Internet of Things

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16 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 5 mois)

70 vue(s)

Sensor Web Standards and the
Internet of Things

May 24
th
, 2011

Scott Fairgrieve

Geospatial Research and Development

COM.Geo

2011 Workshop

Expanding
GeoWeb

to an Internet of Things

Internet of Things (IoT) Supporting
Technologies/Research Areas
*


Identification Technology


Architecture Technology


Communication Technology


Network Technology


Network Discovery


Software and Algorithms


Hardware

*From: “
Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things

, March 2010

http://www.internet
-
of
-
things
-
research.eu/pdf/IoT_Clusterbook_March_2010.pdf


2


Data and Signal Processing
Technology


Discovery and Search Engine
Technologies


Relationship Network Management
Technologies


Power and Energy Storage
Technologies


Security and Privacy Technologies


Standardization


The Role of Sensors in the IoT


Sensors are important for tagging, tracking, locating, and monitoring things, and for
enabling things to be aware of the environment around them


Sensors are a key enabler of the IoT and a foundational technology for many IoT
building blocks and related technologies (highlighted in
red
)

Table From: “
Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things

, March 2010

http://www.internet
-
of
-
things
-
research.eu/pdf/IoT_Clusterbook_March_2010.pdf


3

The Need for Sensor Standards


Sensors are already prevalent today, but they will become even more
necessary and prevalent in IoT
-
enabled devices and applications


RFID readers, cameras, accelerometers, GPS, thermometers, etc.


Sensors are developed by a variety of manufacturers, using many
different protocols and formats, making the interoperability and large
scale sensor integration required by the IoT difficult without standards


Effective use of sensors to enable and drive the IoT requires standards
for discovering sensors, retrieving sensor data, tasking sensors, and
subscribing to and receiving sensor alerts

4

The decentralised and heterogeneous nature of things and the entities with which they

interact requires a scalable, flexible, open, layered, event
-
driven architecture of standards that minimises
or eliminates any bias towards any single programming language, operating system, information transport
mechanism or other technology and makes efficient use of available network connectivity and energy,
where required.*

*From: “
Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things

, March 2010

http://www.internet
-
of
-
things
-
research.eu/pdf/IoT_Clusterbook_March_2010.pdf


Sensor Webs

5

“… web accessible sensor networks and archived sensor data that can be discovered and
accessed using standard protocols and application program interfaces (APIs)”

From

OGC 07
-
0165
-

OGC Sensor Web Enablement: Overview and High Level Architecture

Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor
Web Enablement (SWE) Standards


Help to enable the vision of the Sensor Web by eliminating barriers to sensor interoperability


Include XML
-
based messaging formats and web service interfaces for discovering, accessing, and
controlling all types of
sensors


Include built
-
in support for location and a variety of coordinate reference systems that should address
both outdoor and indoor location


Sensors, measured phenomena, geographic features, and other items are all identified using Uniform
Resource Identifiers (URIs)


Built with the Semantic Web and shared vocabularies/
ontologies

in mind


Semantic interoperability is seen as a key building block of the IoT


The 1.0 versions have been around for a few years, with the 2.0 versions being adopted now. The 2.0
versions include:


Better support for asynchronous messaging


Improved consistency across standards


OGC has formed a Pub/Sub Standards Working Group (SWG) to address broader support for pub/sub
technologies across its standards


Should help with real
-
time /event
-
driven IoT use cases



6

OGC SWE Standards

7

Encoding

Description

Sensor Model Language

(SensorML)

Describes and models processes, sensors, and systems of

sensors

Observations and Measurements

(O & M)

Format for encoding sensor observation data

SWE Common

A common set of data types for describing sensor data, used by
SensorML

and O & M

Web Service

Description

Sensor Observation Service (SOS)

Provides archived and near real
-
time access to sensors and their

data. Sensors are described in
SensorML

and sensor data

are described in O & M. Includes optional support for adding
new sensors and publishing their observations.

Sensor Planning Service (SPS)

Provides access to controllable sensors and actuators and the
means to task those sensors/actuators in a standard way.

Sensor Alert Service (SAS)

Provides the ability to subscribe to and receive sensor alerts in

real
-
time. Utilizes Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
(XMPP) for delivering alerts in real
-
time

Sensor Event Service (SES)

Provides Complex Event Processing (CEP) and filtering of sensor
data streams

Web Notification Service (WNS)

Standardized asynchronous messaging/notification mechanism

for receiving messages in many ways, including e
-
mail, Short

Message Service (SMS), phone, etc.

8

OGC GeoWeb Standards

Encoding

Description

Keyhole Markup Language (KML)

An OGC standard format for displaying geospatial data such as points, lines,
polygons, and images in many mapping applications including Google Earth.

Geography Markup Language
(GML)

An OGC standard format for describing geographic features like points, lines, and
polygons.

Web Service

Description

Catalog Service for the Web
(CS/W)

Provides OGC web service and object discovery (i.e. sensors and other geographic
features)

Web Map Service (WMS)

Provides access to raster map data (i.e. static images) that can be used to
generate a map background.

Web Feature Service (WFS)

Provides access to vector map data (i.e. points, lines, and polygons). Could
provide access to location/information about things in the IoT, since these things
would be classified as features.

Web Coverage Service (WCS)

Provides access to geographic coverage data (i.e. geographically distributed
measurements)

Web Processing Service (WPS)

Provides a standard interface for discovering, describing, and executing geo
-
processes.

These standards complement the sensor web standards and provide geospatial context to
sensor web information in terms of populating mapping applications with maps and feature data
and can support sensor data processing and fusion (e.g. the WPS).

User Applications
-

The SWE
-
Enabled Home

9

SWE
Client

Smart Appliances

WNS

SWE

Smart
Agents

SensorML System

-

Thermometer(s)

-

Ice/Water Dispenser Switch

-

Door Switch

-

RFID Reader


SPS

SAS

SOS

Sensor Observation Service
(SOS)

Sensor Planning Service
(SPS)

Sensor Alert Service (SAS)

Web Notification Service
(WNS)

User Applications
-

The SWE
-
Enabled Home

10

SWE
Client

Retrieve Inventory Data

SOS

Where are my
keys?

RFID Reader

Sensor Observation Service
(SOS)

User Applications
-

The Smart Store


In
-
Store Navigation


Help me find items on my shopping list


Direct me to each item I want using the
shortest path


Utilizes multiple OGC
GeoWeb

and
Sensor Web services as well as other
services


Need to discover available inventory services


Find the location of items on my list in local
store coordinates (makes use of
sensors/services for monitoring inventory
locations)


Show me a local store map (WMS, WFS,
etc.)


Calculate the shortest path using my current
location along with the locations of various
items (WPS)


11

User Applications


Environmental Monitoring
Supplemented with Citizen Scientists

12

SWE
Client

SOS

Transactional

SWE
Client

SWE
Client

SWE
Client

SWE
Client

SWE

Smart
Agents

SWE

Smart
Agents

SWE

Smart
Agents

SOS

Official and Reference
Environmental Sensors

Sensor Observation Service
(SOS)

Challenges


Scaling


Can/how do the SWE standards work in an IoT environment on a large scale


billions/trillions or more sensors/“things”?


Discovery


How do I find sensor services? How do I make my sensors discoverable? Is there a
central catalog or set of catalogs or a search engine for the sensor web where I go to
find services, or is there some peer
-
to
-
peer mechanism where sensors/services notify
me of their availability?


Performance


Moving towards event
-
driven, publish/subscribe, CEP mechanisms to optimize the flow
of information


information can be stored as needed, filtered and sent to the
appropriate recipients/applications


Standards Harmonization


Multiple sensor and IoT standards need to be harmonized in order to realize
interoperability across sensor systems


Big Data


Sensors and the IoT add to the growing amount of monitoring data that is available to a
wide range of users. How do we effectively analyze all of this data and ensure that
meaningful and relevant data and decisions are made?


13

Questions

14

15

Contact Information


Scott Fairgrieve


Email:
scott.fairgrieve@ngc.com


Phone: 703
-
227
-
1549


Stefan Falke


Email:
stefan.falke@ngc.com


Phone: 314
-
331
-
6215