broadcasting a specific program.

listener:

A person in the audienc
e of a radio program. The listening area is
the geographical span of a station's coverage (the term applies specifically to
radio, but sometimes is used to refer also to TV). A
listener diary

is the
record, or log, of programs heard by a respondent in an a
udience
-
rating
survey. Listener characteristics are the demographics of a typical listener of
a program or station.

listening shot:

A film or TV shot of an interviewer or performer listening,
usually called a reaction shot or cutaway shot.

live:

Referrin
g to a real or actual performance that is simultaneously
transmitted, as by a

live action camera

(LAC), as distinct from a taped or
delayed broadcast.

live on tape:

Referring to a TV or radio program of an actual performance,
recorded and broadcast subseq
uently and therefore not really live.

liver:

A live report without accompanying tape or other material.

location:

An actual setting, as distinct from a studio, used for a film or TV
show. To film or tape on location is to shoot a motion picture or to tap
e in
such a setting.

locked in:

A videotape or other recorder that is moving at its regular speed
and is ready to accept a feed.

locking up:

The brief period when a videocassette wobbles as it starts to
play, before it is stabilized and runs smoothly.

l
ock out:

The closing credits of a program.

long shot (LS):

A camera view that takes in the full vista, or breadth, of a
scene or that is taken far away from the subject.

long take:

A film or TV camera shot maintained for an extended period.

lose

the light:

To have insufficient light for filming; a TV direction
indicating that the tally light on a camera has gone off, meaning that the
camera no longer is on.

louder:

A broadcasting instruction, signaled by an upraised palm or a raised
hand. The cu
e directs a performer or other individual to speak more loudly
or an engineer to increase the intensity of the sound.

lower third:

The bottom third of the TV screen, on which identifications
and other captions generally are displayed.

low
-
power televisio
n (LPTV):

A type of TV station, authorized by the
Federal Communications Commission in 1982 in an effort to allow several
thousand stations with secondary status to provide limited
-
range service in a
small area.

luminance:

Light; brightness. A TV signal i
s made up of luminance (which
carries the black
-
and
-
white portion of the image) and chrominance (which
carries the hue).



magazine concept:

In broadcast advertising, the scattered placement of
commercials during a program on a participating or spot basis
. The opposite
is
program sponsorship
, in which all the advertisements aired during a
program are from the same sponsor.

make local:

To insert a station identification in a network program.

make system:

To identify a network, such as the Columbia Broadcasting
System.

man on the street (MOS):

An interviewing technique in which the opinions
of the general public are sought.

march on:

Opening music titles, or other identification of a radio or TV
program.


match cut:

A quick transition, or cut, from one film or TV camera to
another, or a smooth transition from one shot to another, with the action
appearing to continue seamlessly.

match dissolve (MD):

A film and TV technique in which a shot fades, or
disso
lves, into another of similar form or action, perhaps to suggest the
passage of time.

media escort:

A person who accompanies an interviewee to TV stations and
other media and provides transportation and other assistance.

media tour:

An itinerary of citie
s or markets in which a spokesperson or
other publicity representative is sent, generally for a day or two.

media training:

Counseling and rehearsal to prepare individuals for
interviews on TV programs and other media, provided by a
media trainer
,
often i
n a TV studio to simulate an actual interview.

medium close
-
up (MCU):

A camera position that is between a medium shot
and a close
-
up, generally showing a person's head and shoulders and part of
the chest; also called a medium close shot (MCS) or loose clo
se
-
up. A
medium close
-
up generally does not show the hands or forearms.

medium shot (MS):

A camera position between a close
-
up and a long shot
--
for instance, the view of a person from the head to the waist or lower; also
called a

midshot

or
half
-
shot.


me
dium
-
long shot (MLS):

A camera position between a long shot and
medium shot; also called a
full shot
.

middle break:

An interruption in the middle of a radio or TV program for a
commercial or station identification.

MII:

A half
-
inch broadcast format devis
ed by Panasonic; it uses helical scan
component recordings, is capable of using address track time code, and has
four audio channels.

mike:

Microphone. A
mike boom

is a crane or arm that holds a microphone.
A
mike box

is a unit connecting one microphone w
ith others, as on a lectern
or table at a press conference. A
sitting mike
is a table microphone. A
rifle
mike
is a long narrow, directional microphone that can be aimed like a rifle.
A

roving mike

is hand
-
held microphone, cordless or on a long cord, used
by
talk show hosts, reporters, and others to move through the theater or other
sites.

mike mugger:

A speaker who is too close to the microphone.

mike sock:

A cover, such as a foam rubber sleeve, that fits over a
microphone to reduce external sounds such
as wind.

mike stew:

Unwanted background sound picked up by a microphone.

miking:

The setup and arrangement of microphones, such as their placement
on a stage or on performers. Performers are miked when their microphones
are attached and are overmiked whe
n the amplification is too loud or
artificial
-
sounding.
Close miking

is the placement of a microphone very
close to the sound source; the opposite is

loose miking
.

minicam:

A small, self
-
contained portable TV camera for videotaping on
-
site news events. Wh
en linked to a mobile transmission unit (minicam van),
the minicam can provide live coverage at relatively low cost. It thus has
tremendously changed TV news programs at all types of stations.

minimicrowave:

A term for the transmission of a video signal f
rom a
nonstudio site
--
such as a news event
--
to a mobile unit or a transmitter on a
nearby roof. The transmitter then sends the signal directly to the station or
possibly to one or more intermediate points, such as atop a tall building or
other high point.

miniseries:

A short series or sequence of related programs, such as one
every night for five consecutive nights rather than one a week over a 13
-
week or other extended period.

mix:

To record separate soundtracks into a single track (to subdub
), or to
blend audio and visual components to produce a master (from which copies
are made), an optical dissolve, a rerecording, or some other combination or
mixture, called a mix.

mix minus:

A feature that prevents a broadcaster from hearing his or her
o
wn voice echo back.

mixdown:

A combination of two or more audio sources, sometimes
produced with a complex mixer called an automated mixdown. To mix
down is to create such a combination.

mixer:

The unit that controls and blends audio and/or video signals
; the
technician who operates the unit (also called a rerecording supervisor or
chief recording mixer). In a TV studio or on a film set,the work is done by a
floor mixer. A music mixer edits recorded music. The mixing console
(generally called simply a mix
er) combines premixed tracks (as in the first
phase of mixing) with signals from playback machines and other sources,
including a mixing panel (a small mixer), based on instructions on a mixing
cue sheet.

mobile unit:

A vehicle for originating broadcasts
from on
-
the
-
spot
locations, away from the studio, or for carrying equipment for on
-
location
film or tape production; also called a
mobile production unit.


mock interview:

A simulated interview, generally conducted by a
professional communicator, to help d
evelop the communications skills of the
interviewee.

modulate:

To change the frequency, phase, or amplitude of a carrier wave
(as in radio transmission). A modulator is a device to change such a wave.

monitor (mon):

A device for checking or regulating pe
rformance
--
for
instance, an instrument that receives TV signals by direct wire rather than
over the air, as in a TV studio or closed circuit, sometimes without the
sound.

monitoring service:

An organization that checks magazines, newspapers,
and other pub
lications for mention of a company or other client, or for other
recording and evaluation purposes. A
broadcast monitoring service

checks
the electronic media.

montage:

A combination of items, photos, or scenes, often to indicate the
passage of time, such as
straight cuts

(abrupt transitions) and
soft cuts

(gradual changes, with bridges or other effects).

moray:

A video disturbance caused by flashy jewelry, brightly col
ored
apparel, or other sources, commonly called a
moray pattern
, named after a
type of brightly colored eel called a moray.

morning:

The early part of the day. In radio, morning drive is a key period
to reach listeners in their cars, such as 6 to 10 a.m.
The announcer
sometimes is called the
morning man. Morning zoo
is a radio station format
with one or more zany announcers.

morphing:

A computer process that transforms one photograph or image
into another, commonly used in videos and film. A morph is a for
m.

MOS:

Man on the street.

move in (MI):

A direction to move a camera or microphone closer to the
subject.

move out (MO):

A direction to move a camera or microphone away from
the subject.

moving off:

Movement by a subject away from the camera or microp
hone;
also called

fade off.


moving on:

Movement by a subject closer to the camera or microphone;
also called

fade on.


moving shot:

A filming or videotaping technique in which the camera
follows the action; also called

follow shot, running shot
, or

action

shot.


mult box:

An electrical device that combines and regulates the flow of
electricity and distributes a regulated or consistent audio feed. It is used by
radio and TV crews, particularly at events with considerable equipment,
tapping into the speaker'
s lectern or other site.

multicam:

The use of two or more cameras simultaneously to shoot a scene
from more than one angle.



National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians
(NABET):

An AFL
-
CIO union in Washington, DC, of about 20,000
technic
al workers in broadcasting, at over 50 locals, including many
engineers at NBC.

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB):

A major organization of
radio and TV stations and networks, based in Washington, DC.

National Television System Committee (NTSC):

A unit of the Federal
Communications Commission, Washington, DC, that establishes television
standards in the United States, such as NTSC Color, a standard for color that
also can be received on black
-
and
-
white sets.

NATPE International:

An organization b
ased in Santa Monica, CA,
formerly called the National Association of Television Program Executives.

natural sound (
or

nat sound):

Animal noises, weather conditions, and other
actual sounds recorded for broadcast or other use, as contrasted with
artificia
l sound or sound effects.

NEMO:

A remote pickup, a broadcast not originated by the station
transmitting it; pronounced NEE
-
moe. The acronym is for not emanating
from main office.

net audience:

The number of individuals or households reached by a
medium o
ver a specified period of time, such as those reading a single issue
or tuned to a specific broadcast or broadcast period, such as a day.

net rating:

A percentage of total potential audience to which a radio or TV
commercial, program, station, or network
is exposed, with duplications
deducted or omitted. Each percentage is a
net rating point

(N.R.P.).

net weekly audience:

The number of individuals or households tuned in at
least once a week to a daily radio or TV program or to a program broadcast
more than once a week. The

net weekly circulation
is the number of
individuals tuned to a radio or TV station for at least five
consecutive
minutes during a week.

network:

A group of radio or TV stations that broadcast the same programs.
The stations can be owned by a headquarters company
--
the network
--
that is
the source of the programs or can be independent
--
an affiliate or
netwo
rk
affiliate
.

network feed:

The system of telephone lines, coaxial cables, microwave
relays, satellites, and other means of transmitting a signal from a source to
broadcasting stations. A program or program service provided by the
network to stations also

is called a network feed, such as the
afternoon news
feed

transmitted to affiliated stations for subsequent broadcast.

network identification:

The name or identification of a radio or TV
network made at the beginning of each hour and/or the beginning and

end of
the network programs.

network promo:

An announcement broadcast by a network to promote a
specific program or the network itself, generally at the end of a network
program.

network time:

A time period, such as prime time, during which a local radio
or TV station agrees to broadcast network programs; also called
network
option time
, since the network has the option to use it.

news:

Fresh information. Hard news refers to reporting of curre
nt events,
whereas
soft news

is more likely to be human
-
interest features or less current
or less urgent news. A
news feature

is an elaboration on a news report. The
news department
of a radio or TV station or network, headed by a
news
director
, prepares a
nd/or broadcasts news reports.

news envelope:

A brief news segment, such as a 60
-
second news update on
a local, network, or syndicated program, with its own local or national
sponsor.

newsbreak:

An event worthy of reporting, used in television to describ
e a
brief segment, about one minute long, with a few news items.

newscast:

A straight news program on radio or television with relatively few
features.

non
-
air commercial:

A commercial not intended for broadcast use, such as
for presentations or testing.


O&O:

Owned and operated, as with the radio and TV stations in New York
and other major cities that are owned and operated by the networks.

OB:

Outside broadcast; not in the studio, from a remote location.

O.C.

or

O/C:

On camera; action in front of a T
V camera, visible to the
audience. In a TV script, it's a direction indicating on which person or scene
the camera is focused.

octopus cable:

A grouping of wires or cables with several jacks at one or
both ends, used in television to attach equipment with

dissimilar jacks.

off:

Off
-
camera:

outside the image field;
off
-
mike:

directed away from the
microphone;
off
-
screen

or

off
-
camera announcer:

an announcer heard but
not seen;
offstage:

not visible to the audience.

off air:

A program received via conventi
onal radio or television and not via
cable. Off the air refers to the ending of the transmission of a program or the
termination of a program.

off
-
line edit:

A non
-
computerized, rough assembly of segments with abrupt
transitions, followed by a computerize
d, on
-
line edit with smooth transitions
and other improvements.

off
-
network:

A program available for syndication after it has been broadcast
on a network.

omnies:

Crowd noises as picked up by an omnidirectional microphone that
picks up sound from all dir
ections.

on the air:

A broadcast in progress.

on the fly:

In a hurry, extemporaneous. On
-
the
-
fly editing of video is editing
live or without stopping the tapes.

on
-
scene show:

A TV program produced at the site of an earlier murder,
accident, or other ev
ent, sometimes reenacted.

one up/many down:

A television or teleconference format with a single
origination site and many receiving sites.

on
-
line edit:

Computerized assembly of segments, such as a prebuild
session to create portions of the final show.

open mike:

A live microphone.

open
-
end

or

open
-
ended:

A recorded audio or video program, sequence,
interview, or commercial in which a local announcer can participate to add a
local or live dimension to the beginning or end, ask questions, or insert local

information; a program with no specific conclusion time. The endpoint
(outpoint) of an open
-
ended edit is determined during the editing.

opening billboard:

The introduction of a radio or TV program, which may
include highlights or names of the cast or sp
onsors.

opt out:

The moment during a network news transmission or other live feed
when a local radio or TV station has the option of discontinuing and
returning to its own programming.

ordering:

The process of deciding on the order of stories or segments in a
news program; also called
formatting
or

stacking
(putting in order in a
stack).

original:

First; fresh; the initial source from which copies are made, such as
an original master tape.

orig
inate:

To produce and transmit a program or other material. In
broadcasting, the origination point is called the
feed point
.

out:

The end; to remove, as in a script notation to remove a sound. The

outcue

is a signal that a program, scene, film, or tape is

about to end. The
outpoint
indicates the end of a scene or sequence on a film or tape. Also, a
completed communication, as in
over and out
. The
out time

is the time at
which a program ends.

out of frame:

A subject or action that is off
-
camera and not see
n within the
frame of the picture.

out period:

A hiatus, as when a schedule for commercials is suspended.

outcue:

The last few words
--
generally four
--
of a recorded song or a taped
report or interview, an extremely important guide to the engineer, produce
r,
director, disk jockey, and newscaster; also called an
endcue
. The outcue of a
commercial or other taped segment is scripted, so that the live announcer
knows when to start.

outro:

The standard conclusion of a radio or TV program; an exit speech in
a sc
ene; a tag at the end of a commercial. Outro is the opposite of
intro.


outs:

Outtakes; rejected or unused film or tape.

overlap:

The running of two projectors or tape machines in synchronization
so that a changeover can be made from one to the other; a s
egment of a
dissolve in which the images are superimposed and the shooting of scenes
longer than necessary to provide leeway in editing.

overnights:

The TV rating estimates, available within a day of broadcast
and drawn from households in markets with aud
ience
-
metering devices.

over
-
the
-
air
-
station:

A TV station that transmits its signal through the air
and thus can be received without a cable system.

over
-
the
-
shoulder shot (OSS):

A camera shot made from behind a
performer, sometimes including all or par
t of the head and shoulders, with
the camera focused on the spot at which the performer is looking; also called
XS, for across shoulder.

oxide:

The easily magnetized, brown oxide of iron material onto which the
video and audio signals are recorded.



pac
k:

A package, packet, or container; A
mike
-
pack

is a small package of
batteries and wires, attached to a performer's body, and connected to a
cordless microphone.

package:

A radio or TV program or a combination of radio or TV programs
or commercial spots
offered to a sponsor as a unit, usually at a discount; a
taped television report, generally :45 (45 seconds) to 2:30 (2 1/2 minutes)
--
a
short package
. A
long package
is a special report or a report to be edited and
broadcast over a period of days (a two
-
pa
rter, three
-
parter, four
-
parter, or
five parter).

paid for:

A line, required by federal law, spoken at the end of a broadcast
political commercial or inserted at the bottom of a printed advertisement,
indicating the source of payment ("Paid for by the Jon
es for Congress
Committee").

PAL:

Phase
-
alternation system.

pan:

A direction given to the person operating the camera, so that camera
eye moves slowly and evenly, vertically or horizontally, in a panorama (the
source of the term). A
pan shot

also is call
ed a
blue pan, swish, whipshot
, or
wiz pan
. The process of laterally moving the camera to photograph a wide
view is called

panning
.

pan and scan:

A technique for changing the aspect ratio of the frame of a
wide
-
screen film so that it can be transmitted fo
r TV.

partial sponsorship:

The sponsorship of a TV or radio program by several
advertisers; also called
co
-
sponsorship
.

participation program:

A radio or TV program that has several sponsors.
An audience
-
participation program involves the studio or home audience in
the broadcast.

parting gifts:

Products or services announced or advertised during
(generally at the end of) TV talk or game shows,
in return for promotional
consideration from the manufacturer or dealer
--
such as hotel
accommodations and airline transportation for the guests on the program.

pause control:

A device on a machine, such as a tape recorder, that provides
for a brief stop o
r interruption without the machine having to be turned off.

pay television (pay TV):

Home television programming for which the
viewer pays by the program or by the month; also called
pay
-
television,
subscription television

(STV), or toll
-
TV. Pay televisio
n includes over
-
the
-
air transmission (with scrambled signals) and cable transmission (pay cable).

pay
-
per
-
view TV (PPV):

A system in which payment is made for a single
showing of a program. Subscribers of the pay
-
television company can phone
in their "ord
ers" prior to a showing, activate the system
--
that is, clear the
scrambled channel
--
or press a button to utilize two
-
way equipment that
activates the system.

peoplemeter:

A device that is part of an audience measurement system of
Nielsen Media Research. I
ntroduced in 1987, the peoplemeter is used by
about 5,000 selected families. It electronically records which person or
persons in the household are watching a TV channel at a specific time and
replaces the handwritten diary system.

persons using radio (pu
r):

The percentage of the over
-
12
-
year
-
old
population in an area listening to radio at a specific time.

persons using television (put):

The percentage of the over
-
12
-
year
-
old
population in households with television that is watching TV at a specific
time.

phoner:

An interview, as on a radio program, conducted via telephone.

pickup (PU

or

p/u):

The reception of sound or light, or the app
aratus used
for the reception; a place (also called a
remote
), outside the studio where a
program is broadcast or aired; also, the electrical system connecting the
remote to the station.

picture
-
in
-
picture (PIP

or

P.I.P.):

A feature of television sets in
which the
viewer can see one videotape or program inside a small window on the
screen while watching a videotape or another program on the same screen.

pilot:

A sample or prototype broadcast or other proposed project.

planning editor:

The person in the n
ews department of a network or major
TV station who arranges for coverage of features or events in the future, not
for today's programs; sometimes called a

feature editor

or

futures editor
.

play on:

A brief musical passage to introduce a performer
--
usuall
y music
associated with the performer, as on a TV program or a variety show;
sometimes hyphenated; music to begin a program or a performance. Playoff
is music to end the performance. In television, a playoff is the last showing
of a film or other program t
hat was purchased for more than one broadcast.

playback:

Reproduction of sounds, images, or other material from a
recording or other source; the control for such reproduction on a recorder or
other device. A playback operator handles the playing of prerec
orded music,
dialogue, or other sound, under the supervision of a production sound mixer
A videotape player or other device that reproduces audio and/or video but
does not record is called a
playback machine
.

pledgathon:

An appeal for contributions or ple
dges conducted on a radio or
TV station, a common fund
-
raising technique on public stations.

plug:

A jack; an electrical device with projecting prongs fitted into an outlet
or to connect circuits. A
phone plug
is a jack commonly used as a
microphone conne
ctor, often with audio amplifiers.

pocketpiece:

A nickname for the Nielsen national TV ratings report, issued
weekly by Nielsen Media Research. The document is small, to fit into an
inside jacket pocket, and is used by TV salespeople.

pod:

A container; a

group. A commercial pod is a group of TV
advertisements, generally bunched together in a two
-
minute pod.

point (pt.):

A unit of measurement of audience size, usually 1 percent.

point of view (POV):

A camera shot seen from or obtained from the
position o
f a performer so that a viewer sees what the performer is seeing.

pool:

The full complement of radio or TV commercials
--
called the
commercial pool
--
available for broadcast at any one time. The development
of commercials to be added to the pool is known as

pooling out
or
filling the
pool
; each new commercial is a

pool partner
.

pool
-
out:

The ending of a TV commercial, often 10 seconds, produced in
several versions so that a basic 30
-

or 60
-
second commercial appears
different.

pop:

An unscripted on
-
the
-
scen
e report, also called a
stand
-
up
, by a TV
reporter; usually live, called a
live pop
.

pop
-
in:

A brief paid announcement on a radio or television program, such as
"Best wishes for a very happy holiday season from your friends at the Mail
-
Rite Company"; also

called
image liner
.

pop
-
off:

A sudden move, such as the quick removal of an object or the
departure of a performer from the scene. A
pop
-
on
is the reverse; a sudden
or quick entry, such as the appearance of a new image in an existing scene of
a film anim
ation or other work.

popping:

Explosive sounds of microphones with high volume or speaker too
close, particularly with a strong consonant such as p.

port:

An opening, such as an air duct, in a
ported microphone
, which
usually has many ports to control its frequency response and pickup pattern.

portapak:

A self
-
contained, portable, battery
-
operated videocassette
recorder.

position (pos.):

The order of appearance.
Top position

is first in a variety
show or other

program or the best place in a sequence.

posthouse:

A company that does postproduction work.

posting:

A service of radio and TV stations in which advertisers are
provided with the actual audience size of specific time periods, instead of
past or project
ed averages, in order to determine the posted, or achieved,
cost of commercials.

postproduction
or

post
-
production:

Referring to the stages after the
principal photography of a film, or other work, including editing, dubbing,
mixing, and printing.

postro
ll:

To continue to play a videotape after an edit point to determine the
quality of the editing.

preamplifier:

An electronic device that controls and selects signals for
intensification (in an amplifier), as in a radio receiver; sometimes shortened
to
pre
amp
.

preempt:

To replace a regularly scheduled program or commercial. A

preemptable
may be sold by a radio or TV station at a reduced rate
(
preemptable rate
); the program or commercial is subject to cancellation
prior to broadcast if another advertiser pa
ys a higher rate or if a pending
news event replaces, or bumps, it.

prefade or pre
-
fade:

To start the final part of a radio or TV program (the

fade
)
--
for example, music
--
at a predetermined time in order to end on time.

preproduction:

The casting, scripting, and other activities prior to actual
filming or production.

prerecord:

To record a TV or radio program prior to broadcast or to record
sound or part of a scene to be inserted later.

prescore
or

pre
-
score:

To compose and/or record

music or other sound
before the dialogue and the visual portion of the film or tape have been
produced.

presentational:

A manner of speaking or looking at a film or TV camera as
if it were the audience.

pressure
-
zone microphone (pzm):

A type of small el
ectrostatic
microphone with a flat base plate, in which sound waves are in phase in its
pressure zone. PZM is commonly mounted on a wall or other surface near
the sound source.

preview
or
prevue (PV):

The promotion of a forthcoming attraction; also
called

trailer
.

preview light:

The green warning light on a TV camera, which indicates
that it is about to transmit.

preview monitor (PV):

A TV screen used by the director to monitor and
select a picture to be used from among shots by various cameras and other

sources.

primary service area:

The major or central area reached by a broadcasting
station, as compared to the outer or fringe area, where the signal is weaker or
erratic.

prime time:

The time period that has the greatest number of viewers or
listeners,

generally 8 to 11 p.m., Eastern Time.

prize broker:

An individual or company that arranges for products or
services to be presented as prizes in contests or giveaways, such as on radio
and TV programs.

producer:

The manager of an event, show, or other w
ork, usually the
individual in charge of finance, personnel, and other nonartistic aspects in
the development of commercials, plays, movies, and other works. In TV, the
producer has more creative responsibilities and control than in the movie
industry; it
is the

associate producer

who is in charge of the business
elements of production.

production assistant (P.A.):

A person who aids a producer, director,
assistant director, or others involved in film or TV production, such as the
person who keeps passersby

from waking into a location shoot.

production associate:

A script supervisor in a taped TV production. The job
includes timing each scene.

production music:

Background and theme music used in broadcasting and
film, often provided by a production music l
ibrary under license.

program coverage:

The number of individuals or households, or the
percentage of a population, that is able to receive a program from one or
more stations.

program delivery rating:

The percentage of households within an area
estimate
d to be tuned in to a radio or TV program at a given moment.

program director (PD
o
r P.D.):

A person in charge of programming at a
radio or TV station.

program effectiveness:

The degree to which a program meets expectations
or achieves anticipated result
s.

program following:

A radio or TV program that follows another on the
same station or network; also called

lead
-
out
.

program opposite:

A TV or radio program that is broadcast on another
network at the same time as a competing program.

program package:

A series of commercials to be broadcast on several
programs of a station or network, offered in combination to an advertiser.

program preceding:

A radio or TV program that precedes another on the
same station or network; also called lead
-
in.

program pro
file:

A chart or graphic summary of audience reaction to a
program in terms of minute
-
by
-
minute viewing levels or other measures; the
demographic or psychographic characteristics of a program's audience.

program separator:

A brief announcement or other tr
ansition in a radio or
TV program before the commercials; also called
bumper
.

program station basis (P.S.B.):

A key system of rating based on the
percentage of radio or TV sets in a coverage area tuned to a program at a
specific time.

program
-
length comm
ercial (PLC):

A 30
-
minute (or other length)
program that is devoted entirely to a commercial. It resembles an
entertainment or information program but is produced by a sponsor, who
purchases the broadcast time.

promo:

Short for promotion (the short
-
form p
lural is

promos
). The term
refers to the overall activity conducted by a radio or TV station, or any
organization, designed to help sell a particular product or service. More
specifically, the word refers to the preliminary advertisement or
announcement of

a radio or TV program, broadcast earlier in the day of the
program or on the preceding day or days.

promotional spot:

A commercial advertising a program, station, or
network.

prompter:

A device to enable speakers and performers to read a script while
looking at the audience or at the camera. In video prompters, the prompter
copy is typed on ordinary 8 1/2" x 11" sheets of paper that are taped to
become continuous rolls, or is typed on r
olls of paper called
computer video
prompters
. In professional prompter systems, the prompter copy then is
scanned by a vidicon camera and transmitted to one or more
prompter/monitor readouts that are mounted on or off a TV camera. The
prompter script can
be superimposed over the taking lens of the TV camera
so that it is visible to the speaker but not transmitted to the home viewer.

pronouncer:

The phonetic spelling of a word, particularly important in
helping announcers pronounce foreign names. The Assoc
iated Press issues a
pronunciation guide twice a day for broadcasters.

PSA
or
P.S.A.:

Public service announcement.

public access:

The availability of broadcast facilities for use by community
interest groups, a key condition of most cable TV franchises.

public access channel:

A channel reserved by a cable company for
community or other public service programs. It is generally available to
nonprofit organizations and others.

public broadcasting:

Nonprofit radio and TV stations that are supported by
indiv
idual subscribers, foundations, government, and other funding sources,
including corporations.

public service advertising:

Time or space provided by a station or a
publication at no charge to non
-
profit organizations. Such advertising is
common in broadca
sting and magazines, less so in daily newspapers.

public service announcement (PSA or P.S.A.):

A message, usually
broadcast free by radio and TV stations. The announcements usually are
provided by government agencies and non
-
profit organizations and are
c
onsidered to be in the public interest.

push technology:

The means of automatically delivering information via the
Internet to a pre
-
selected audience through audience members’ Web servers.

PUT:

Persons using television, the number of viewers watching te
levision
programs during a time period, expressed as the
PUT
-
level
.



Q
-
rating:

A qualitative evaluation of performers, companies, brands, and
TV programs, a technique developed by Marketing Evaluations, Inc., of Port
Washington, NY.

quad split:

A TV swi
tching effect to produce four different images on the
screen at the same time.

quarter
-
hour persons:

Individuals who have listened to a radio station for
at least five minutes during a 15
-
minute period.



radio wire:

News reports, prepared in terse broad
cast style, provided on
teletype machines and computers by wire services, such as The Associated
Press, to radio stations.

raster:

A single image field or single TV frame, the scanned illuminated
area of a TV picture tube.

rating:

The popularity of a pro
gram, abbreviated as RTG. The AA rating is
for Average Audience, which Nielsen expresses in four ways: (1) percentage
of households tuned to a program in an average minute; (2) percentage of all
TV households; (3) share of audience during an average minute

of the
program, expressed as a percentage of all TV households using TV at the
time; and (4) average audience per quarter hour, expressed as a percentage
of all possible TV homes. The key figure is the percentage of all TV
households.

rating point:

The s
ize of a radio or TV audience expressed as a percentage
of the total potential audience.

reach:

The range or scope of influence or effect; in broadcasting, the net
unduplicated radio or TV audience
--
the number of different individuals or
households
--
of pr
ograms or commercials as measured for a specific time
period in quarter
-
hour units over a period of one to four weeks; also called
accumulated audience, cume, cumulative audience, net unduplicated
audience
, or
unduplicated audience.


reach and frequency (R
&F
or
R/F):

The unduplicated cumulative
audience
--
individuals or homes
--
of a radio or TV program or commercial
and the average number of exposures over a period of time, generally one to
four weeks.

reaction shot:

A shot of a person in a film or tape showing a response to
action or words in the preceding shot.

reality programming:

Programming that is based on current events, such as
a documentary.

reax:

Reaction; a direction for a reaction shot, a common abbrevia
tion in TV
news.

record:

To make a copy of video or audio on a video or audio machine. A
recording can be from a camera original, a transfer of a camera original, or
any other source of picture or sound.

recording supervisor:

A person in charge of sound
recording on a set or on
location (but not in a recording studio, where it is handled by a recording
engineer); also called a floor mixer or recordist.

record master:

The record tape that is used in an editing session.

red field:

A video test signal in w
hich the screen appears entirely or mostly
in a red color.

red light:

The warning light over a door of a studio indicating that it is in
use; a light on a TV camera indication that it is in use.

remote:

A broadcast from a place other than the station's s
tudio, often
transmitted from a remote truck or van; also called
remote pickup, pickup,
field pickup, outside broadcast
, or

remo
.

reporter:

A person who gathers news and other journalistic material and
writes or broadcasts it
--
the basic job in journalism. A
street reporter

works
outside the studio and an
on
-
air reporter

is shown on camera, either from
outside the studio or within it, whereas
an
anchor

is in the studio.

residual:

A payment to performers
--
talent
--
in broadcast programs or
commercials for use beyond the original contract, according to a formula
developed by AFTRA, S.A.G., or another union; also called a
talent
payment, re
-
use fee
, or

S.A.G. fee.


return monitor:

A TV screen linked to a TV camera, so that an interviewee
or broadcaster in one studio, for example, can see the interviewer or anchor
in another studio. Ordinarily in such situations, the interviewee only can hear
the int
erviewer.

ripomatics:

A TV commercial made by an advertising agency or other
producer as a demonstration, made from parts of actual commercials (ripped
off) and not for broadcast use.

roll:

A reel or spool of tape, film, paper, or other material; to move
, revolve,
or play a film or tape; the vertical movement of a film or TV picture. A
roll
-
in

is the insertion
--
cut
-
in
--
of a commercial into a program.

roll focus:

A direction to begin or end a scene out of focus, simply by
adjusting the lens while filming
or taping.

rolling title:

Credits that roll up from the bottom of the screen; also called a
crawl title, creeping title
, or

running title.


rollover:

The vertical movement, or roll, of a TV or film picture, the flutter
or lack of vertical synchronization;

a repeat of a radio or TV program
immediately following the first broadcast.

roser:

See rosr.

rosr:

Radio on
-
scene report, which features a reporter's voice from a news
scene, generally without background sound.

rostrum camera:

An adjustable camera com
monly used in TV and film
animation to shoot artwork or other graphics on a table or other horizontal
surface.

rotation:

The random scheduling of commercials at unspecified times.

routing room:

A room in a TV station with a wall of monitors on which are
shown live feeds of remote transmissions for routing to tape decks or for
broadcast.

rover:

A portable camera, particularly the Sony Portapack.

run up:

Film or videotape shown before the projector or recorder is running
at full speed.

rundown:

A summary
; a schedule of scenes in a production or segments of
a program; also called
rundown sheet
or

timing sheet.


running shot:

A shot in which the camera moves to follow a moving
subject.

running time:

The time from the start to the end of a program, segment,

or
commercial, or the minutes it takes to show a movie.

run
-
of
-
station (ROS):

An instruction to broadcast a commercial anytime
during a station's schedule.



saddle:

The time slot or position of a weak program that is scheduled
between two popular programs. The positioning procedure is called

hammocking
, an attempt to increase the audience of the middle program, so
that it will become as popular as the programs in the

outside, or tent
-
pole,
positions.

safety:

The outer area, of safety area, of a television film or tape, often
eliminated and not visible on the screen of a TV set. Broadcasters therefore
confine text and action to the centered area
--
about 90 percent
--
cal
led the
safe
-
action area
.

sales department:

The department at a radio or TV station that solicits and
accepts advertising.

satellite:

A relay station for audio and video transmission, orbiting in space
or terrestrial. A
satellite station

is a radio or TV

station used as a relay,
broadcasting on the same or a different wavelength as the originating station.
Almost all communications satellites are synchronous satellites that hover in
the same place in the sky, 22,300 miles above the earth, in stationary or
bit.
A
satellite loop

is a sequence from a satellite, such as cloud movement in a
TV weather report.

satellite feed:

A transmission from a satellite. HBO and other broadcasters
have east and west satellite feeds, three hours apart, so that a program can b
e
shown at the same time in the Eastern and Pacific time zones.

satellite hit:

Slang for a TV program that is successful because it follows a
very popular program.

satellite media tour (SMT):

Several interviews, generally on TV but
sometimes in other med
ia, during a specific period, such as one hour, which
a celebrity or spokesperson in one location is interviewed via satellite by
journalists elsewhere; also called a satellite tour or satellite press tour.

satellite news
(or
newsgathering
)

vehicle (SNF):

A van or other vehicle
with equipment for radio and/or TV transmission via satellite to a radio or
TV station, usually including tape editing equipment and cellular phone; also
called a

star truck
.

saturation:

Sufficient coverage and/or frequency, via ad
vertising or other
techniques, to achieve maximum impact; an intense color or degree of purity
of a color (its freedom from dilution by white or darkening by black).

scan:

To move a beam of light or electrons over a surface to reproduce an
image, as in pr
inting or television. The TV system in the United States is
based on a scanning time or rate of 1/60 of a second for each traverse, or
movement, of a beam across the TV screen. Scanning frequency is the scan
lines per second scanned in a TV picture tube; i
n the United States, it's 525
lines x 30 frames, of 15,750. In
overscanning
, the TV picture is expanded
and its edges are lost. In
underscanning
, the TV picture does not occupy the
entire screen. A scan is one sweep of the screen or of the target area in a

camera tube.

scanning area:

The part that the camera actually sees. It is larger than the
essential area
, or
safe
-
action area
, which is the central part of the picture
received and seen on the TV set.

scatter:

The scheduling of commercials throughout a broadcast schedule
rather than at specific times, such as rotating throughout the day or night or
both; also called
scatter plan
or

scatterbuying.


schedule:

A list of consecutive programs.

scoop:

A light with a

shovel
-
shaped reflector, generally a circular floodlamp
of 500 watts or more, used in films and TV; sometimes called a basher.
Scoops are the most commonly used floodlights in TV, particularly those
with an 18
-
inch
-
diameter reflector and a 1000
-
watt lamp.


SCR dimmer:

A silicon
-
controlled rectifier used in lighting control in TV.

script:

The text of a speech, play, film, commercial, or program or simply a
schedule or sequential account written by a scriptwriter.

scroll:

A roll, especially for a document;

a function on a video screen in
which the lines move up and down for viewing. The process is called
scrolling
. To
scroll up

or
down

is to move the material up or down on the
screen.

search engine:

A tool for searching information on the Internet by topic
.
Popular search engines include Yahoo!, Hotbot, InfoSeek, and Alta Vista.

season:

A period in the fall when new TV programs are introduced by the
networks. Originally 39 weeks (from the days of network radio programs),
the season now refers to the fall s
eason of 13 weeks. Mid
-
season is between
the fall and spring seasons or any time after the beginning of the fall season
when a show is replaced (a mid
-
season replacement). A full
-
season show
generally contains only 24 episodes; the balance are reruns.

sec
ond:

A unit of time. A 60
-
second TV segment or commercial is written
as :60, called a sixty.

second season:

A period after January when unsuccessful network
television programs are replaced or rescheduled and new programs are aired.
In recent years, these

schedule changes have been increasing to the point
where as many are made prior to January as after, almost making the term
obsolete.

second unit:

A secondary or backup group, such as a film or TV production
crew on location.
The filming or taping generally is supervised by a
second
-
unit director
.

segment report:

In TV news, a series, generally over a five
-
day period (a
five
-
parter
) and usually on a major topic or issue, such as an investigative
report; also called a mini
-
docu
mentary.

segue:

To make a transition from one action, scene, or musical selection
directly to another without interruption; pronounced SEG
-
way, from the
Italian sequire, "to follow."

sequence:

A series of single shots to form a unit or episode. A basic
s
equence in film or TV is a series of related shots, such as a long shot as an
opening and establishing shot and a medium shot as a close
-
up and
reestablishing shot. To shoot in sequence is to film in the chronological
order of the story or the order in whi
ch the production schedule is set up; the
opposite is to shoot out of sequence. A
sequence shot

or
plan
-
sequence

is a
single shot, generally a

long take

of a minute or more.

set:

The decor of a stage play or the location of a film, TV, or other
production
. To set is to write or fit, as with words to music or music to
words; to place a scene in a locale, or to arrange sceneries or properties on a
stage. A
set designer

or

set decorator

creates the decor of a play, movie, or
show; a
set dresser

constructs and

decorates it with set dressing
--
props,
furnishings, and related items. An

abstract set

has a neutral background, as
on a TV news program. A
basic set

is empty and without props.

set day:

The day scheduled to erect a set in a film or TV studio; also calle
d

build day
or

setup day.


set
-
and
-
light:

A director's instruction to a film or tape crew to prepare for
shooting.

set
-
in:

A command to enter an edit at the beginning of a section of
videotape.

set
-
out:

A command to enter an edit at the end of a section
of videotape.

sets in use (SIU):

A percentage of households with radio or TV receivers, or
sets, turned on at a specific time, as expressed by a sets
-
in
-
use rating or tune
-
in rating.

set
-
up box:

A container above or adjacent to a television set that cont
rols
the cable channels, VCR,and other functions.

shader:

A nickname for a video control engineer, who is in charge of video
but not audio; sometimes called a
shaker
.

shaky cam:

Slang for a film or TV segment made by a hand
-
held (hence,
shaky) camera, su
ch as a minicam.

share (SH):

Share
-
of
-
audience: the percentage of the total audience in a
specific time period tune to a program or station.

shared identification:

A commercial spot with the name of the station or
program superimposed on part of it; also

called
shared I.D.


shoot:

A session at which performances are filmed, especially on location
instead of in a studio (to go on a shoot or to a shoot); to film, photograph, or
record such a session or any scene; an instruction to start the camera. To
overs
hoot is to shoot too much footage; to undershoot is to shoot too little. A
shooter

is a photographer.

shooting script:

A script for a film or TV production.

shootoff:

A piece of cloth that covers microphones, luminaires, or other
devices, or serves as sc
enery, such as foliage; usually called a
border.


shot box:

An instrument panel attached to or part of a TV camera with
control push buttons for zoom and other lens changes.

shoulder brace:

A support for a film or TV camera to hold it on the
shoulder of the operator; also called
shoulder pad
.

show runner:

An unofficial title for a key person at a television drama or
sitcom who supervises all aspects of the production, including writing and
casting; the official title usually is executive producer.

Sigma:

A system of Nielsen Media Research to track actual broadcasts of
TV commercials, PSAs, and video news releases by stamping them with an
invisible code, which is then read by decoders in all

major markets.

sign off
or

sign
-
off:

A slang term for the end or an ending; the end of a
transmission, or of a station's broadcast day.

sign on
or

sign
-
on:

The beginning of a transmission or the day's
programming on a broadcast station.

signal:

An electrical impulse representing sound, image, or a message
transmitted or received in radar, radio, telegraphy, telephone, television, or
other means, via wire or in the atmosphere.
Signal area

is the territory
within which broadcast signals are receiv
ed.

Signal strength

is its intensity.
A
signaler

transmits or communicates to a receiver.

silks:

Screens used for lighting and shading.

simulcast:

A broadcast of a program at the same time on a television station
and a radio station or on two radio stati
ons, generally one AM and one FM.

single
-
camera production:

The shooting of a program with one camera (as
opposed to using multiple cameras).

sister station:

Radio or TV stations owned by the same company.

sitcom:

Situation comedy, a humorous TV show fe
aturing the same
characters on each program, generally once a week.

slant track:

A videotape on which the signal is recorded diagonally
--
on a
slant
--
in adjacent strips, as in a helix or spiral; also called
helical scan
.

slate:

A typed sheet on a videotap
e with identifications and other
information.

slot:

The location of a program, announcement, news item, interview, or
commercial on a broadcast schedule. Communication satellites are
positioned
--
parked
--
in orbit in slots two or more degrees apart.

slow d
own:

A broadcasting and theatrical signal to slow down action or to
talk more slowly. It is conveyed by a movement of one's hands, as in pulling
taffy.

slow news day:

A day with relatively little hard news, or news of
consequence; also called a

light news

day
. The opposite is
heavy news day
(not

fast news day
)
.


slug:

A section of blank film or tape that separates news stories or
sequences.

snake:

A cable that combines several cables, as on a stage or in a studio. A
mike snake

has several microphone conne
ctors.

snow:

Fluctuating spots on a television screen resulting from a weak signal.

soap opera:

A dramatic serial TV program, originally sponsored on radio
mainly by Procter & Gamble and other soap companies; also called a

soap,
soaper
, or

daytime drama

(because they originated during the day).

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE):

An
association in White Plains, NY, of engineers and technicians in film,
television, and related fields. SMPTE standards include the SMPTE time
code, an

8
-
digit number that specifies, on each videotape, the hour, minute,
second, and frame number.

S.O.T.:

Sound
-
on
-
tape: sound and video recorded on the same machine, as
distinguished from sync
-
sound recording with separate video and sound tape
recorders.

s
ound:

The programming format or orientation of a radio station. A sound
engineer is responsible for the audio portion of a broadcast. The sound
-
effects person, generally called a sound man, is responsible for the sound
effects, or sounds other than music a
nd human voices, abbreviated as S.E. or
S.F.X. Direct sound is from a source onscreen, as compared to offscreen
sound, whose source is offscreen.

sound effects (SE, S.E., SFX,

or

S.F.X.):

Animals, traffic, weather, and
sounds other than dialogue and music
, produced from an actual source or
artificially.

soundbite:

The audio track of a portion of a radio or TV interview. A 15
-
second soundbite is common radio newscasts.

sounder:

A brief musical or sound effects sequence for network or station
identificatio
n.

sparklies:

A type of noise picked up by a TV receiver due to a weak signal,
consisting of black
-
and
-
white dots that are sharper than the more common
snow,

or
soft dots.


special:

A single radio or television show that replaces regularly scheduled
progr
amming; a one
-
shot.

special feature:

Weather, traffic, and stock
-
market reports, or other
broadcasts of particular interest that may be sold at a higher advertising rate
than run
-
of
-
station.

speed up:

A signal to a performer to talk more rapidly. The nonverbal
speed
-
up signal is both hands rotating in a circular motion.

spider box:

A small, portable receptacle for several electrical outlets, such
as for lighting units; also called a junction box.

spl
ice:

To join together, electronically or mechanically, with glue, heat, or
tape. The connection itself is called a splice.

sponsor:

A broadcast advertiser who pays for part or all of a program. The
word now is used to indicate any broadcast advertiser, in
cluding a sponsor of
an individual spot or commercial.
Sponsor identification

(S.I.) is the
announcement at the beginning and/or end of a sponsored program or one
with several participating sponsors. A single sponsor may own the program
(sponsored programm
ing) and seek sponsor identification with the program
or performers on the program. A
presenting sponsor
is a major advertiser
whose name is used as part of the title, such as "(Co.) presents." A
title
sponsor

has the name of the sponsor as part of the name of the program or
event.

spot:

Advertising time purchased on an individual basis as compared to a
multistation network or other national purchase. The broadcast commercial
itself is called a spot or
spot an
nouncement.
News items, public service
messages, and segments of a program also are called spots. The
first spot

opens a show; the last spot closes it. A
wild spot

is a spot announcement of a
national or regional advertiser used on station breaks between pr
ograms on a
local station. A
spot carrier

is a syndicated program available to several
advertisers.

Spot programming
, or
spotting
, is the purchase of time by spot
buyers from local stations as indicated on a spot schedule, or list of spots,
which is so ext
ensive that local station advertising in general is called spot or
spot sales

on
spot radio

or

spot TV
. Spots purchased on network programs
are called
network participation

or
network spot buy
. A
spot program
is a
local broadcast.

spotter:

A person who lo
oks for something, such as an assistant to an
announcer, particularly a sports announcer, who helps to identify the
participants in a game.

spread:

The part of a program taken up by unplanned material, such as
audience laughter and applause. To spread a p
rogram or sequence is to
stretch it to consume more time.

squeeze:

Slang for a visual inserted in a window or on the screen, generally
to the right of a newscaster to identify the subject of a news report. It is more
commonly called a

topic box.


stagger
-
through:

A first TV rehearsal with camera.

standards and practices:

A broadcasting network department that reviews
programming and commercials for adherence to moral code and other self
-
regulation. At an individual station, this function generally is call
ed
Continuity Acceptance.

standby:

A person or thing ready for use as a substitute, usually on an
emergency basis.
Standby weather

is a script used by an anchor or
announcer when the prompter fails or the feed from the weather reporter
fails.

standby gue
st:

A person who is available to be interviewed should there be
a cancellation of a scheduled interviewee on a program.

standing set:

A set that has been constructed and is ready to be used or is in
place for continued use, as in a TV soap opera or a thea
trical production.

stand
-
up:

An on
-
site TV report or interview, as compared to in
-
studio.

standupper:

A report at the scene of an event with the TV camera focused
on the reporter, who is standing up and not seated. In a
walking standupper
,
the reporter m
oves.

station (sta.
or

STN):

A broadcasting facility. Broadcasting stations include
original and relay, AM and FM radio, UHF and VHF television, commercial
and public, and other types, supervised by a
station manager

and presenting
a
station format
, the d
etails of which are recorded in a
station log
. The
station's call letters, or number and location
--
its identification or I.D.
--
are
broadcast at a
station break

between programs or sequences A station's
advertising time may be sold by a
station representati
ve

or rep. A station
-
produced program is one prepared by the station and not by a network or
other source. A
station lineup

is a group of stations that broadcasts a
particular program or commercial campaign. A
station promo

is a
promotional announcement ma
de by a station on its own behalf or for an
advertiser but at no cost.
Station time

is the period for local or non
-
network
broadcasting.

step deal:

An arrangement by which a proposed TV series or other project is
developed and submitted in stages, subject

to revocation at any stage.

still store:

An electronic memory unit
--
storage or store
--
for retaining single
"visuals," such as graphics and photos used in newscasts. A
still store
supervisor

is in charge of this function.

stills:

Slang for the still phot
ographers of the print media, as when TV crews
shout, "Down stills!," a request to still photographers at a media event to
stoop down so that the TV cameras, generally behind them, can "catch the
action."

stop set:

A period of time, generally two minutes,

during which
commercials are broadcast.

storyboard:

A series of illustrations (
storyboard sketches
) or layouts of
scenes in a proposed TV commercial or other work, used as a guide prior to
production. A
storyboard artist
does storyboarding; also called a
production
illustrator

or

sketch artist
.

straight up:

A broadcast signal, such as to an announcer, to start when the
clock's second hand is at 12; not the same as stand
-
up.

stream:

Data, in the form of an encoded text, a
udio and/or video, that is
requested by a computer user and delivered via the Internet.

stripe:

The process of recording a time code onto a videotape.

stripping:

Preparing a series for reruns and syndication by reducing
--
stripping
--
or editing the program
s, generally to permit more commercial
time.

studio camera:

A full
-
size camera with sound insulation and other
accessories used to film or tape in a sound stage or studio.

studio
-
transmitter link (STL):

A microwave radio system for audio and
video transm
ission from a studio to a transmitter site. The STL band is the
frequency assigned for transmission between a TV studio and its transmitter.

stunting:

The use of unusual techniques to develop audiences or customers,
such as starting the TV season with a t
wo
-
hour episode of a program that
regularly lasts 30 or 60 minutes or broadcasting a new program in a series at
a more favorable time than the time at which the subsequent programs will
be shown.

submaster:

A copy of an original tape, usually made as a backup in case the
master is damaged or lost, also called a safety.

subscription television (STV):

Pay television, in which subscribers, or
viewers, pay a monthly fee, as for HBO.

subtitle:

A superimposed ca
ption at the bottom of the TV screen.

superimposition (super):

Placing one image on top of another, such as a
slide superimposed on the image received from a television camera. A super
may be used for a local station insert within a national telecast or t
he
addition of a local retailer identification at the end of or within a commercial
for a national sponsor. A
superboard
or
superslide

is a board or slide printed
in reverse, with white or light
-
colored lettering on a dark surface, for
superimposition on a

televised scene, generally for explanation. A
super
-
imp
is a composite image created by the superimposition of one camera image
over another. The camera command to achieve this is simply "super" or,
more often, "super!"
Super in sync

is a superimposition,

such as a slide,
synchronized with sound.
Lower
-
third super

refers to text superimposed on
the lower third of the video screen, the most common place for titles. To

lose
the super

is a direction to fade out the superimposed picture.

superstation:

A local

TV station transmitted via satellite to cable systems in
many markets. The word was coined and copyrighted by WTBS
-
TV.

surfing:

The rapid changing of TV channels with a remote control, akin to
the sport of surfing (fast movement on water); also called gr
azing.

survey week:

The week in which a station's audience is monitored and
rated.

sustaining program:

A nonsponsored broadcast, generally a public service.

sweep:

A period of the year in November, February, May, and July when
rating services measure st
ation audiences. During sweeps, networks and
stations employ more sensational programming and audience contests and
promotions. A
sweeps report

is published by a research organization such as
Nielsen for each sweep month. Also, the repetitive movement of t
he cathode
beam over the phosphor screen of the two sweeps, one traces horizontal lines
and the other moves vertically at a slower rate.

switch:

A direction to move or change, as from one camera or video source
to another or to change camera angles. The d
evice (video mixer) or person
(studio engineer) responsible for camera mixing or switching is called a
switch or
switcher
. Switching is the selection process among the various
audio and video sources in a production.



T1:

A high
-
speed Internet connection
, allowing transfer rates of 1.5 Mbps
(megabytes per second).

T3:

Even faster than T1, a T
-
3 connection transfers information over the
Internet at a rate of 45 megabytes per second.

tabloid
-
style tv program:

A program that uses the popular style of
combi
ning news and features associated with tabloid newspapers; also called

tabloid TV.


take it away:

A broadcast
-
engineering cue, such as "Take it away New
York," indicating a transition to a studio or location in New York.

take rate:

In pay
-
per
-
view televis
ion, the percentage of subscribers who
purchase the specific programs offered during a particular period, generally
a month.

take
-
bar:

A device that records and stores cuts, mixes, and other effects and
then automatically produces them from memory for use

in editing when a
bar is pressed.

talent coordinator:

A person who auditions and schedules performers and
guests on TV talk shows, the equivalent of a casting director in films.

talk:

A radio station format featuring interview programs, call
-
ins and
sports, and not music; also called
talk radio
.

talk set:

Conversation between recordings.

talk show set:

An arrangement of chairs at a meeting or on a TV program in
which the host's desk
is perpendicular to the chairs of the speakers; also
called the
Johnny Carson setup
after Johnny Carson (b. 1925), the host of
the NBC
-
TVAA program, The Tonight Show.

talkback:

A brief sequence at the end of a live remote news report in which
the anchor a
sks one or more questions of the reporter.

talking head:

A person shown merely speaking, presented in a dull or
unimaginative way.

tally light:

A red light on an active camera; a
cue light

indicating that the
camera is in use.

tape:

To record on audio a
nd/or videotape; a ribbon or band of paper, cloth,
plastic, or other material, such as a magnetic strip for audio or video
recording and playback. Videotape speeds include 1/2" (common for home
use) and 3/4" (for broadcasting).

tape delay system:

On call
-
in radio programs, a procedure used to tape a
phone call and delay it for a few seconds prior to broadcast so that
obscenities can be deleted or the call cut off prior to broadcast.

tape log:

A list of contents or sequences on an audio or videotape.

TBA:

To be announced, used in broadcasting when the name of a program
or other information is not available.

tease:

A bit of news preceding the newscast; an announcement of an
upcoming story to whet interest; also called teaser, come
-
on spot, or hooker.

tech

reqs:

Technical requirements of a TV or other production, pronounced
"tek
-
reks."

technical director (T.D.):

The director of the technical facilities in a
television studio. He or she generally sits next to the director in the control
room and operates the switcher.

TelePrompTer:

A trademarked visual prompting device for speakers and
television performers that
reproduces the current portion of the script in
enlarged letters, originally made by a New York
-
based company no longer
in business. Its device, attached to the TV camera so that performers can
look into the camera, was called a TelePrompTer, which has bec
ome a
generic term for a
teleprompter
, also called a
teleprompt
.

television black:

Not pitch black, with about 3
-
percent reflectance.

television receive
-
only:

In satellite broadcasting, an earth station that can
receive but not transmit, consisting of an

antenna and equipment; commonly
called a
TVRO terminal
or

satellite terminal.


television white:

Not pure white, having about 60
-
percent reflectance (about
60 percent of light is reflected from the TV screen). The TV camera cannot
reproduce pure white or
pure black.

tell story:

A news report read by a radio or TV announcer or reporter
without accompanying tape or film.

telly:

British slang for television.

tent
-
pole:

The time slot or position of a popular program that is preceded or
followed by a weak on
e. In
hammocking
, a weak program is scheduled
between two popular programs, which have the outside or tent
-
pole
positions, in an attempt to bolster it.

terrestrial feed:

Radio, TV, or other transmission via land lines such as
telephone, or direct (without

lines); different from satellite feed.

thirty:

A 30
-
second radio or TV commercial, written as :30.

thread:

1

A delivery mechanism used by an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Forms of threads include phone lines, installed fiber optics, copper wiring
and

coaxial cable.
2

Pertaining to an online chat: an ongoing message
-
based
conversation on a single subject.

three
-
quarter
-
inch:

A video format that is widely used both for broadcast
and industrial productions.

three
-
shot
or

three shot:

A film or TV pictur
e of three performers,
generally from the waist up, as at a news desk.

tight on:

An instruction to a television camera operator for a close shot of a
specific person or object, as in "tight on (name of performer)"; also called
close on.


tight two shot:

A

direction to a TV camera operator for close
-
up of the
heads of two people.

tilt:

A direction to move a camera up or down; a
vertical pan
.

time:

The period available for a program or commercial. A
time buyer

purchases broadcast time, perhaps with a

time contract
and at a
time
discount
, a reduced price for quantity and/or frequency, from a
time card

that indicates a different
time charge

for each
time class

or classification
(such as prime time or drive time) or
time slot
(a specific time period). Th
e
time may come from a
time bank

(a reserve of spot commercial time, often
obtained by barter) via a time buying service. To
clear time

is to make time
available, as for a program or commercial.

time base correction (TBC):

A process of filling out, or cor
recting, the
electronic lines that make up a video image; minimizes or eliminates jiggling
of the picture.

time code:

A digitally encoded signal that is recorded on videotape in the
format of house:minutes:seconds:frames.

time signal:

An announcement of
the time, as on a broadcast, indicated with
a beep, sometimes accompanied by a commercial announcement; also called
a
time check
. A producer or other person in radio or TV program production
gives a time signal to indicate the time remaining in a program o
r program
segment by displaying a card with the number of minutes or raising the
appropriate number of fingers.

time slot:

A period in a schedule, as a program scheduled 7:30 to 8 p.m. or
an interview in the 8:05 to 8:15 portion of a program.

time
-
coding
:

The recording of the date and time on the edge of a videotape
as it is being shot, to assist in editing and record keeping.

toaster:

A visual effects device platformed on an Amiga computer that can
perform switcher effects and create digital video effec
ts.

to be announced (TBA):

A term commonly used in broadcasting when the
name of a program or other information is not currently available.

tone:

The musical sound that indicates a precise time, identified by an
announcement such as, "At the tone, the ti
me will be 7:30."

tones and bars:

A test pattern that precedes a TV program, consisting of
sound tones and color bars or stripes.

top:

The beginning, as in top of the script or top of the story. Thus, a film,
tape, or reel starts at the top and ends at t
he bottom.

top forty:

A radio
-
station format playing the most current 40 most
-
popular
records
--
or tapes
--
as determined by Billboard magazine or other trade
sources; also called
contemporary hit radio
. Some stations broadcast
programs, generally weekly, wi
th the top 10, top 20, or other selections of
current hit records or tapes.

topic box:

A visual inserted in a window
--
a box
--
on the screen, generally to
the right of a newscaster, to identify the subject of a news report; also called
a
box, frame squeeze,

or

theme identifier.


toss:

One or more words spoken by a newscaster in a newscast that serves as
a transition to a colleague, such as a reference to the forthcoming news
report and/or the colleague's name; for example, "And now for a report on
just how hot it really was today, here
's Frank Field." A

split story toss

is a
reading of part of a news report by one newscaster followed by a
continuation of the same story by another.

track:

A part of a reporter's narration from outside the studio, with each
track numbered to precede each
section of the interview or "activity," so that
track 1 is the introduction, track 2 is between the first and second bites, and
track 3 precedes the third bite.

tracking:

Following a path; monitoring. An example is the targeting of a
signal source, such a
s of a communications satellite by a tracking station and
the following of that source in a process called a

lock
-
on
. Also, the
adjustment in a VCR of the videotape playback position against the video
reel heads.

traffic department:

A department that main
tains production schedules to
keep work "moving" on schedule. The traffic department in a radio or TV
station, headed by the traffic manager or traffic director, maintains the daily
broadcast log. In the news operation of a network or major station, the
pe
ople who pick up and ship tapes and handle other materials sometime are
called the traffic department.

trailer:

A short, blank strip at the end of a reel of tape; a promotional
announcement at the end of a radio or TV program about a forthcoming
program;
a commercial attached to the end of a program or another
commercial.

translator:

A station that rebroadcasts signals of other stations and does not
originate its own programming. There are about 7000 translators in the
United States, including FM, VHF, an
d UHF.

transmission:

The actual sending or beaming of the audio/video portion of
the program from point to point.

transponder:

A receiver that transmits signals when activated by a specific
signal. For example, a satellite transponder picks up signals fr
om the earth,
translates them into a new frequency, amplifies them, and transmits them
back to earth. The word originates from transmitter and responder.

TST:

Total Story Time; in broadcasting, the time in minutes and seconds of
a "story" or report, from
the start by the announcer or newscaster to the end,
including any tape or other material within it. TRT, Total Running Time,
refers to the time of the taped portion of the TST.

TTSL:

Total Time Spent Listening. In radio, the TTSL is the number of
quarter
-
hours of listening to a radio station by the population group being
measured, such as the market or listening area. The TTSL divided by the
cumulative audience equals the Time Spent Listening (TSL).

tune in:

To adjust a radio or TV receiver to receive si
gnals at a particular
frequency. The tune
-
in audience
--
the number of listeners or viewers
intentionally tuned in to a particular network, station, program, or
commercial
--
is measured in various ways.
Tune
-
in advertising time

or
space

may be purchased to pr
omote interest among listeners or viewers.

tunnel radio:

Broadcasting only in tunnels to car radios, a system now
operating in several cities.

turnaround:

Receiving a signal from one satellite and re
-
broadcasting it to
another.

turnover:

The frequency w
ith which a program's audience changes over a
period of time, the ratio of the net unduplicated cumulative audience over
several time periods to the average audience for one time period; also known
as
audience turnover
, a measure of the program's holding power.

TV black:

In television, a very dark color but not pure, absolute black.

tvf:

A made
-
for
-
television film.

TV pad: