The World of Androids

pillowfistsIA et Robotique

13 nov. 2013 (il y a 8 années et 3 mois)

403 vue(s)

The World of Androids

Presented by:

Shipra Gupta

CSC 650


Brief introduction of robots & their history

Advent of androids

Issues and challenges

Dealing with challenges

Approach of their working

Detailed examples

Some in
process android projects

Popular androids and main industries using them

Advantages of androids

Future and fears of androids

What is a Robot?

Common Definition:

A programmable machine that imitates the

actions or appearance of an intelligent creature

usually a human.

Should be able to do two things:

Get information from its surroundings

Do something physical

Modern industrial robots have been around for less than 50

First programmable Robot was developed in 1954 by

George Devol


Coined the name of the first Robot Company, “Unimation”.

Since then they are:


Painting cars at Ford plants


Assembling Milano cookies for Pepperidge Farms


Driving trains in Paris


Defusing bombs in Northern Ireland

The RUR Robot

Robot comes from
the Czech word


Described fabricated workers in
a fictional 1920s play called
Rossum’s Universal Robots

During early studies of literature and fiction, Asimov stated 3 laws:

A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a

human being to come to harm

A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where

such orders would conflict with the First Law

A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does

not conflict with the First or Second Law

(A zeroth law was added later as an extension of Law 1)

The World of Androids

Basis of Androids

High demand to do tedious and dangerous tasks

Advent of faster and cheaper processors

Make robots move and "think" to look more like humans

Psycological factors

These facts have gave birth to


An android is an anthropomorphic robot


Looks like a human


Known as "humanoids"

The World of Androids


Had a limb control system, a vision system, and
a conversation system.

Could communicate in Japanese.

Measured distances and directions

Walked with his lower limbs

Gripped and transported objects

First Android: WABOT
1 by Waseda University (1973)

Development Issues

Design challenges

The need to coordinate sensors and artificial muscle

Intelligent programming

Efficient use of power

Operational Challenges

Need to create complex robot step


Develop separate technologies and integrate them together

Not foolproof to operate

Difficult to program a robot to walk

To rely upon built
in operating systems to run

To be designed for a novice user

Lack of sufficient funds

Dealing with the Challenges

Severe shortcomings of contemporary approach leads to:

Inventions of newer concepts of development

Used to “fight the establishment”

Solve many serious problems

Gains followers

General ideas followed to deal with the challenges are:

More software innovations required

Move to cell manufacturing systems

Develop new programming language

Design new operating system if required

Approach towards their Working

Use of rule
based logic in robotic "brains” (eg. Aibo, the pet dog)


Program vast amounts of information

Neural networks is another approach to artificial intelligence (eg. Kismet)


Work more like human brain


Can handle ambiguity better than rule
based systems.


Feature of "learning"

a helpful tool to add more human
like behaviors.

response mechanism (also known as subsumption
architecture, eg. Cog)


No memory or logical decision making


wired responses to stimulation

Example of an Android Design

Taking the example of
, an android with facial expressions

and emotions built at MIT, by Dr Cynthia Brenzeal.

Had head with jaws

Eyes had color CCD camera

Small motors to move facial features

A network of 3 integrated circuits:







Required special software. 3 drives are:


Social drive


Stimulation drive


Fatigue drive

Kismet’s Expressions







Another example of an Android being
built by a company

“Asimo” is built by Honda (2 years old).

Stands for Advanced Step in Innovative


Small and light weight

Walks naturally

Arms move dynamically

Fingers are delicate

Walk up & down the stairs

Flexible body parts

Make registered gestures

tech control processor


Developed on its own


3 times better than current PCs


“Asimo” and friend

Another example of an Android being
built by a company


Latest version of “Asimo” can:

Turn its head to follow moves

Recognizes preprogrammed faces

Respond with vocal welcome

Respond to couple of gestures

Some In
Process Android Projects


Institute for Applied

“Coco”, a baby gorilla project

Mechanics at the Technical

at MIT

University of Munich (TUM)



space android (2.5
years old)

Popular Androids & their Developers

Cog, built at MIT, can learn to recognize and grasp objects

Working as tour guides

Toy companies have started selling pet animals like robots

Dante, a spider
like robot serves geologists

Industries using Androids


Underwater and Geological Explorations

Space Projects of NASA

Nuclear and Chemical Laboratories


Tourism and Entertainment


Advantages of Androids

In general:

Perform automated tasks to save on labor

One of the factors contributing to higher levels of productivity

Personalization and Ease of Use:

Not only an appliance/machine

Better acceptance by humans

Provides personal touch

Can be used for domestic mundane tasks

Self explanatory repair mechanism

Future of Androids & Fears

Can build itself

cost effectiveness

Can rapidly become super intelligent

Can become a rival to automobile industry



10% US homes will have android within 12 years


50% will within 20 years

Will androids be dangerous as portrayed in Hollywood Movies?

Though nothing can be sure unless we work with them. But positive

assumptions state that:


Androids will have built in (software) protection (Asimov's first law)


Androids don't need money or food or possessions or clothes which can

drive them to hurt


They are designed to serve humans & not hurt them

group/ kismet/kismet.html

Journals on “Artificial Intelligence: Androids” in Reinert Library Database