Chapter 4 - Jenks Anatomy

sandwichtumtumBiotechnologie

16 déc. 2012 (il y a 4 années et 9 mois)

204 vue(s)

Introduction to Studying DNA

DNA Structure and Function


Center of biotechnology research and
development


Central Dogma of Biology


Proteins


many functions in a cell

DNA Structure and Function


Similarities Among Organisms


1.
All DNA molecules are composed of four nucleic
monomers

1.
Adenosine
deoxynucleotide

(A)

2.
Cytosine
deoxynucleotide

(C)

3.
Guanosine

deoxynucleotide

(G)

4.
Thymine
deoxynucleotide

(T)

2.
Virtually all DNA molecules form a double helix

3.
The amount of adenosine equals the amount of
thymine


The amount of
guanosine

equals the amount of
cytosine


DNA Structure and Function


Similarities Among Organisms continued


4.
Nucleotides in each strand are oriented in the
opposite direction of the other strand

5.
Nitrogenous bases

6.
DNA undergoes
semiconservative

replication


DNA Structure and Function


Variations Among Organisms


The number of DNA strands in the cells of
an organism


The length in the base pairs of the DNA
strands


The number and type of genes and
noncoding

regions


The shape of the DNA strands


Sources of DNA


DNA occurs in cells in nature


Scientists have the ability to grow cells in the lab


Genes are turned on and off


Prokaryotic cells vs. Eukaryotic cells


Sources of DNA


Prokaryotic DNA


Promoter region


Operon


Sources of DNA


Eukaryotic DNA


Promoter region

Isolating and Manipulating DNA


Process of Genetic Engineering

1.
Identification of the molecule(s)

2.
Isolation of the instructions (DNA
sequence/genes) for the production of the
molecule(s)

3.
Manipulation of the DNA instructions

4.
Harvesting of the molecule or product, testing it,
and marketing it


Isolating and Manipulating DNA


Modifications


Recombinant DNA


Site
-
specific Mutagenesis


Gene therapy