Coping Behavior - New Mexico School Boards Association

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23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 5 mois)

182 vue(s)

IMPROVING SCHOOL BOARD RELATIONS
THROUGH THINKING STYLES


Scott Childress, Ed.D.


New Mexico Association of School Boards


LEADERS RETREAT


CLOUDCROFT, NEW MEXICO



JULY 17, 2009

This session will introduce participants to a key
explanation on how School Boards can work
together. Thinking styles are the way individuals
solve problems. Everyone uses creativity in
problem solving, but how they use their preferred
thinking style can be a source of conflict. The
Alamogordo Board of Education will demonstrate
how this can be used in conjunction with Five
Stages of Board Development.

Outline

1.
Introductions

2.
Five Stages of School Board Development

3.
Results of Alamogordo Board Teamwork Survey

4.
Adaptor or Innovator

5.
Results of Alamogordo KAI Questionnaire

6.
Kirton Adaptation
-
Innovation Theory

7.
Coping Skills









Board President

Dr. Allan Rickman


Board Vice President

Sue Medina








Board Member


Mike Jones
















Board Secretary

Rhonda Cross

















SPECIAL THANKS TO THESE
ALAMOGORDO BOARD MEMBERS

Board Member

David Ceballes


Board Member

Colonel Michael Stapleton


Superintendent of Schools

Michael Harris


FORMING

ADJOURNING

PERFORMING

NORMING

STORMING


Five Stages of School Board Development


TOTAL
_____




TOTAL
_____




TOTAL
_____




TOTAL
_____



Forming


Stage

Storming


Stage

Norming


Stage

Performing


Stage

This information
is essential
so we can get to the Performing
Stage as quickly as possible.

Analysis of Results of Teamwork Survey


Kirton Adaptation
-
Innovation Inventory

Adaptor
-

Innovator

PEOPLE DO NOT SOLVE PROBLEMS THE SAME WAY


Concerned with resolving problems rather than finding them


Could be said to discover problems and discover avenues
for
solution


Seeks solutions to problems in tried and understood ways


Queries problems' basic assumptions; manipulates problems


Reduces problems by improvement & greater efficiency, with
maximum of continuity and stability


Is catalyst to settled groups, irreverent of their consensual views;
seen as abrasive, creating dissonance





Is catalyst to settled groups, irreverent of their consensual views;
seen as abrasive, creating dissonance


When collaborating: supplies stability, order and continuity to the
partnership.



When collaborating: supplies the task orientations, the break with
the past and accepted theory.



Provides a safe base for riskier operations.



Sensitive to people, maintains group cohesion and cooperation.



Insensitive to people, often threatens group cohesion and
cooperation.

Psychometrics is the field of study
concerned with the theory and
technique of
measurement

of
knowledge, abilities, attitudes,
cognition (
THINKING
)
and personality

traits.





WHAT EXACTLY IS IT WE ARE
DOING?


What human trait is
genetically

determined?



Is readily
apparent

in young children?



Can be reliably
measured

in teenagers?



Does
not change

with age or experience
?



Can be
validated

with a reliable instrument?




Scores can be
normalized

on a bell curve?











Problem
-
Solving
/Thinking Style


Team collaboration and the reduction of conflict

figures largely in
everyone’s life.


For you to have an efficient Board team you need everyone to spend
the greatest effort on the problems at hand
(PROBLEM A) ,


rather than spending a great amount of time & effort
(
ENERGY)

on
problems raised in collaborating!

(PROBLEM B).


KAI will help you to achieve this, by
exposing,

and not allowing a
disparaging, derogatory, or belittling effect
while understanding and
working with differences in thinking style in a group setting
(‘
cognitive
gap
’).





Kirton
Adaptation
-
Innovation

Theory

Management of Change
:


We are problem
-
solvers and we do not resist change.


We
may resist a specific change, but this has more to do with a lack of information

or
a lack
of shared understanding of the problem.


"
Resistance to change
" can often be explained
by the pain of having to let go of an old structure, field, domain or paradigm while still
unsure about the validity of the new one.


Where people do
openly resist a change

it is
usually because they perceive it as someone else's change, not their change and that
someone else is usually of a different creative or problem
-
solving style.


Using the KAI,
Superintendents and Board Members can learn how to work successfully with different
-
thinking colleagues during times of planned or unplanned change.


Management of Diversity
:


Board training and individual development in personal
awareness is very successful in working with diversity of thinking styles.



Kirton
Adaptation
-
Innovation

Theory

Leadership
:


KAI is effective in building and enhancing individual
leadership skills.


Leadership is based on talents and strengths
and KAI stresses that one of the primary tasks of good leadership
is to create an environment in which everybody can work in a way
which builds on their preferred decision
-
making style.


Stress in an
individual usually comes about because this principle is not
respected or even understood.

Group Cohesion and Effectiveness
:


KAI has been used
extensively as a tool to increase group cohesion and effectiveness
through an increased ability to work appropriately with ranges of
individuals who think inside and outside the paradigm (or "inside
and outside the box").


You need both on your Board.

Kirton
Adaptation
-
Innovation

Theory

Only certified users
may administer and interpret the KAI.

Problem Solving and Team Building
:


top management teams,
R & D groups, Marketing departments and Project Management
groups have been made more effective using skills developed
through the KAI. Users: Dupont, Nestles, American Crane, Proctor
and Gamble. Worldwide and in 4 languages.

Kirton
Adaptation
-
Innovation

Theory



Developed by Dr. Michael J. Kirton (kaicentre.com)

The resistance to change
does not depend
on abilities,
knowledge and intelligence of individuals involved;

however it is related to the
creative styles
of individuals and
differences in
thinking styles
.

KAI is extremely useful in
compressing the time
it takes for
individuals and teams to shift perspective.

KAI defines and measures your and your fellow board
members characteristic and preferred style of decision
making and problem solving.


Kirton
Adaptation
-
Innovation

Theory


KAI instrument measures preferred
thinking style and plots them on a
continuum from adaptive to
innovative.



Distribution of scores in large
populations form a normal bell
curve.


KAI Theory and Application



How easy or difficult do you find it to present
yourself, consistently, over a long period as:


Very Very


Hard Hard Easy Easy

1)
A PERSON WHO IS PATIENT
.
--------------------------------------------

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* *


This Continues for 32 Questions and a Total Score is
Calculated


Kirton
Adaptation
-
Innovation
Questionnaire


Kirton Adaption
-
Innovation
Continuum

More
Adaptive

Accept and work within
the problem
definition


Doing things better

More
Innovative

See the definition as part of the
problem


Doing things differently

Agents of
Chan


95


113


77

132


146


59


45


2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%

AGENT OF STABILITY

AGENT OF CHANGE


Thinking styles are
concerned with
form

and not
content (
structure rather than substance
).



Thinking styles deals
with how we
perceive,
think, solve problems, make decisions, learn,
and relate to others
.



KAI does not measure
level

of
creativity or
ability
,
rather how you operationally pursue
thinking during
problem
solving.



Everyone solves problems
creatively.


KAI Theory and Application


Observed scores range from 45
-
146 with mean
at 95
.



High Adaptors are
45
-
77.



Mid
-
Range
-

“Bridgers”

are
78
-
113.



High Innovators
are
114
-
146.


KAI Scales


A
-
I reflects
different approaches
to problem
solving:



BETTER VS DIFFERENT



A
-
I’s
have problems getting along
at the
extreme ranges.



The
mean may vary
but range is usually stable.



KAI Style of Problem Solving



Adaptors
prefer more
structured problem
-
solving methods

and are most comfortable
when
everyone is in agreement
about the
process and the solution
.



Adaptors are also more likely to try to solve a
problem by
working within the current system
as opposed to developing a completely new
one.


KAI Theory and Application


Innovators are
at ease with a
less structured
approach

and
don’t
view a lack of consensus

as
an
obstacle.



Innovators change the
question or redefine
the
problem.



Innovators tend to
look beyond the status quo
for
solutions
.


KAI Theory and Application


Are “innovators” (
new or different idea, method or device)
more
creative? NO!!



Neither style is more creative or better at problem
-
solving
or decision
-
making.



Depending on the situation or problem
, one
style is better fitted.



A team composed of both adaptors and innovators is
the most effective as long
you

understand how to work
together and respect each other’s differences.


KAI Theory and Application

Levels of Performance

Rolf Smith


LEVEL 1:

Effectiveness

DOING the right things

LEVEL 2:

Efficiency

DOING things right

LEVEL 3:

Improving

DOING things better

LEVEL 4:

Cutting

Stop DOING things

LEVEL 5:

Copying

DOING things other people are doing

LEVEL 6:

Different

DOING things no one else is doing

LEVEL 7:

Impossible

DOING things that can’t be done


Style differences of
20 points
or more on the KAI scale
lead to communication
difficulty and
distrust issues.



The more
adaptive

person on the teams will try to solve
the problem meticulously, aided by many details. Also the
more adaptive person will want to apply tried and tested
solutions.



The more
innovative

person will prefer to
redefine the
problem and look at the
big picture. The innovative
person will also
try to
solve the problem by looking at it
from unsuspected angles.


KAI Theory and Application


It is not uncommon for
Board
M
embers
to mistake
differences
in
thinking
style
(
continuum spread
)
for
differences in
capacity
,
ability

or
personality
.



Such misunderstandings can lead to interpersonal conflict
that seriously damages
the
B
oard’s
collaborative

ability.



Board members who
can’t, won’t or
don’t

work
together
rarely develop effective solutions
.




KAI Theory and Application


Characterized by precision, reliability, conformity,
methodical, prudence.



Seeks solutions to problems in tried and understood ways.



Reduces problems by improvement, efficiency, stability,
and group cohesion.



Challenges rules rarely and cautiously.



Produces a few, manageable sound ideas for prompt
implementation.


High Adaptor Problem Orientation


Thinks tangentially (indirectly related), approaches tasks
from unsuspected angles.



Questions problem’s basic assumptions.



Catalyst in settled groups, irreverent of consensual views;
seen as abrasive.



Challenges rules, past practices, group comfort with
established procedures.



Produces many ideas, some risky or unsound
.


High Innovator Problem Orientation


Does Things Better



Seen As Disciplined



Accepts Problem Definition



Makes “Goals” of “Means of the Process”


(Math problem)


Precise, Reliable, Dependable


Adaptor Characteristics


Does Things Differently


Seen As Undisciplined


Challenges Problem Definition


Questions or Disregards “Means”


Unique, Visionary, Ingenious


Innovator Characteristics


A’s collaboration gives
:



Stability
, order
and
continuity


Maintain group cohesion
& cooperation


Add sensitivity to people


Provide safe base for
riskier operations


I’s collaboration gives
:



Shifting and
breaking
with accepted theory


Dynamics to bring about
radical change


New viewpoints to
settled groups & tasks


Questioning
assumptions
and
established
practices


Contributions to Problem Solving

High A’s see High I’s as:



Abrasive


Unsound


Impractical


Self
-
centered


Insensitive


Creating confusion

High I’s see High A’s as:



Dogmatic


Compliant


Stuck in a “rut”


Timid


Conforming


Dealing with Opposites


COPING BEHAVIOR:


B
ehavior
outside one’s preferred style by the MINIMUM
amount of
effort

for the LEAST amount of
time


COGNITIVE GAP:


distance between your own style and the
behavio
r needed
in a particular situation;


distance between your own style and others’
style



A GAP of 10 points
and you’ll notice a
difference



A GAP of 20

points

requires coping behavior


KAI


MAKING IT WORK

COPING BEHAVIOR



This (‘with effort, I can’) is a learned technique
available from
acceptance and understanding
; it
occurs when behavior needs to be in a style not
matching one’s preferred style.




Is available when insight or foresight indicates that it
is needed. The driving force behind its execution is
motive
.




Coping Skills

Coping Behavior



A behavior that is outside one’s preferred style.




It
is measured by distance from preferred style and
by how long is it has to be maintained.



Coping behavior is
learned
; it is a
deliberate
response
to a particular
problem
-
solving process

that
is determined that it will not be solved
unless coping

is evoked
.



Both Adaptors and Innovators must cope.



Coping Coping Skills Skills


Coping Skills


Is this a
fact?



Can it be changed? Do I have control over it? What
thought results from this fact
is in
my mind?


Is this a
thought?



If so, is it a helpful or unhelpful one to me? Can I
change it?


Is this a
feeling?



If so, what thought did it come from? Is this a
pleasant or unpleasant feeling? Do I want to
change it?


Coping Skills

Good coping is active problem solving that has:


OPTIMISM

or an expectation that positive change is
possible


PRACTICALITY

about the kinds of solutions that are
feasible


FLEXIBILITY

in approach to any problem


RESOURCEFULNESS
in finding support or additional
information that helps


With good coping, you do not feel helpless
or

hopeless.


Coping
Behavior


Good leaders ask for minimum coping behavior most
of the time.



Good leaders get offered maximum coping behavior in
a crisis.



A good leader should know enough about his or her
own people to create an environment in which they
can work to their strengths.



Coping
Behavior

ADVANTAGES:


More efficient

Better Optimizer

More predictable

More credible

Better managers of resources
and time and money

More supportive and accepting

More stable

Better at synthesis

Possible less frustrated in
fulfillment of long term life
goals


DISADVANTAGES:


None


Group A: KAI 74
-
93

ADVANTAGES:


Structure

Stability

Predictability

Security

Continuity

Consistency

Dependability

Trust

Probability of Success


DISADVANTAGES:


Lack
of imagination,
innovation

Stagnation

Less long
-
term viability

Cannot function in
unstructured situation



Group B: KAI 94
-
99

ADVANTAGES:


Dependable

Integrated

Well
-
rounded

Versatile

Sensitive

Adaptive

Highly employable

Individualistic

DISADVANTAGES:


None



Group C: KAI 100
-
105

ADVANTAGES:


Positive
thinkers

Versatile


see both points
of view

Self satisfied

Laissez
-
faire

Set goals for adaptors and
innovators

Calculated risk taker


DISADVANTAGES:


None



Group D: KAI 106
-
116

ADVANTAGES:


Can
adapt to both ends

Can manipulate an
adaptive structure

Can be perceived as a
tem member and slip in
innovations

Can bridge between
people at both ends

High probability of
innovative ideas


DISADVANTAGES:


Does not fit it

Determine own agenda
which may not be relevant
to the organization’s
agenda

Difficult to
communicate with
people at both ends

Extra energy required to fit

Only person in office with a
messy desk with practical
applications

Low tolerance of adaptors



Group E: KAI 117
-
125

ADVANTAGES:


Easy
to get noticed in big
organizations

Easy to get along with
people

Can amuse self

Will work day and night on a
problem

Necessary for big changes

Starts many projects

Optimistic

Impatient

Life is not boring


DISADVANTAGES:


Hard
to get
positive recognition
in big organizations

Hard to get along with
people

Get stuff stolen by bosses

Will work
day
and
night on
problem

If

controller” above us, he
makes
life
miserable

Too many of us
do nothing

Not interested in small tasks

Stops once end is seen

Hates
to translate thoughts into
words



Group F: KAI 126
-
137

ADVANTAGES:


Fun
and
adventurous

Change

Openness

Sense of humor

Sarcasm
-
punsters

Laugh at themselves

Wrongness OK

High Energy

Love nature

Perseverance

Emotional

Intuitive




DISADVANTAGES:


Too flexible

Too much variety

Bored too easily

Taking on too much

Contempt for bureaucracy

Impatient

Over critical

Emotional

Hasty



Group G: KAI 138
-
146

Scott Childress, Ed.D.


Scott@ChildressFarm.com


www.ChildressFarm.com


(254) 725
-
6866


3 Credit Hours (CEC)


Team Building