appliance.


Cloud Storage is now being offered by several vendors.
Explain Cloud Storage; do you think it will displace the older paradigms?


19.

Solid
State Storage now appears to be a viable technology for mass storage. Explain how this
came about. Discuss the technical breakthroughs involved. When do you think solid state
storage will totally replace hard disks in modern computer systems?


20.

Network v
irtualization is seen as the next big thing. Discuss the concept in detail and its
relationship to Cloud Computing, and other architectures such as the Y
-
Comm Framework.
Do you think it will be come part of networking methodology and why?



Deadline for S
ubmission of Coursework


Presentations will be on different weeks.


All reports MUST be submitted by the end of Week 22 of your Academic Year.

For this Academic
Year,
your deadline is
: 2
8
th

March 2013
.


All labs including tests MUST be done by the end o
f Week 22 of your Academic Year. For this
Academic Year, your deadline is
: 2
8
th

March 201
3


9


Sometimes deadlines from different modules will come at the same time and it is important to plan
your workload to meet these deadlines.


Where to submit


Written a
ssessed coursework must be submitted to the
EIS

Student
O
ffice
, room TG18
.

Y
ou should
attach a coursework feedback form which
will be dated and receipted.


You should keep your receipt
-

it is for your own protection
.

Outside of EIS
Student Office

ope
ning hours
,

written coursework may
also be submitted via the drop box outside the HSSc Student Office, room TG59
.



Do not hand written assessed co
ursework directly to your tutor, and do not submit it by email
to your tutor.


Written work should normally

be handed in on the campus at which the module is being taught; if for
any reason you have to hand it in at another campus please point this out to the Student Office so
that it can be sent to the correct campus
.

If, in an emergency, you have to send in

written assessed
work by post you must send it by recorded delivery to the
EIS

Student Office
, Middlesex University,
The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT

and keep the Post Office receipt
.

It will be deemed to have been
submitted on the date of the postmark
.



Coursework Feedback Forms containing receipts for this work and other work submitted outside
opening hours can be collected from the
EIS
Student Office.


Group Coursework

When submitting group coursework please ensure all students contributing to the cou
rsework are
clearly identified on the coursework Feedback Form.


Intellectual Property

In most cases, students hold the intellectual property rights in the work they produce for assessment
.

There are some exceptions such as where the work is commercially
-
sponsored, or

the aim of the
module

is to develop intellectual property, or where the student is sponsored or employed, or on
placement
.

Students are asked to read the Middlesex University Policy Statement ‘Intellectual
Property Rights:
https://myunihub.mdx.ac.uk


Feedback to students on coursework




Students should attach a generic School Coursework Feedback form available outside
Student Offices to the front of their work;



Annotation and return of coursework



I
n

the case of laboratory work


verbal feedback will be given



Coursework return


Coursework is not normally returned to students, so you should keep a copy of what you submit.

If you wish your work to be returned to you, please submit with the coursework,

a self addressed
envelope with the following clearly written in the top left hand corner:



lecturer marking the work;



your student number;



campus at which the module was taken;



module number;



semester;



academic year



10

Teaching

Plan


Lab
sessions
in week
no
:


Seminar
sessions
in week
no:

Lecture
sessions
in week
no:

Title

Content

Independent study activities

A typical week of activities f
or CCM 4320: Academic Year: 2012
-
1
3

1

LAB1

Linux
Admin

1

Topic
Selection

1
-
2

Looking at
Operating
System Design

Lectu
re 1: Takes

a bottom
-
up approach

and starts by looking at Hardware
components of Computer Systems,
covers registers, interrupts, etc. Lecture
2 takes a top
-
down approach.

William Stallings, Operat
ing Systems,
Chapters 1& 2, (Slides available on
UniHub) or

Gary N
utt, Operating
Systems (Third Edition), Chapter 1
.

LAB2

Windows
Admin

Tackling

Tutorial 1

3
-
4

Exploring the
concepts of
Processes and
Threads on
Operating
System Design

These lectures examine the concepts of
processes and threads. It introduces t
he
the concept of process and thread
states. It also looks at how processes
and threads are managed using pro
cess
and thread control blocks.


Williams Stallings, Operating Systems,
Chapters 3&4, (Slides available on
UniHub) or Gary Nutt, Operating
Systems

(Third Edition), Chapter 2

........

.......

......

.........


........

........





Useful Information


The School has a student website

https://myunihub.mdx.ac.uk

dedicated to enrolled
Engineering and Informati
on Sciences

students, which provides information to
support you on your programme of study
,
i
ncluding information on the School’s
Academic staff and:




EIS

Student Office opening hours



Module Review Forms



Exam Script Viewing Form



Learning Resources: Computi
ng Science



Programme

Handbook
s


And other useful information such as



Library Catalogue


MyUniHub

Lecturers' contact details can also be found on
MyUniHub
, the university's online
learning environment
.
This can be accessed from the following url:
https://myunihub.mdx.ac.uk

Within each module you can find 'module information'
which displays contact details for the lecturer and other information about the
module.


Attendance Requirements

You should attend all schedu
led classes
.

If you do not do so, you may not be able
to demonstrate that you have achieved the Learning Outcomes for the module, and
you are at risk of being graded “X” in the module
.

The definition of the X grade is:
“Fail


incomplete without good

reason: may not be reassessed.” As a general
guide, you need to attend at
least 75% of scheduled classes
i
n order to be able to
demonstrate achievement of all Learning Outcomes
.

On some modules, there may
be more specific attendance requirements.


Acad
emic Dishonesty

Taking unfair advantage in assessment is considered a serious offence by the
university
,

which will take action against any student who contravenes the regulation
through negligence, foolishness or deliberate intent
.



Academic dishonesty

is a corrosive force in the academic life of the university; it
jeopardises the quality of education and devalues the degrees and awards of the
University.


The full regulations on academic dishonesty are given in the University Regulations,
Section F Inf
ringement of assessment regulations

-

a
cademic
misconduct.


Plagiarism


Plagiarism is one specific form of cheating
.


The University Regulation Section F clearly sets out the University’s understanding

of
plagiarism
and the regulations by which you as a
student of the University are bound
.

The key University regulation is
F2.3

which
defines plagiarism as


The presentation
by the student as their own work of a body of material (written, visual or oral) which is


12

12

wholly or partially the work of another, ei
ther in concept or expression, or which is a
direct copy
.”

W
ork presented for assessment must be the candidate’s own, or the work of a
project group as requested by the tutor
.
Plagiarism is the representation of another
person’s published or unpublished w
ork as the candidate’s own by unacknowledged
quotation
.
It is not an offence if the material is acknowledged by the candidate as the
work of another through the accurate use of quotation marks and the provision of
detailed references and a full bibliograp
hy, although the Assessment Board will not
expect work to rely heavily on direct quotations.

In addition, the University Regulations set out the process for investigating
allegations of plagiarism and describes the penalties
.

If you are found guilty, the

repercussions are very serious indeed
.



You should take steps, therefore, to understand what plagiarism is, how it can be
identified and how you can avoid committing it; perhaps most impor
tantly, you should
reflect and
come to understand why it is to y
our enormous advantage never to
plagiarise because it is in effect cheating yourself
and
your fellow students).


Full details on the Infring
ement of assessment regulations
-

A
cademic misconduct,
can be found in the Un
iversity Regulations
-

Section F
.


Appe
als


The full regulations on appeals are given in the University

Regulations
.
Section G
-

Appeal regulations and procedures


Examples of all Typical/Previous Examination Papers


Please go to the University
student portal

website:

https://myunihub.mdx.ac.uk

for
copies of previous examination papers in all subject areas across the University
.











13

13

S a m p l e C o v e r P a g e f o r
C o u r s e w o r k


CCM4 3 2 0

N e t w o r k S y s t e m s
a n d S e r v i c e s




Deadline for Submission



2
8
th

March 2013

for September Starters






Module Leader ……………………………………..



Seminar Tutor…………………………………….



Student Names……………………………………………….



Student Numbers…………………………………………….




Campus:


Hendon







International


14

14

Laboratory/Seminar Materials





Laboratory and semina
r materials will be handed out during relevant sessions. Most of seminar
sessions will take the form of group presentations and discussions on pre
-
assigned topics



TUTORIALS



PLEASE TAKE TUTORIALS VERY SERIOUSLY. THEY ARE AN EXCELLENT WAY TO REVISE.
PLEA
SE WRITE DOWN YOUR ANSWERS.


ANSWERS TO TUTORIAL QUESTIONS WILL BE POSTED ON UniHub AT APPROPRIATE
TIMES.


.










































15

15

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 1



1.

Compare the nature and background of UNIX and MS
-
DOS.


2.

A computer has 24
-
bit addre
ss bus and an instruction format providing 12 bits in the address
part. Calculate the maximum addressable memory and the address offset range.


3.

How would relative addressing and immediate operands have to be treated by a relocating
loader?


4.

Distinguish bet
ween a program and a process, explaining why the use of the process concept
is necessary in operating systems.


5.

Explain the term memory addressability and indicate the effect on addressability of

i)

data bus width

ii)

address bus width

iii)

instruction format


6.

Discus
s the relative merits of GUI systems from the point of view of

i)

a programmer

ii)

an operational user

iii)

an end user


7.

What two events can cause a process to loose control of the processor?


8.

What is meant by the statements that a process is


i)

in the READY state?

ii)

In
the BLOCKED state?


9.

On a uni
-
processor system, why
is there only one process in the RUNNING state at any one
instant?


10.

A major part of early computer systems was the ability to swap a process out of memory to
secondary memory and to relocate the process in

another area of memory. Discuss the role
of a relocating loader in implementing this facility. Show how location is implemented using
relative addressing, base and bound registers as well as a comparator.


11.

The following series of processes with the given

estimated run
-
times arrives in the ready
queue in the order shown. For the FCFS and SJF scheduling policies, calculate the waiting
time and the wait
-
time/run
-
time ratio of each process.


Job




Est. run
-
time

1

10

2

50

3

2

4

100

5

5


12.

Draw a process state transition

diagram using five states and explain the interpretation of each
transition.


13.

What is involved in suspending a process? Why would an operating system do this? Draw a
process state transition diagram showing states to handle the suspension and reactivati
on of
processes.




16

16

14.

Discuss the concept of a memory hierarchy and its importance to the overall system
performance of a computer system.


15.

Draw a diagram showing the Unix Process model. Briefly explain all the process states.






















































17

17

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 2

1)

Describe the following memory algorithms for managing a piece of main memory: a)
best fit
,
b)
first fit

and c
) next fit
. Compare the performance of these three systems.


2)

Describe the Buddy system. I have to manage

1 MB of memory and have been asked to
satisfy the following memory allocation requests: Process A => 350 KB, Process B => 94 KB,
Process C => 200 KB, Process D => 22 KB. Draw a diagram showing where I would put each
request in memory using the Buddy syste
m. How many free sections are there and what are
their sizes?


3)

I want to design a new 32
-
bit virtual memory system with a page size of 4 KB. How many
pages do I need to support this VM space? If each page is represented by a 4
-
byte page table
entry what is

the size of the pagetables? I want to page the pagetables. How many pages do
the pagetables use? Assuming a 4
-
byte page table entry, what is the size of the root
pagetable, i.e. the pagetable for the pagetables?


4)

Discuss the principle of locality of refer
ence when applied to program execution.


5)

There are a number of misses in a computer system. Describe a TLB miss, a pagefault and a
cache miss. How does the operating system respond to these events? Draw a diagram
incorporating all three events starting whe
n the processor issues a virtual address.


6)

Discuss the Clock replacement page algorithm. I am trying to run a 10
-
page program on a
system with 3 physical pages. The initial page memory accesses are: 2 1 7 9 1 6 2 1 6 5 2 5 6
1. Show the pagefaults that occ
ur for the Clock algorithm. In what order are the pages in
memory after this sequence?


7)

I have a 10 page program which I need to run on a machine with 3 physical pages. The virtual
memory system uses the Clock Algorithm for its replacement policy. The init
ial access pattern
of the program pages are as follows: 1 3 2 6 1 4 1 6 5 2. Show how this access pattern is
managed using the Clock algorithm. Show the pages and their positions in memory at the end
of this initial sequence.


8)

Discuss how hardware and

operating systems have evolved to handle I/O operations. Your
discussion should include DMA, I/O channels and I/O processors.


9)

Describe how a magnetic disk is laid out in terms of tracks and sectors.


10)

I have a magnetic disk comprising of 60 tracks, each
track having 100 sectors. How do I
satisfy the following requests using the SCAN algorithm: Track 2 sector 25, Track 60 sector 1,
Track 4 sector 59, Track 25 sector 99, Track 41 sector 50.


11)


Imagine that on the planet Zebulon, seek times are much less than

rotational times. In what
order should I satisfy the requests in Question 9.




12)

I work for a PC manufacturer and need to choose a hard
-
disk supplier. Let us assume that
the electro
-
mechanic details of all the disks are roughly the same and all the sectors

of all the
hard
-
disks are 512 bytes in size. The other relevant information is found in the table below:


Manufacturer

No. of Tracks

No. of sectors
per track

Rotational Speed
in rpm

Cost in Pounds

Seagate

12000

10000

54000

260

Western Digital

14400

9000

60000

240

Intel IDE

16000

7000

55000

215




18

18

Answer the following questions, explaining your reasoning:





1) Which disk has the highest capacity?


2) Which disk is likely to be the fastest?


3) Which disk represents the lowest cost per Gigabyte?















13)

Discuss how Solid State Disk (SSD) storage works and how it is different from traditional
hard disks. Do you believe that SSD will totally replace traditional hard disk? State your
reasoning.



14)


Discuss the file access rights in UNIX and in

Windows. The music industry is looking at
preventing copies and would like another access bit added which determines whether a file
can be copied. Is this a good idea?


15)


Discuss the use of the UNIX buffer cache in its file management system.











































19

19

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 3

1)

Describe the different RAID systems from RAID 0 through to RAID 5. Which type of RAID
system would you advise your client to buy and why given that your client is:

a.

Interested in using file storage as par
t of a video surveillance system at grocery stores
throughout the UK. They want to use fairly high
-
grade video and provide a 24/7 service
at minimum cost;

b.

a world
-
famous international bank and wants to provide special storage for its most
“sensitive” accou
nts;

c.

an ISP wanting to provide a service showing highlights of news and sports to its
customers and wants to have a media server to store the clips.


2)

Explain the term network order. Develop a C routine to put a 32
-
bit integer on a little
-
endian
machine int
o network order before transmitting it out on the network.


3)

Describe the program flow of a socket
-
based server. What parts of the operating system are
stressed by such an approach? How would you introduce quality
-
of
-
service guarantees for
special streams?


4)


In contrast to Question 3, describe a multi
-
threaded approach to support a global service.
What parts of the operating system are stressed by this approach? How would you introduce
quality
-
of
-
service guarantees for special streams?


5)

Explain how Ethernet
works for 10 and 100 Mbps systems. Explain the changes that had to be
made to allow a burst mode for speeds of 1Gbps and beyond.


6)

Draw a complete Ethernet Frame (including the Preamble and FCS) containing a TCP/IP data
packet. What is the maximum percentag
e user
-
data utilization over a 100 Mbps link without
considering the Inter
-
packet Frame gap


7)

Repeat question 4, but consider the fact that Ethernet Technology uses a 96 bit Inter
-
packet
Frame Gap, calculate the maximum utilization over a 100 Mbps link, thi
s time taking account
of the Inter
-
packet Frame Gap.


8)

Draw a complete Ethernet Frame (including the Preamble and FCS) for an IPv6 Packet
carrying a TCP header. Calculate the maximum utilisation over a 100 Mbps link taking the
Inter
-
packet Frame Gap into ac
count.


9)

Describe the Token Ring Network System in some detail. How is its response different to that
of Ethernet under very heavy load? Under what situations could such a difference be crucial? I
am operating plant machinery over a Token Ring system. I nee
d to have a maximum access
time of 200 milliseconds. The system has a token cycle time of 8 milliseconds. There are 16
stations on this Token Ring. Calculate the maximum token holding time for each station.




10)

Describe the concepts of PUSH and PULL data mo
dels in client
-
server computing. Under
what circumstances would you recommend the PUSH model over the PULL model and vice
-
versa?


11)

Why do you think VNC uses the PULL model? Hint: look at the bandwidth required to send a
pixel stream of say 1024*768 of 16 b
it colours at 25 frames per second.


12)

Describe the LDAP and Novell Directory Services. Compare their strengths and weaknesses.


13)

Define the layers of the OSI communication model.



20

20


14)

Describe the IP LAN in terms of the OSI model. What do you think are its str
engths and
weaknesses?


15)

The socket abstraction is the most powerful abstraction used for network communications.
Discuss the ideas behind the concept and key calls that are used to establish communication
between different machines on a network.




















































21

21

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 4


1)

Describe the X Window System and how the X Server detects and deals with connections and
events.


2)

Describe the concept of a Proxy X Server and how such a concept can be used to support
Telepor
ting.


3)

Describe the ideas behind the Virtual Network Computer (VNC). What are its strengths and
weaknesses?


4)

I have a broadband connection at my home that offers asymmetrical bandwidth. I can get 1 Mbps
in downward direction (i.e. coming to my house) and
only 64Kbps in the upward direction. I
normally carry around a laptop to do my work. However, I have just been given a cheap but
powerful PC and I would like to run a VNC server on it. Where is the best place to put it, at home
or at my office?


5)

The echo
_ser program shown below is a simple example of a program that uses a socket flow
control mechanism. Study the program carefully. Describe the main loop of the program. What
socket calls are involved? Explain how the select call is used. What do FD_ZERO,

FD_SET,
FD_ISSET and FD_CLR actually do?


6)

Describe the concept of a remote procedure call. Describe the ideas behind stubs and the rpcgen
program. What do these things do?


7)

Describe how NFS works including the NFS Server and the mount deamon.


8)

Describe t
he difference in approach between RPC and CORBA mechanisms. When do you think
you would use a CORBA program instead of using RPC?


9)

What are the fundamental differences in approach between CORBA and DCOM?


10)

What is Java RMI and how does it compare to using C
ORBA?


11)


Describe the HTTP protocol including the methods used to get the server to do work.


12)


I need to design a Web Service for a commercial application. What are the pros and cons of
buying a large shared multiprocessor machine, a small number of closely

connected workstations
or a large number of cheap PCs?


13)

Describe the ideas behind the Multi
-
Processing Module (MPM) in Apache 2.0. Describe the
different MPMs for UNIX, Windows and OS/2. Describe when and why might you use a particular
MPM in contrast to

other MPMs.


14)

What is Blade Server Technology? Discuss why it should make a significant impact on global
servers such as Web Servers.


15)

What are network processors? Discuss the possible effect of network processors on the
production and cost of network swit
ches and routers. Show how they can also be used to
improve the performance of global servers such as Web Servers.










22

22

Code for Question 5


/* Echo_ser Program */

#include <stdio.h>

#include <linux/types.h>

#include <asm/types.h>

#include <linux/socket.
h>

#include <asm/socket.h>

#include <netinet/in.h>


#define SERVER_PORT 1068


int main(argc, argv)


int argc;


char **argv;

{


int sockrecv_fd, sockacc_fd;


struct sockaddr_in csock, rsock;


int len = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);


int *plen = &l
en;


char cbuf[100];


int n;



fd_set rfds;


fd_set afds;



int fd, nfds;




bzero((char *)&csock, sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));


csock.sin_family = AF_INET;


csock.sin_addr.s_addr = 0;


csock.sin_port = htons(SERVER_PORT);



if((sockrecv_fd = so
cket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0)) < 0)


{


printf("%s: unable to get a socket
\
n", argv[0]);


exit(
-
1);


}



if((bind(sockrecv_fd, (struct sockaddr *)&csock, len)) < 0)


{


printf("%s: unable to bind to server's address
\
n");


exit
(
-
1);


}



if((listen(sockrecv_fd, 5)) < 0)


{


printf("%s: couldn't listen on this socket
\
n", argv[0]);


exit(
-
1);


}



/* OK to support multiple clients */


nfds = getdtablesize();


FD_ZERO(&afds);


FD_SET(sockrecv_fd, &afds);



for(;;)


{



23

23


bcopy((char *)&afds, (char *)&rfds, sizeof(rfds));


if(select(nfds, &rfds, (fd_set *)0, (fd_set *)0, (struct timeval *)0) < 0)


{



printf("%s: unable to complete select
\
n", argv[0]);



exit(
-
1);


}


if(FD_ISSET(sockrecv_fd,

&rfds))


{



int ssock;




ssock = accept(sockrecv_fd, (struct sockaddr *)&rsock, plen);



if(ssock < 0)



{



printf("%s: unable to complete the accept
\
n");



exit(
-
1);



}



FD_SET(ssock, &afds);


}


for(fd = 0; fd <nfds; fd++)


{



if((fd != sockrecv_fd) && FD_ISSET(fd, &rfds))



{



n = recv(fd, cbuf, 100, 0);



if(n <= 0)



{




printf("%s: cannot receive on this socket
\
n", argv[0]);




FD_CLR(fd, &afds);




close(fd);



}



/* now write it back */




n = send(fd, cbuf, 100, 0);



if(n < 0)



{




printf("%s: cannot send on this socket
\
n");




FD_CLR(fd, &afds);




close(fd);



}



}


}


}

}



















24

24

CCM 4320 Tutorial No. 5


1)

I am designing a commercial Web application to sell cheap

holidays. I need to sell 3 holidays a
minute to succeed. I have a sale/visitors ratio of 0.1%. The average number of bytes required to
clinch a sale is around 6KBs. There is an additional 10% of traffic due to NULL calls, which need
an additional 200 byte
s each. Calculate the average bandwidth required. Why should I ask my ISP
for more bandwidth? What other issues I should explore with my ISP?


2)

In order to beat the credit crunch, my company has decided to set up a UK auction Website. Each
bid consumes 24 K
Bs and on average there are 20 bids for each auction. The successful bidder
needs another 300 KBs to secure the item. Calculate the average number of bytes needed to
complete a successful auction. If I need to complete 100 auctions a minute to be profitab
le,
calculate the average amount of bandwidth required.


3)

What is a proxy Web Server and how does it work? Discuss how Web proxies help improve
security and how the use of caching also improves performance. What are the key caching
parameters in setting up

a Web Caching Proxy Server?


4)

Discuss the functions of a cache including the terms
cache hit

and
cache miss
. for the caches
below, indicate where they are located, what items are stored in them and what happens when a
cache miss occurs:

a)

The L2 cache on the

Pentium

b)

The Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)

c)

The UNIX Buffer Cache

d)

A Web Cache


5)

I have a disk on my laptop that has 160 Megabytes. Assuming that all disk references by the
computer programs are random what size must I set my disk cache to have a cache h
it ratio of
10%. If the time taken to access the disk block when it is in the UNIX Buffer Cache is 2
microseconds and the time needed to access that same block when it is on the disk (i.e. not in the
UNIX Buffer Cache) is 8 milliseconds. What is the aver
age access time for a disk block if it is
randomly accessed as described above?


6)

Discuss in detail how the principle of locality would affect cache performance.


7)


I would like to upgrade my UNIX Buffer Cache as I have installed faster memory. Let x be t
he
access time of my new memory and the hardware disk access time is 10000 times slower than my
new memo
ry. I have a 20 GB

hard drive. Due to the principle of locality, the hit ratio of the UNIX
Buffer Cache is 50 times the hit ratio of a randomly accesse
d cache. To what size must I set my
UNIX Buffer Cache in order to obtain an average disk access time that is 100 times that of my
new memory?


8)

Discuss whether teleporting or VNC should be used in following situations. State your reasons.



a) I am a docto
r in a hospital that has a location
system. On my computer, I am
looking at an


X
-
Ray of a patient who appears to have cancer. I am going to see my boss to get a second
opinion.


b) I run a surveillance company and I am having problems with a remot
e camera at King’s Cross.
So I need to do some debugging but travelling to the site is very difficult.


9)

Explain the IPv4 and IPv6 header formats. Show clearly which fields have been modified, which
fields have been deleted and which fields have been added
to IPv6 when compared with IPv4.


10)

The IPv6 header is fairly large. Is it possible to use header compression to reduce the size of
IPv6 packets? How would you go about it?




25

25

11)


Describe the workings of MIPv6 and FMIPv6.


12)

Explain the concept of vertical hando
ver and investigate different types of vertical handovers.
Show how the Peripheral Framework of the Y
-
Comm architecture facilitates vertical handover for
heterogeneous networks.


13)

Explain the ideas behind Grid Computing and how mechanisms such as the Globus

Toolkit make
such ideas possible.



14)

Explain the concept of virtual machines including the differences between Host and Bare
-
Metal
Virtualisation. Explain how virtualization is used in the Amazon EC2 System.


15)

Cloud Computing is now very popular. Explain t
he main ideas behind Cloud Computing and the 3
key paradigms that are employed to deliver services using Cloud Infrastructure.