Algae Biofuel, Part 2: The Dynamics of Growth


14 déc. 2012 (il y a 8 années et 7 mois)

396 vue(s)

Part 2:

The Dynamics of Growth & Production

Samuel Coe

Energy Law

Fall 2010


Algae Cultivation

Open Pond,

and Hybrid Systems

Finding the Right Algae

Aquatic Species Program

Genetic Engineering

Regulatory Complications

Patent Protection

U.S. Government Algae Policy

International Influence

Future Predictions

“The successful growth of algae is more or less an art
and a daily tightrope act with the aim of keeping the
necessary prerequisites and various unpredictable
events involved in algal mass cultivation in a sort of

E. Wolfgang Becker

How does algae grow?

Sunlight, Water & Carbon Dioxide

From the Pond to the Fuel Pump

Open Pond Systems

Pond Pros & Cons

Low Costs

Easy to Operate and Maintain

High Contamination Risk

Lots of Water and Space


PB Pros & Cons

High Productivity, but High Costs

Early Algae PBs

MIT rooftop, circa.1950


Production potential of 100,000 oil gal/year for
each acre of bioreactors

Hybrid Systems


Grow the seed and set it free.

Wastewater Management

Carbon Capture

Algae Bioreactor attached to smoke stack at power plant

Finding the Right Algae

Over 40,000 species of algae have been
identified, likely hundreds of thousands
more to be discovered

Aquatic Species Program

U.S. Dep. of Energy & National
Renewable Energy Lab (NREL)



3,000 species of algae studied and
analyzed, only 51 labeled “high value”

Genetic Engineering of Algae

The Source of Algae Energy

Genetic “

Biological Secretion of Lipids

No Need for Costly Physical Extraction

Dangers of Genetic Engineering?




“Suicide Genes”

Engineered Algae

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)

Plant Protection Act (PPA)

Conflicting Regulatory Agencies

E.P.A. v.

Patent Protection for Algae Systems

Plant Patents

35 U.S.C.A

161: “Whoever invents or
discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct
and new variety of plant, including cultivated
sports, mutants, hybrids, and newly found
seedlings, other than a tuber propagated plant
or a plant found in an uncultivated state, may
obtain a patent therefor, subject to the
conditions and requirements of this title.”

The Pros & Cons of Algae Patents

Increased Incentive for Invention

IP Assets to Attract Further Investment

Big Oil Patent Hunting?

Litigation Risks

U.S. Algae Policy

Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA)

Section 228: Algal Biomass (R & D)

American Recovery & Reinvestment Act

Making Amends for Past Neglect?

International Algae

China, Japan, Argentina, New Zealand,
India, & more have joined the algae game

Future Predictions

Biofuel Vehicles

“Green” Buildings

More Research & Development

Further Private & Government Investment

Clearer Regulatory & Statutory Guidelines for
Algae Businesses