Slide 1

sandwichtumtumBiotechnologie

16 déc. 2012 (il y a 4 années et 9 mois)

300 vue(s)


Future Challenges for NTUMCAA
-
NA:
Turning Crises Into New Opportunities





Ming T. Tsuang, MD, PhD, D.Sc.


Behavioral Genomics Endowed Chair and

University Professor, University of California; Distinguished
Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Center for Behavioral
Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, University of California,
San Diego and

Director, Harvard Institute of Psychiatric Epidemiology and
Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.




2012
年北美臺大醫學院校友

呈䔠㌲乄T䅎乕䅌A
C低噅乔䥏丬 乔啍䍁U
-
乁N

NTU’s Integrated Brain and Mind
Project


National Taiwan University (NTU) is the best
university, and has the best hospital in Taiwan.


It attracts numerous clinical cases thanks to it’s
reputation.


This offers excellent opportunities to all clinical,
cognitive, neuroimaging, and basic neuroscientists.


NTU has the unique potential to study culture and
cognition in the integrated context of “mind in a
social brain” when we consider the expertise
congregated in our medical, cognitive, and
engineering departments.

NTU’s Integrated Brain

and Mind Project


In 2009 I was asked by President Si
-
Chen Lee
of National Taiwan University (NTU) and
Chancellor Mary Anne Fox of UC San Diego to
be the UCSD representative on a new and
exciting collaborative project involving both
institutions.


The project endeavored to integrate the
disciplines of neurobiology, cognitive science,
clinical neuroscience as well as behavioral
sciences, within the six colleges of NTU.




NTU’s Integrated Brain

and Mind Project


Between May 9th
-
11
th
, 2010, the first
International Scientific Advisory Committee
(ISAC) meeting for
NTU’s Integrated Brain and
Mind Project
took place in Taipei.


Internationally renowned scholars were
invited to join this committee to share their
experiences and give advice on the
development of the project.

Patricia Churchland Ph.D

Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, UC San Diego

Research Area: Neurophilosophy,
Neuroethics
.

Cheng Ming Chuong MD, Ph.D

Professor

Pathology Dept.

University

Southern California

Research Area:

Tissue Development and
Regeneration.

Academician, Academia Sinica.

Larry R. Squire, Ph.D.

Professor of Psychiatry, Neurosciences,

and Psychology, UCSD.

Research

Area: Structure and Organization of
Memory.

Ing
-
Kang Ho, Ph.D
.

Distinguished Investigator and Vice President

Institute of Population Health Sciences

National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan.

Research Area: Neurotoxicology,
Neuropharmacology, Drug Abuse.

Academician, Academia Sinica.



Trevor Robbins Ph.D, F.R.S
.

Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience

Downing College,

University of Cambridge

Research Area: Cognitive Neuroscience,
Psychopharmacology, Addiction



Ian

Everall MD, Ph.D

Cato Professor of Psychiatry,

Department of Psychiatry,

University of Melbourne, Australia

Research Area: Neuropathology and Psychiatry




Shu Chien, MD, Ph.D,

Professor of Bioengineering and Medicine,

Director, Institute of Engineering in Medicine,

UC San Diego


Research Area: Integrative Bioengineering and
Physiology

Awardee: National Medal of Science, 2011.


William Mobley MD, PhD

Chair, Department of Neurosciences

UC San Diego

Research
Area: Neural Circuits, Neurobiology of
Down’s Syndrome, Alzheimer's Disease, and
Compassion.

Academician, Academia Sinica
.


Ming T. Tsuang, MD, PhD, D.Sc.

Distinguished University Professor,
University of California;

Behavioral Genomics Chair and Director,

Center for Behavioral Genomics,

Department of Psychiatry,

University of California, San Diego and

Director, Harvard Institute of Psychiatric
Epidemiology and Genetics, Harvard
Medical School and Harvard School of
Public Health.

Chairman, International Scientific Advisory
Committee, NTU’s Integrated Brain and
Mind Science Project

Academician, Academia Sinica.

Research Area: Behavioral Genetics and
Genomics, Prevention of Mental Illness, and
Well Being

National Taiwan University Front Gate

NTU’s Integrated Brain

and Mind Project



Three autonomous institutions fall under the
umbrella of the Integrated Brain and Mind
Science Project.


The three institutions are:



The NTU Neurobiology and Cognitive Science
Center (NCSC).


The NTU Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind
Science (GIBMS).


The National Taiwan University Hospital Clinical
Center of Neuroscience and Behavior (CCNB).



President Lee at the Neurobiology and
Cognitive Science Center’s Opening
.


The Graduate Institute of Brain and
Mind Sciences (GBMS) is the newest
institution authorized by the Ministry of
Education.


It was established with the following
purposes:


Doctoral/post doctoral education.


Advanced research.


Multi disciplinary collaborations.



Researchers at the GIBMS are attempting
to bridge disciplinary boundaries to
further the understanding of the origins,
evolution and mechanisms of human
cognition.


They will explore the brain's physical and
biochemical machinery to the
experiences and behaviors we call the
mind.

National Taiwan University Hospital,

Old Campus

The NTUH Clinical Center of Neuroscience and
Behavior (CCNB).


The mission is to integrate and collaborate (inter
and extra
-
institutionally) on various fields of
clinical neuroscience and psychiatry.


These fields include:


Neuroradiology


Neurosurgery


Cerebrovascular diseases


Neuro
-
Oncology


Neuroimpairment

and

Recovery


Neuropsychiatry


Neurodegeneration and Dementia


Child Neurological Diseases








Clinical Center of
Neuroscience and
Behavior (CCNB)
Opening Ceremony,
May 27
th
, 2011.

The Brain

The Brain


Gray matter is a major component of the central
nervous system.


It contains neural cell bodies, in contrast to white
matter, which does not and mostly contains
myelinated

axon tracts.


Significant positive correlations have been found
between grey matter volume in elderly persons and
measures of semantic and short
-
term memory.


Some structural differences in grey matter may be
associated with psychiatric disorders such as
schizophrenia.






Brain Atrophy and its Effects


Healthy Brain

Brain Atrophy

Hippocampus


Amygdala

Prefrontal Cortex (Executive Function)

(Emotion)

For more information:


The National Taiwan University Hospital Clinical
Center of Neuroscience and Behavior (CCNB).

o
http://www.ntuh.gov.tw/en/ccnb/default.aspx


The NTU Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind
Science (GIBMS).

o
http://gibms.mc.ntu.edu.tw/


The NTU Center for Neurobiology and Cognitive
Science (CNCS).

o
http://neuroscience.ntu.edu.tw/



Subjective Well
-
Being (SWB) and
Health

1.
What constitutes health?

2.
What is Wellbeing? Why is it important?

3.
Introduction to Subjective Well
-
Being (SWB)

4.
Factors of SWB
-

Genetics, Environmental,
Spiritual aspects.

5.
Current and Future Research Perspectives.


What Constitutes Health?



Universally accepted definition of health
: a
state of complete physical, mental and social
wellbeing and not merely the absence of
disease or disability.


Health also refers to the presence of positive
characteristics.



Mind

Spirit

Well
-
being generally means a healthy
balance of :

Body

Mind and Body
: Mental
Wellbeing affects

Physical Wellbeing



Positive emotions have positive effects on
physiology; especially in the case of the
immune and cardiovascular system.


Negative emotions increase susceptibility
to illness.


Mood can motivate healthy behaviors.


Positive emotions create social support.


Introduction to Subjective
Wellbeing (SWB)



How do researchers objectively evaluate
emotional well
-
being?



In the past, several
scales were developed
to accurately measure our self
-
perceived
wellbeing.





Subjective Wellbeing (SWB):
Taking place in the mind of an
individual


Subjective wellbeing consists of two
components:

1)
Life Satisfaction



an evaluation of a persons
overall life.

2)
Emotions

-

the presence of positive emotions
and the absence of negative emotions.


Determinants of SWB



Genetics



Environmental factors



Spiritual factors

Determinants: Genetics



Feeling of wellbeing or lack of wellbeing
can be inherited.



Genes can be responsible for both positive
and negative emotions.



80% of long
-
term SWB is heritable.




Genetics (cont): Personality



Personality is a very powerful way of
predicting how a person will cope with
positive and negative life events.



Personality leads different individuals to
experience the same life events in a more
positive or negative fashion


Genetics (cont): Personality


Each person has a normal level of SWB.


This level is predicted by personality
characteristics (Introverted
vs

Extroverted
etc).


Emotional stability and extroversion were
positively related to SWB
.


Neurotic personalities were
negatively
related.


Environmental F
actors


Socioeconomic status
:

Education and
income are strong predictors of SWB.


Health
:


Health is an important predictor of
SWB at all ages and the strongest predictor
of SWB during late life.



Social integration:

Attachments to the social
structure via community roles.


Social relationships and social support
:

G
ood relationship in marriage and with
friends.

Interaction Between Genetic

and Environmental Factors

Genes may interact with environmental factors:



The same genes that affect early anxiety also
influence later depression.


Early genetic effects of anxiety increase
exposure to life events that increase risk to
depression.


The genes that create early anxiety also
make young people more prone to
depression due to the effects of
environmental adversity.


Spiritual Well
-
Being

and Health


Higher levels of religious commitment are
linked to longer lifespan.


Religious people may be less likely to make
unhealthy lifestyle choices such as substance
abuse and gambling.


Religion may facilitate healing through
fostering spiritual growth.


Spirituality may enhance quality of life and
help in the psychological recovery from
cancer, cardiovascular disease, and even
wound healing.

Spiritual Well
-
Being

and Health




Both genetic and shared environmental
influences contributed to the stability of
religious values and religious attendance.



+



Current and Future Research
Perspectives





People are living longer and an
important
public health goal is to find ways to ensure
these years are happy and
healthy.


The identification of genetic and
environmental factors associated with well
-

and ill
-

being will help develop targeted
interventions.


These interventions aspire to foster greater
health and happiness.


Research Perspectives




Our Center for Behavioral Genomics at UC San
Diego hopes to conduct extensive measurement
work on a large set of subjective well
-
being
measures.


We hope to generate excellent well
-
being
measures, and examine them throughout the life
of a person.


It will enable us to apply these characteristics to
genetic analyses in order to identify specific
genes that are associated with dimensions of
well
-
being.

Research Perspectives


The derived genetic data will be utilized to
identify inherited well
-
being measures.


We will use already collected DNA and
phenotypic data, which are enriched with
well
-
being measures such as:


General wellbeing


Physical health


Psychological health


Research Perspectives


Molecular genetic studies may eventually
discover

biological reasons why some people
remain happy and mentally healthy even in

the face of adversity.


If so, that could lead to pharmacologic

strategies and environmental interventions to
advance well
-
being in our aging population
and help contain health care costs.

1
2
3
4
5
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400




=
2012 (924)

=
2009 (939)





>70

65
-
70

60
-
64

55
-
59

<55

Age Distribution OF NTUMCAA
Membership

Older than 70

375

Members
(41%)

Between 65
-
70

215 members

(23% )

Between 60 and
64

127 members

(14%)

Between 55 and 59

93 members (10%)

Between 45 and 49

17 members (2%)

Age Distribution of NTUMCAA
-
NA Alumni in 2012

Between 50 and 54

27 members (3%)

Between 35 and 39

21 members (2%)

Between 40 and 44

9 members (1%)

Under 35

40 members (4%)

Geographical Distribution of NTUMCAA
-
NA Alumni in
2012 (n=924)

East Coast

West Coast

Central


Canada


South


NTUMCAA
-
NA: Our Future


We have reached a critical time in the history of
our great organization.


How to keep a bridge open between NTU
-
MC and
the alumni in North America after 2012?


How to provide guidance to NTUMC graduates
who wish to advance their medical learning in
North America?


How to provide assistance to NTUMC alumni in
North America who wish to visit their alma
mater?


What can alumni in North America do to assist
NTUMC scholars from Taiwan?


How can we develop a plan for fundraising?


Any other suggestions or recommendations?