12 déc. 2012 (il y a 9 années et 2 mois)

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Genetic Engineering

Of An APA paper

Pamela Salas

Texas A & M Corpus Christi




As technology advances humanity is able to accomplish more extreme sciences that some
my believe come from the depth of humanity imagination. Genetic engineering is the procedure
in with organisms gene is alters in order to express new trait or improve existing traits. The
extent of alteration continues to expand with new technologies and b
etter understanding of
organisms DNA which will question the ethics of genetic engineering organism.

genetic has become a risk
reward scenario the same technologies that can cure disease, and make
better foods and fuels, is same technologies that

can create monster, mutant, and super diseases
and ethics of gene alteration spend from many social issues. How do these technologies affect
our relationship with nature? Does gene alteration implead on faith or organized religions? Do
the possible benefi
ts of genetic engineer overshadow the risks? How will Gene augmentation
affect the social fabric of our world? These questions have arguments for and against the use of
genetic engineering, but understanding these argument can help us better understand the

and help find a place in our world, whether it is used or not.



A myth in pop culture today


humanity has not reached its true potential and
the future holds many wonderful things, jet
packs, flying cars and space travel all ru

clean emission
less fuels
. Thought as technology and scientific study increasing many issues will
bring hard ethical questions that will father heat arguments that most likely have no definite right
or wrong answer

Gene alteration/engineering,
which is the altering or engineering of a
person’s genotype with aim of changing the traits of a newborn or possibly a child or adult in
animals as well will be. This
of genetic engineer on organisms raises many controversial,
ethical and social iss
ues. An organism genome can best be describe as the software of that
organism, and understanding how to rewrite that software is changing how scientist look at DNA
and RNA.

The debate lies in what is called positive genetic engineer
ing or the “enhancement
” of

body as opposed to negative genetic engineering which is the “cure/treatment” of
a dise
ase or disorder (Guterman

. This issue is going to eventually uproot many social

for example
, Science vs. Nature, Science vs. Faith/Church,

Do the end justify the

Tampering vs. Improving.

justify th
e potential risk and dangers,
this field of study too
dangerous to be examin
ed. With the proper regulations and guidelines
Gene therapy, and life
saving augmentation should be allow
, because



people a better


surgery has
affected social identity and

that gene therapy could be abused like auguries have, with the intent
to cater to vanity using gene altering technologies for vanity or weaponing are unethical and
wrong, and the potential to do good using this technology are worth the risk. This issue is going
to eventually uproot many social norms, Science vs. Nature, Science vs. Faith/Church, Do the
end justify the means, Tampering vs. Improving, do benefits justi
fy the potential risk and
dangers, is this field of study

too dangerous to be examined( Biema2006).



Gene engineering has the potential to cure and prevent many diseases like autism and
cancers; it opens up the possibility that every baby born could be gu
aranteed a healthy start, and
on the other side of the coin genetic engineering has the potential to create abominations or the
technology could be abused in many scenarios. With the proper regulations and strict rules and
guidelines that Gene therapy, and

saving augmentation should be allowed,

the intent of
these procedure is to give people a better life and even the playing field for those that were dealt
a bad hand

by nature because sheer chance (Danielle 1990).

The process for gene therapy is
eted to delete omit, fusing , or adding

specific protein strands to DNA,

modern gene
treatments are aimed at cancers, and the in
sertion of “good” DNA sequences (Guterman 2005).

Gene therapy as a medicine has many applications, It has the ability to suppr
ess tumors, and
leukemia’s, possible cure hereditary defects, in some case blindness and deafness there

potential to increase the effectiveness of white blood cells strengthen a person’s immune
system making them let subset able to diseases. When a vir
us enters a host body it attaches to the
host’s genetic material, planting “instructions” how to duplicate that virus. When gene
engineering is applied to viruses and bacteria, removing or altering so of their genetic chain is
possible; consequently elimin
ating the virus, taking away duplication and replication functions in
can open up many doors when treating the symptoms. Though there are many positive
possibilities for genetic engineering in medicines is still very expensive and in many way
s and experiments (Meriwether 2009).

in a single gene are prime candidates for
therapy, because it is relatively simple in concept to treat. Thought gene therapy struggles to gain
support because the most common disorders like heart disease, hype
rtensions and diabetes occur
due to multiple factors, making treatment with gene therapy very difficult and potentially
dangerous because of this there is a stigma tied with Gene therapy in medicine even though it has


possibilities to be a great tool, the
expenses and risks associated with treatments is not worth the

A primary draw back for genetic engineering as a medicine is that

newly introduced
DNA must stabilize before it can cure a condition the target sequences must be stabilize
d before
t can have any effect (Pierce 2000).


because of the rapidly dividing nature of cells this
is quite challenging, the therapeutic DNA must be

prissily. In some cases therapeutic
DNA can be targeted by immune system, this response can leave p
atient in a weaker state
making them subset able to more illness with a hampered immune system. Another down side of
genetic therapy is that the inserted therapeutic genetic material can even trigger tumors when
genome is tapered with inappropriately. But
looking how plastic surgery has affected social
identity I believe that gene therapy could be abused like surgeries have, with the intent to cater to

Using gene altering technologies for vanity or weaponing are unethical and wrong, and
the potenti
al to do good using this technology are worth the risk.

Science vs. Nature is at the very heart of the issue in gene altering ethics, science is
getting to the point where scientist have the power to alter the fabric of nature, and with
limitations gene al
teration has many practical implications in everyday life, and there are many
instances today in which man has modified plants and animal to meet a need, but more profound
technologies are aris
ing that almost seem like magic (Smith 2011).

But as in medical

genetic engineering has its downsides as well, and abuse of this technology can negatively affect
the environment.

One of the promising developments in genetic engineering is Bacteria’s can be
modified to release clean fuels for cars and trucks vir
tually cutting emissions in half overnight.
Some bacteria that are genetically simple can be ticked to perform many tasks, like absorbing
diseases on plants or pr
otecting them from pest insects (
Animals, genetic e
ngineering and the

It can virtual eliminate non
pathogenic virus and disease; the human body could


be optimized to live a healthier safer life. Animals can be breed larger and more effectively in
hopes of increasing food supplies eventually ending hunger (Daniel 1990). This

technology can
make the world a safer place. When applied to agricultural foods like potato, rice, tomatoes can
be genetically engineered to obtain new traits with better nutritional qualities and increased
yields. The genetically engineered crops are exp
ected are built to be able in areas not suitable for

Altering of the genes in crops is expected to improve their nutritional value as also
their rate of growth and hopefully improve taste (Gratis 2007).

Creating better foods, with more
tional value, at a faster

can revolutionize how the world is fed. Intent of Appling genetic
engineering in agriculture is to create strong better plants, able to survive longer and produce
more food.

Manipulating something that is manmade possess many c
hallenges these new super crops
could alter natures balance because they are design to supersede natural plants, this could be
harmful to natural plants that they can become so altered that they no longer resemble it original
form. Unlike using genetic as
a medicine this is an example of positive genetic engineering
because it is enhancing and augmenting an organism it is changing something that is not
necessarily defected poses many ethical issues. Does having the ability and means to implead on
natures de
sign violate our relationship with the nature? (Corbin 2008)

The scientific world today
has the power to alter the very fabric of nature, by transferring characteristics not only between
plants, but cross and altering animals, and human beings. Genetic en
gineering without ethical
limitation has a serious impact on the environment of animals and plants. “It can violate our
relationship with the natural world. Most people believe animals have a right to live their lives
free from human interference with t
r original genetic structure
” (Kamet

ramifications of a mad scientist experiment gone wrong could severely impact the world, or the


lives change and saved could change the world for the better. Genetic alteration on humans may
seem a part of a c
omic book villain sinister plan to take over the world and has its own spot in
American pop culture. Though this is a valid concern to have because of the endless possibilities
can violate our relationship with the natural world.

Creating Arches and Arche
s of altered super
plants can have many undesired effects there is a possibility that the niches and food supplies
may be come tainted or not develop correctly. Animals can adversely be effect by an artificial
super forest, because there rules of nature ma
y not apply in such cases. Another case against
human genetic engineering most people believe animals have a right to live their lives free from
human interference with their original genetic structure. Also, those animals can never s
erve as
models of huma
n disease

(Kamet 2010)

because of the large amount of genetic variation, there
can never be an exact answer when using these kind of models, opening up possibilities for
mistakes. Splicing DNA , and RNA of virus and bacteria can cause super pandemics, un
illness, or modified plants can become sterile after certain generations (Oak 2011).

Which in the
near future with today’s generation can help us improve all untreated illnesses.

One of the centralized issues with Genetic Alteration is Faith vs.
Science thought this
issue may never have a clear victory, it is believe that man does not have the right to tamper with
god's design. Nature, humans, animals, and plants are not "man
made" so the effect of tampering
with an unknown system can have unpredi
ctable results. However in order to better understand
and harmonize with nature/ or faith taking apart and rebuilding, altering can I hope to create a
better understanding of nature or god. “When looking at a machine or system with no manual or
tutorial on
e way to learn how to use a machine would be to take it apart and reassemble it,
genetic engineering. Life is

infinitely more complex than a

lawn mower, and tampering can
have way be too big to allow or the rewards could possibly be worth treading on the




made for man”(Kamet
2011).Food production to medicine. Research is making progress with
cancer and other treatments aimed at congenital and hereditary illnesses such as muscular
dystrophy and cystic fibrosis.

As new outlets and possibilities for
gene alteration open up, the
world can become more familiarized with the ethics of associated issues and though some may
be apprehensive to the idea of using a technology to alter a person’s natural genes, and some may
see this as a progressive idea.(Pierc
e 2000)

I believe that the surge of new technologies and
possibilities that genetic engineer technologies are worth the apparent risks associated with this
relatively new science, and tour social fabric will adapt and accommodate changes associated
this technology(Smith 2011). Though many may believe that this technology is opening
Pandora’s Box, with ethical limitations, guidelines and monitoring genetics, can help use better
understand ourselves and nature. We can create a disease free world, incre
ase life expectancy,
and develop better ways of life, children and families can sleep easier knowing that there are
treatments for cancers and virus, Bacteria’s can be used to create clean fuel for powering
vehicles and electronics.. In the Bible Genesis 1
:28 God commanded Adam. "Be fruitful and
multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and
over the fowl of the air and over every living thing that moved upon the earth."

, God gave the
earth to man to control,

but take care of; to command it, but respect it. And find that respect is
the key factor when dealing with new technology, the human identity is one of finding
innovation and improvement in our world and surroundings. It is inevitable that genetic
ring will find its place in the world, whether it is an instrument of improvement or
weapon of destruction remains to be seen.




Animals, genetic engineering and the environment. (2002). In International Encyclopedia Of
Environmental Politics. R
.retrived 4

Biema, David Van(2006). God vs. Science. Time

11/13/2006, Vol. 168 Issue 20, p48

Corbyn, Zoe(2008). Call for Debate on the ethics of engineering new life forms.Times Higher

Education.6/12/2008, issue 1849 p8.

Daniell, Henry(1990).Environmentall
y Friendly Approaches to Genetic Engineering

In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Plant : journal of the Tissue Culture Association.

35, no. 5, (1999): 361

Graits, Angela(2007). Super Food. Times Novermber/14/2007. p18

Guterman, Lila(
2005).A New Map of Human Genetic Variation May Help Treat
Diseases.Chronicle Higher Education 11/11/2005, Vol. 52 Issue 12, pA17

Kamat,Keya(2011).Genetic Engineering: Playing God?. Jesus
ieved. 4/04/2011, p.2

Meriwether, Mathews (2009) Playing God.Psychology Today.

Sep/Oct2009, Vol. 42 Issue
5, p18

Oak,Manali(2011).Pros. and Cons. of Genetic Engineering.

Retrieved. 4

Pierce, Alan(2000). Food for Thought.Tech Directions

May/Jun2000, Vol. 59 Issue 10, p10

Smith, Melissa D(2011). SAY NO TO GMOs.Better Nutrition

Mar2011, Vol. 73 Issue 3, p46