rights in the performing arts

parsimoniousknotRéseaux et Communications

16 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 4 mois)

65 vue(s)

Copyrights and related
rights in the performing arts
sector: Quo vadis?

Evi Werkers

Legal Researcher ICRI


K.U.Leuven

36th Pearle* Conference

28 November 2008, Paris

Structure of the presentation

1.
Introduction

2.
Legislation

3.
Extended copyright protection

4.
EU Policy : the IP Package

5.
Other recent developments

6.
Conclusion


Introduction


Digitization


Convergence of



technologies (networks, services, carriers)


media (print, audiovisual, multimedia)


professional and semi
-
professional input
(bloggers)


Low financial and technological requirements


Production and dissemination of large amounts
of content (sound, images, text)








Structure Presentation

1.
Introduction

2.
Legislation

3.
Extended copyright protection

4.
EU Policy : the IP Package

5.
Other recent developments

6.
Conclusion


Legislation on different levels


International Treaties


European Legislation


Member States’ legislation

International treaties


Berne Convention 1886 (1971)


Rome Convention 1961


GATT TRIPS 1994 (WTO)


WIPO Performers and Phonograms Treaty,
1996 (WPPT)


WIPO Copyright Treaty,1996 (WCT)

European framework


Computer Program Directive 91/250


Rental and Lending and Related Rights Directive
92/100 repealed by Directive 2006/115


Satellite and Cable Directive 93/83


Term Directive 93/98


repealed by Directive
2006/116


Database Directive 96/9


Information Society Directive 2001/29


Resale Directive 2001/84


Enforcement Directive 2004/48


Structure Presentation

1.
Introduction

2.
Legislation

3.
Extended copyright protection

4.
EU Policy : the IP Package

5.
Other recent developments

6.
Conclusion


Extended copyright protection


Expanded copyright protection in materiae


Broadened exploitation rights (including
legal protection of RMI and DRM)


Closed list of exceptions


The IP Package, launched by the EC


Green Paper


CISAC Decision


Proposal EC for the amending of the Directive
on copyright term from 50 to 95 years






Extended exploitation rights

Exploitation rights


Reproduction


Reproduction sensu strico


Modification


Distribution


Rental


Lending


Public
Communication


Performance (live, radio/tv


Making available i.e.


via internet (podcast, webcast,
vod, stream)



Moral rights


(Divulgation)


Paternity


Integrity




+

Protection RMI


Protection DRM

Attributed to…


Rightholders:


Authors


Performers


Film producers


Producers of phonograms (record companies)


Not attributed to producers of performing arts

Implications for performing arts sector


Authorization for usage of elements as element of the
performance from authors:


Text, libretto (writer, publisher)


Choreography (choreographer)


Photographs (photographer)


Music recording (producer of phonograms)


Audiovisual elements (film producer, music composer)


Performers’ neighbouring rights (actors, dancers,
musicians, singers, etc.)


No neighbouring right or presumption in the advantage
of producers of performing arts: transfer of rights via
licensing agreements

Exceptions (art. 5.3. Infosoc
-
Directive)


Quotations for purposes such as criticism or review (d)


Incidental
inclusion of a work or other subject
-
matter in
other material
(i)


Use for the purpose of advertising the public exhibition or
sale of artistic works, to the extent necessary to promote
the event, excluding any other commercial use (j)


Parody, caricature, pastiche (k)


Etc.


→ Non
-
mandatory list (with exception of 1) + exhaustive




Subject to three steps test (protest Max Planck Institute)

Structure Presentation

1.
Introduction

2.
Legislation

3.
Extended copyright protection and
implications for performaning arts sector

4.
EU Policy : the IP Package

5.
Other recent developments

6.
Conclusion


The IP Package

A.
Green Paper Copyright in the Knowledge
Economy, COM (2008) 466/3

B.
Proposal EC for the amending of the
Directive on copyright term (
supra
) from
50 to 95 years

C.
CISAC Decision




A. Green Paper


Aim


To foster free movement of knowledge and
innovation (fifth freedom)


To restore balance reward past creation /
future dissemination knowledge products


Questions regarding adequacy of:


Exceptions in general


Specific exceptions: libraries & archives,
disabled persons, user
-
created content


B. Proposal extension copyright term


Proposal COM (2008)464/3: six
operational objectives:

1.
Gradually align authors’ and performers’
protection

2.
Incrementally increase renumeration performers

3.
Diminish discrepancies in protection EU
-
US

4.
Ensure availability music at reasonable prices

5.
Encourage digitisation of back catalogue



B. Proposal extension copyright term


Approach adopted in EC proposal:


Extension from 50 to 95 years


Harmonise calculaton co
-
written musical
compositions


“Use it or lose it” clauses in contracts between
performers and record companies


Fund set up by record companies to help
session musicians



C. CISAC Decision


Addressees: AEPI, AKKA
-
LAA, AKM, ARTISJUS,
BUMA, EAU, GEMA, IMRO, KODA, LATGA
-
A, PRS,
OSA, SABAM, SACEM, SAZAS, SGAE, SIAE, SOZA,
SPA, STEF, STIM, TEOSTO, TONO, ZAIKS


Agreements between collecting societies should not
create artificial barriers to the provision of music across
borders


Therefore the EC prohibits further use of:


“Membership clauses”: hindering free choice by author of
collecting society providing best quality service


“Territorial Exclusivity clauses” : obstructing cross
-
border
licensing of music broadcasts over internet, cable, satellite


C. CISAC Decision


Goals EC:


Rightholders should be free to choose their
rights managers providing best quality service
and the scope of the rights managed


Encourage collecting societies to be more
efficient and provide multi
-
territorial (pan
-
European) licenses


Providing more choice to consumers and
giving authors more potential revenue

C. CISAC Decision


Reactions Copyright Societes:


Threat cultural diversity


Threat current system of licensing music
repertoire as a single package


Costly, inefficient and fragmented licensing
system


Disappearance small author’s rights societies


Competition is not the (sole) solution


Structure Presentation

1.
Introduction

2.
Legislation

3.
Extended copyright protection

4.
EU Policy : the IP Package

5.
Other recent developments

6.
Conclusion


Other recent developments


Communication European Commission on
Creative Content Online in the Single Market

1.
Increase availability of creative content

2.
Multi
-
territory licensing for creative content

3.
Interoperability and transparency of Digital Rights
Management systems (DRMs)

4.
Legal offers and piracy


The internet of Things / web 3.0. Strategy:

1.
Self
-
/co
-
regulatory agreements

2.
promote digital business models

3.
enforce legal certainty rights and obligations

4.
promotion legal offers online

5.
reinforcement consumers’ rights

6.
fight against online piracy






Structure Presentation

1.
Introduction

2.
Legislation

3.
Extended copyright protection

4.
EU Policy : the IP Package

5.
Other recent developments

6.
Conclusion


Conclusion


Extended copyright protection in terms of duration,
exploitation rights, limitation of exceptions in favour of
users by means of the three
-
step
-
test (abuse three step
test, EC proposal)





Exceptions should be made more technology neutral and
mandatory and / or flexible, multi
-
territorial licensing
systems should be stimulated to improve



dissemination of knowledge and information



cultural creativity / diversity



more creative content online (and renumeration)

(Green Paper, CISAC Decision CCO, Web 3.0.)




Thank you for you attention. Questions?

Evi Werkers

evi.werkers@law.kuleuven.be






https://projects.ibbt.be/cupid/


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