Copyright © 2003-2007 Rajit Gadh - WINMEC - UCLA

parsimoniousknotRéseaux et Communications

16 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 4 mois)

80 vue(s)

Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


1

RFID Middleware





Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


2

RFID Middleware


What is it?


One notion: “This is a new breed of software that sits
between the RFID reader and conventional middleware. It
facilitates communication between enterprise systems and a
variety of automatic identification devices” Source


http:
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/858/1/82/


UCLA middleware initiative:
http://www.wireless.ucla.edu/rfid/winrfid/



Reference Publication
-

http://winmec.ucla.edu/reports.asp

On the
creation of Automatic Identification and Data Capture infrastructure via
RFID and other technologies, The Internet of Things: from RFID to the
Next
-
Generation Pervasive Networked Systems. Lu Yan, Yan Zhang,
Laurence T. Yang, Huansheng Ning (eds.),Auerbach Publications, Taylor
& Francis Group, 24 pp., Xiaoyong Su, Chi
-
Cheng Chu, B. S. Prabhu,
Rajit Gadh


Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


RFID Middleware for
manufacturing and supply chain


Heterogeneous requirement


Highly distributed architecture


Components:


Messaging platform
-

its discussion in middleware


Rules
-
based language
-

Defining and executing


Connectors


RFID network creation


3

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


4

Functions performed


Allows use of data for a meaningful application


Capture RFID data


Networking of readers


Set up network


Remote control and monitoring of devices


Single data format for reader, tag and RFID data


Move data around


Capture movement of objects by sending data from one reader to
another


Allows multiple organizations to share the same
infrastructure


Allows multiple protocols and standards to work together


Filtering at edge of network


To reduce the amount of data generated due to multiple reads of tag

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


5

Middleware


Rules engine


Rules engine


Involve Readers, Stations (may be combination of readers), Antennas,
Tag id’s, Time of reading, data fields in database, location of reader, etc.



E.g. If (Reader A has read Tag 121 between the hours of 1200 and
1300) THEN i. Lookup Product ID for Tag 121, ii. Inform XYZ = Supplier
-
of
-
Tag (121) of arrival of product ID, iii. Enter information in enterprise
database, iv. Dispatch payment to XYZ.



Not all of the rules will be executed at the same place. E.g. Reading is
close to the hardware (edge of network), Lookup of Product ID would be
closer to core (enterprise I.T. / database), etc.



Data utilization via rules engines. Reference publication
http://winmec.ucla.edu/reports.asp

On the Utilization and Integration of
RFID data into Enterprise Information Systems via WinRFID,
DETC2007
-
34731, Computers in Engineering Conference, Sep 4
-
7,
2007, Las Vegas, NV. Xiaoyong Su, Chi
-
Cheng Chu, B.S. Prabhu, Rajit
Gadh


Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


6

Middleware
-

connectors


Connectors to applications


Databases


most applications today store data
somewhere (secure) about status of product or item
in question, location (or last location), product ID, etc.
Such databases may not contain the Tag ID.


Oracle


Sequel Server


IBM


Supply Chain software


SAP


IBM


I2


Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


7

RFID middleware benefits



Allows data to be made available easily to the applications


Allows data to be shared across multiple organizations, e.g.,
with your trading partners (e.g. Walmart and its suppliers)


Reduces cost of development of applications


especially when
new hardware and standards are created


Allows various functions to be embedded so that application
developers can focus on developing applications in a language
they understand


Abstracts reader specifics from the application developor


Allows rules to be written that are specific to the business of
the enterprise


Rules can be interpreted on the server side or the edge of the
network/client side


Allows messaging services to be used for actionable items

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


8

Selecting RFID Middleware for an
application



Performance as it relates to requirements


Speed in actual terms


Time to relay data from point A to B


Time for filtering


Time for interpreting and executing the rules


Time to access queues at edge and in database


Time to write data into the database (can be slow when large amounts
of data are coming in)


Scalability
-

What is scalability? It is the ability of an
application to not degrade rapidly in performance when the
data size goes up.


E.g. of non
-
scalable solution : n = no. of tags in the system, and queue
size for table lookup of Product ID from Tag ID = O(n3)


Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


9

Selecting middleware


Configurability


The ease with which the middleware can be
configured in different real
-
world settings.


Needs of different applications may be different


Flexibility


E.g. Warehouse management


if does not have
a large amount of data, then there may be no need for edge
of network filtering.


Customizability


E.g. Supply chain spanning several
organizations


since data flows outside the boundaries of an
organization, each organization would have to be able to set
up its own security settings depending on what kind of data it
has to export/import, etc.

Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


10

Selecting Middleware


Ease
-
of
-
use


User interface, API functions, etc. need to be friendly
for the end application developer to use.


Distributed Application Capability


Application may require multiple sites that are linked


Mobile client versus stationary client


Platform: Unix, Linux, .Net, Windows,
Windows Mobile, etc.


Design Language: Java, C/C++ and C#


Protocols: CORBA, COM+, SOAP, etc.

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


11

RFID middleware research and
technology issues



Architecture


Data formats


How to secure data


very important for some industries e.g.
medical/defense/financial/security


Rules engine


language, design, interfacing


Interpreting of rules


speed, where they are executed


Collaborative frameworks (upstream and downstream)


in
supply chain


R/W management


robustness in architecture


Network management


connectivity tools


Extendibility to new protocols
-

abstraction

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


12

General Middleware


Conclusion

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


13

WinRFID Middleware


Rajit Gadh

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


14

WinRFID


Retail

Aero
-

space

Medical

Health
-

care

Pharma

Auto

Manuf.

Airlines

Logistics


HF/LF/UHF


EPC/ISO


Horizontal framework


Multiple Reader


Multiple Tag protocols


Abstracts R/T


Manages RFID
network


Reader/Tag Abstract Layer and Connectivity Layer

Data Gathering, Event Generation and Data Distribution Layer



Enterprise (Supply Chain) Applications Layer (Supply Chain, closed loop
inventory tracking, asset tracking, warehousing, security, check
-
out)

Business Rules Layer

Industry Specific Solutions

WINRFID

Middleware

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


15

WinRFID: Allows scalable enterprise applications
development

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


16

EPC Network


What is the EPC Network?


The EPC Network
http://www.epcglobalinc.org/news/EPCglobal%20Net
work%20Final%209%2024%2004%20Final.pdf

September 2004


EPC


Electronic Product Code, based on RFID


Standardized numbering system that uniquely identifies objects


No information beyond the number is conveyed within the EPC
network


Middleware such as WinRFID reads and transmits the data to
the right location in the network (and the network itself can be
managed by the middleware)

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


17

EPC Network



Conveys real time (within the network)


Reports on location/status of objects
being tracked


Security is important and information
about the product is available through
the EPC network to authorized users


WinRFID is able to allow applications to
tap into the data like getting data off a
“hub”

Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


18

EPC standards from EPC Global

EPC Class

Definition/Bits

Programming

Class 0

"Read Only" passive tags, 64bit

Programmed as part of the tag
(semiconductor) manufacturing
process

*Class 0+

"Write
-
Once, Read
-
Many" version
of EPC Class 0

Programmed once by the customer
then locked

Class 1

"Write
-
Once, Read
-
Many" passive
tags, 64 can go to 96 bits

Programmed once by the customer
then locked

Class 1
-

Gen2

Generation 2 is approved by EPC
Global, Inc., 96 bits

Programmed once by the customer
then locked

Class 2

Rewritable passive tags, 96 bits

Can be reprogrammed many times

Class 3

Semi
-
passive tags (battery
powered), still no user data

Class 4

Active tags

Class 5

Readers

N/A

Source


EPC GLOBAL

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


19

EPC Class 1, HF Example


EPC
-

HF Class I, 13.56 MHZ


4 Fields in EPC


a header, defining the variety of EPC among a
number of possible structures


a domain manager number which is effectively a
manufacturer number (middleware such as WinRFID
can help map the number to a company via an ONS)


an object class which is equivalent to a product
number


a serial number

Copyright © 2003
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2007 Rajit Gadh


20

Varieties of EPC


The below table gives, for the four varieties of EPC™ so far defined,
the size, in bits, of each field. The table also indicates, for each variety,
the leading bits, i.e. the most significant bits, of the header.






Source


Auto ID Center Tech Report, 2003

Copyright © 2003
-
2007 Rajit Gadh


21

Slotting protocol


Reader sends
Begin_round command,
number of slots of each
round is within the
command.


Tag receives the
command, and moves
status from ready to
slotted
-
read. And it
calculates at which slot it
should reply based on a
hash value.


At particular slot, tag
sends reply data.


If reader does not receive
reply during one slot, it
sends close slot
sequence command.


Tag receives the
command, if it’s in
slotted
-
read mode and
replies, then it moves to
ready status. If it did
reply, then it will advance
its position.