SOCOMUN 2013 Freshman #1 Peacekeeping

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16 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 3 mois)

65 vue(s)

SOCOMUN 20
1
3

Freshman
#
1

Peacekeeping




Hi my name is
Melissa Montes

and I will be your chair for this years SOCOMUN
conference! I am a senior at Santa Margarita and have been doing MUN for 4 years now!
Besides MUN I am a part of the SMCHS Chamber Singers, which is just a fancy way to
say choir, and also perform in our sch
ool plays and musicals. MUN has been one of the
most important things through out my high school career. It has allowed me to grow as a
public speaker and learn many skills required past high school. Along with this comes a
deeper understanding for the
man
y world issues that often go unnoticed
. Through MUN I
have been given the opportunity to travel all around the world and discuss some of the
most prevalent issues in our world today. Some of these places include Santa Barbara,
San Francisco, and London, En
gland. Traveling with MUN allowed for me to learn about
different cultures and the different ways that people view international issues.


I am so excited for all of you to get a taste of what MUN is and am looking
forward to a great conference! If you have

any questions feel free to email me at
socomunfresh1@gmail.com




Background

Peacekeeping began
as a way for the United Nations to
monitor

ceasefires,
stabilize situations around the world, provide support for political efforts and resolve all
conflict peacefully. These missions did not require any armed military
personnel
. Their
roles were primarily observatory rather than action taking. I
n

1948 the UN sent troops
,
for the first time, to the Middle E
ast i
n order to
bring peace to the region as they began
forming the Armistice Agreement between Israel and the surrounding nations. This
mission became known as the UNTSO (
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization
).
In 1956 the first armed mission occurred to address the Suez crisis.
This started a rapid
growth of peacekeepin
g operations. Through out the 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s UN
peacekeepers were sent all around the world to help bring and maintain peace in the most
violent of situations. In 1988 the UN peacekeepers were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
for their work internationally.

After the Cold War ended there was a drastic incr
ease in
the number of peacekeeping volunteers internationally
, from 11,000 to 75,000
.

Due to the
increase in popularity of the United Nations Peacekeepers the expectations grew.
Peacekeepers were sent to places where violence had not been settled, putting
thousands
of them in danger. With no peace to keep, peacekeepers worldwide were unable to meet
the expectations put on to them.
These setbacks in the early 1990’s caused the Security
Council to cut back on peacekeeping missions internationally. With the tu
rn of the

century came reform of the system of peacekeepers.
People around the world had a better
understanding of the limitations that peacekeepers had causing worldviews to change
back from positive to negative. Peacekeepers were again entrusted with gre
ater
responsibilities

in countries trying to gain independence, fight poverty, or in a time of
violence in general.


Through out all of these
years of missions came

many problems and
corruption. Although sent to keep peace in nations of conflict, often pe
acekeepers cause
more damage to innocent civilians.
Sexual abuse, murder, and extortion are some of the
most prevalent issues. There have been 2, 260 cases of sexual abuse through out the
years. This number is increasing at an alarming rate. There have bee
n 213 cases of
murder and 165 cases of extortion. All of these things cause more problems for countries
rather than decrease. The taking advantage of innocent civilians is one of the most severe
problems

with peacekeepers worldwide. The next major issue ma
ny nations have
differing opinions and policies so it is important for you to discuss your countries policy
and stick with it. The three shot rule was put in place to maintain the image of
peacekeepers not being violent
individuals
. This means that an arme
d peacekeeper cannot
shoot unless shot at three times. This, some countries believe, is dangerous for
peacekeepers and puts them in even more danger. These issues and more are some of the
things that should be discussed through out the committee.



Possible
Solutions

Some possible solutions to these problems would be an increase in the monitoring
of peacekeepers
daily ensuring that no harm to innocent civilians occ
urs. The troop
leader, who would go through specific training, would enforce the monito
ring. Each
group of peacekeepers would have a designated person put into place specifically for the
role. These monitors would help in ensuring all troops are accounted for and report all
inappropriate behavior. Funding will not be an issue since any solut
ion passed in
committee will receive funding from the UN. This is just one example of one solution,
however there are many possibilities. Remember to be creative and stay on policy! If you
have any questions feel free to email me.


Questions to consider

1.

W
hat is my countries policy on the three shot rule?

2.

What are some major problems with peacekeepers and how can they be changed?

3.

How can we learn from the history so that the same mistakes are not made again?

4.

Has your country been involved with peacekeeping
in any way?

5.

Does your country have the ability to help or does your country need help?



*You don’t have to
answer these questions directly, they
are just some questions to guide
you in your research process*
















Work

Cited

"France Begins Troop Withdrawal Ahead of UN Peacekeeping Mission in Mali."
The
Independent
. Independent Digital News and Media, 9 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May
2013. <
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/france
-
begins
-
troop
-
withdrawal
-
ahead
-
of
-
un
-
peacekeeping
-
mission
-
in
-
mali
-
8566495.html>.


Global Policy Reform. "Peacekeeping."
Global Policy Reform
. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May
2013. <http://www.globalpolicy.org/secu
rity
-
council/peacekeeping.html>.


"History of Peacekeeping. United Nations Peacekeeping." UN News Center. UN, n.d.
Web. 06 Sept. 2012.
<http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/history.shtml>.


Lederer, Edith M. "The Big Story."
The Big Story
. N.p., n.
d. Web. 04 May 2013.
<http://bigstory.ap.org/article/un
-
expected
-
approve
-
un
-
peacekeepers
-
mali>.


"Peacekeeping Operations. United Nations Peacekeeping."
UN News Center
. UN, n.d.
Web. 09 Sept. 2012. <
http
://
www
.
un
.
org
/
en
/
peacekeeping
/
operations
/>.


Rogers, Simon, and Mona Chalabi
. "UN Peacekeeping Missions: Who Provides the Most
Troops."
The Guardian
. Guardian News and Media, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 04 May
2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/interactive/2013/apr/30/un
-
peacekeeping
-
missions
-
mapped>.


"Security Council Expecte
d to Approve New UN Peacekeeping Force to Help Stabilize
Mali."
Fox News
. FOX News Network, 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 02 May 2013.
<http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/04/25/security
-
council
-
expected
-
to
-
approve
-
new
-
un
-
peacekeeping
-
force
-
to
-
help/>.


"United Nations Peacekeeping."
UN News Center
. UN, n.d. Web. 09 Sept. 2012.
<
http
://
www
.
un
.
org
/
en
/
peac
ekeeping
/>.



United Nations. "United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Guidelines."
Pbpu
. United
Nations, n.d. Web. 2 May 13.
<http://pbpu.unlb.org/pbps/library/capstone_doctrine_eNg.pdf>.


Usden, Rebecca. "GGI: History of United Nations P
eacekeeping."
Global Governance
Institute
. N.p., 2012. Web. 2 May 13.
<http://www.globalgovernance.eu/index.php/p
-
s
-
publications/270
-
ggi
-
factsheet
-
history
-
of
-
un
-
peacekeeping.html>.