CONTACTLESS BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM- BASED ON HUMAN ODOUR

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 8 mois)

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International Jour
nal of Advanced Research in

Biology and BioTechnology

Volume
-
1
: Issue
-
1 Oct

2013




ISR Journals and Publications

Page
1



CONTACTLESS BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM
-
BASED ON HUMAN ODOUR


A.Gowri priya
, A. Gowridurga

B.Tech[IT]
final year
, Assistant Professor[CSE]

Adhiparasakthi College of Engineering
, Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering

Priyaanbarasu21@gmail.com
,
durga.a90@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
-
Biometrics is the current buzzword in user

authentication domain. Finger print and retinal

scan,
that are examples of biometric syste
ms that are

in use today,have the drawback that, they are not

fool proof.
Recent surveys have revealed the

uniqueness of human odour. Human odour will join

the Elite list in the near
future. The advantage lies in

the fact that it is impossible to replicate

human
odour
.

This paper deals with the
feasiblity of

creating a model system that authenticates people

based on their body odour. The challenge is in

designing a sensor that identifies every human by his

scent. An abstract model of a system that

implement
s
this sensing and identification has been

proposed here.

This authentication system is very useful in

safeguarding bank vaults and documents of

International repercurssions from potentially smart

anti
-
social
crooks.


K
eywords
-
biometrics, body odour, sens
or, authentication, foolproof


I.
INTRODUCTION

Every huge technological advancement derives its
inspiration

from Nature and so has biometrics.
Especially the concept of

human odour.

The ability of canines to identify large
number of people by

solely sniffi
ng is what got us
into thinking. Detector dogs are used

by law
enforcement agents for the detection of drugs,
explosives,

flammable and ignitable liquid residue,
and human scent. Research

has recently begun to
identify some of the volatile organic

compound
s
present in human scent, but there is still limited

knowledge concerning the identity of target
-
vapor
signature and

the transport and detection
mechanisms associated with a canine

alert. There is
also limited understanding of how the body
produces

human s
cent.

The superiority of this
technique can be well apperciated by

visualising
and analysing the simple scenario. Bank vaults are

restricted areas which has restricted access. It has
been long time

since

keys have lost their significance. Even hi
-
tech
bank
s which

boast of biometric fingerprint and
retinal scan are not entirely safe.

Science and
Technology have enabled anti
-
social enthusiasts to

replicate fingerprint and retinal copy in a fairly
inexpensive way.

Also the authenticated person
may be threatene
d at gun
-
point and

be puppeted to
make a forced entry.

If the fingerprint system is
replaced by odour recognition

system, which
monitors the vault to check for any unauthenticated

user. The presence of an alien person leads to a
siren going off and

doors g
etting auto locked. Even
in the absence of an alien user, this

sequence of
operations take place if the user presses the help
button

twice.



II.
EXISTING BIOMETRICS

Fingerprint Verification

T
his is one of the oldest forms of biometric
techniques which

invo
lves mapping of the pattern
of the fingerprint of the individual

and then
comparing the ridges, furrows, within the template.
The

fingerprint given to the device is first searched
at the coarse level in

the database and then finer
comparisons are made to g
et the result.


Iris Recognition


In Iris and Retinal scanning, the iris and the retina
are scanned

by a low intensity light source and the
image is compared with the

stored patterns in the
database template. This is one of the fastest

forms
of biometry.


Facial Scanning

Facial scanning involves scanning of the entire face
and

checking of critical points and areas in the face
with the template.

This method is not completely
International Journal of Advance
d Research in

Biology and BioTechnology

Volume
-
1
: Issue
-
1 Oct

2013


ISR Journals and Publications

Page
2



reliable and so it is used in

association with another
biometric technique.




Hand
and Finger geometry

This method uses the data such as length, shape,
distance

between the fingers, overall dimensions of
the hand and also the

relative angle between the
fingers. Modern systems use this

technique in
association with the Fingerprint scannin
g technique.


Voice Biometry

It is proved that the frequency, stress and accent of
speech differ

from person to person. Voice
biometry uses this concept to solve

the problem of
illegal user. This system has been implemented in

the latest laptops as well.



Signature Verification

This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a
signature to

authenticate a person. This technology
is based on measuring

speed, pressure and angle
used by the person when a signature is

produced.


Keystroke dynamic

In this technique
, the system analyses the rhythm of
typing the

password.


III.
UNIQUENESS OF HUMAN ODOUR

Human scent is the most abundant of the volatile
organic

compounds determined to be in the
headspace above scent samples;

however, other
substances may contribute to hu
man
odour
. The

individual body
odour
s of humans are determined
by several factors

that are either stable over time
(genetic factors) or vary with

environmental or
internal conditions. For this manuscript, the

following distinguishing terminology for these
factors will be used:

The primary
odour

of a person contains
constituents that are

stable over time regardless of
diet or environmental

factors.


Secondary
odour

contains constituents
that are present due

to diet and environmental
factors.

Tertiary
odour

c
ontains constituents that
are present

because of the influence of outside
sources (i.e., lotions,

soaps, perfumes).

For an
individual identification by human scent, the
primary

odour

must have constituents that are stable
over time and diverse

across peopl
e.

Compounds
present in male and female axillary secretion

extracts that contained the characteristic
odour
s
present in the

axillary region have been isolated and
identified. These analysis

showed the presence of
several C6
-
C10 straight chains, branched,

a
nd
unsaturated acids, and the major
odour
-
causing
compound was

determined to be (E)
-
3
-
methyl
-
2
-
hexenoic acid. Some organic components present in
human odour are listed

here below:



IV.
DATA PROCESSING METHODS

The signals generated by an array of odour sen
sors
need to be

processed in a sophisticated manner.
Odour can be sensed using an

electronic nose(e
-
nose) which is analogous to the human nose. The

functioning of e
-
nose is similar to the human nose.
An
odour

is

composed of molecules, each of which
has a s
pecific size and

shape. Each of these
molecules has a correspondingly sized andshaped
receptor in the human nose. When a specific
receptor

receives a molecule, it sends a signal to the
brain and the brain

identifies the smell associated
with that particula
r molecule.

Electronic noses
based on the biological model work in a similar

manner, albeit substituting sensors for the receptors,
and

transmitting the signal to a program for
processing, rather than to

the brain. Electronic
noses are one example of a gro
wing research

area
called biomimetics, or biomimicry, which involves
humanmade

applications patterned on natural
phenomena.



Figure 1:schematic diagram of e
-
nose

V.
WORKING MODEL

The idea that human scent is produced

through
bacterial action on dead skin
cells and secretions is
the

most common depiction of the creation of
human
odour
. Other

studies have suggested that
odour

is formed very quickly, supporting

the idea
that
odour

production is due to simple bond
cleavage as

opposed to a complex bacterial act
ion.

The main task of the working model is to perform
the following

tasks:

1. Sniffing

2. Delivery

3. Reception

4. Computation

5. Authentication

International Journal of Advance
d Research in

Biology and BioTechnology

Volume
-
1
: Issue
-
1 Oct

2013


ISR Journals and Publications

Page
3




Fig
i
i)blocking diagram


1) Sniffing:

Mixes the
odour
ants into a uniform
concentration and delivers these mix
tures to the
mucus layer in the upper part of nasal cavity
This is
done by using a pump which sucks in air from the

immediate environment.

2) Delivery:

This block consists of a Metal Oxide
Semiconductor(MOS) which acts as the sensor.
When a voltage is appl
ied across a MOS

structure,
it modifies the distribution of charges in the

semiconductor. Thus, when in contact with volatile
compounds, the

sensor reacts, as they experience a
change of electrical properties.

Each sensor is
sensitive to all volatile molec
ules but each in its
own

specific way. Most electronic noses use sensor
arrays that react to

volatile compounds on contact:
the adsorption of volatile

compounds on the sensor
surface causes a physical change of the

sensor. A
specific response is recorded b
y the electronic
interface

transforming the signal into a digital
value. Recorded data are then

computed based on
statistical models.

3) Reception:


The computing system works to combine the
responses of all of

the sensors, which represents the
input for
the data treatment. This

part of the
instrument performs global signature analysis and

provides results and representations that can be
easily interpreted.

This can be performed by using
Gas chromatography
-
Mass

Spectrometry(GC
-
MS)
.

Fig ii) Gas Chromotagrap
hy
-
working chamber

The
GC
-
MS is consists of two major building blocks:
the gas

chromatograph and the mass spectrometer.
The gas chromatograph

utilizes a capillary column
which depends on the column's

dimensions (length,
diameter, film thickness) as well as

the phase

properties. The difference in the chemical
properties between

different molecules in a mixture
will separate the molecules as the

sample travels the
length of the column. The molecules take

different
amounts of time (called the retention time) t
o elute
from

the gas chromatograph, and this allows the
mass spectrometer

downstream to capture, ionize,
accelerate, deflect, and detect the

ionized molecules
separately. The mass spectrometer does this by

breaking each molecule into ionized fragments and
detecting these

fragments using their mass to charge
ratio.

The GC chamber is enclosed in order to
amplify the

properties

of the volatile gases so that
they can be adsorbed easily.

4) Computation:

The composition of scent is identified from the
chromatogra
m

obtained by observing the time taken
by the substance to come out

of the tube. This
composition is converted to digital form.

5) Authentication:

The digital equivalents of the body odour of all
authenticated

people are stored in a database. If the
body o
dour matches with any

of the stored binary
code, the person is authenticated.


VI.
APPLICATIONS

i. It can used for secure admission into bank vaults
which

permit only one authenticated user at a time.
Forceful

entry of unrecognised people will result in
an
alarm

beeping in the security chamber, auto
-
dialling to the

nearest police station and auto
-
locking of the cabin door.

ii. Its portable version can be used to detect drugs.
Also in

airports and harbours, smuggling of drugs
can be detected

by using this sys
tem.

iii. Also, it can detect the presence of any excess
gas in

laboratories or factories or even in kitchens.
The normal

composition of the gas that can be
present in the

surroundings is fed into the database.
If the content

increases, it results in an al
arm
buzzing.

iv.
The
fight against crime
, recognition of
terrorists. There are already orders on the human
recognition system already from the British
embassy in Buenos Aires, Saudi Arabia's National
Guard, and private Indian and Japanese companies
.



International Journal of Advance
d Research in

Biology and BioTechnology

Volume
-
1
: Issue
-
1 Oct

2013


ISR Journals and Publications

Page
4




VI
I.
ADVANTAGES

A.

Even deodrants and perfumes cannot mask the
basic

human odour. These artificial scents do not
eliminate the

organic compounds present in the
odour. As of now, it is

not possible to replicate
human odour. Hence, intruders

cannot break in
wit
hout alerting the system.

B
. Reduce
password administration costs.

C
. Replace hard
-
to
-
remember passwords which
may be

shared or observed.

D. Reduces Human Labour usage

E
. This system is accomplished with an automated
system,

which reduces the amount of hu
man work
required to

make a positive match.

F
. it's impossible to bribe or trick the system to get
in, as

might be a possiblity with a human.

G
. It is particularly useful in routine operations due
to its

ease of use and rapid response rate
.


VIII.
CONCLUSIO
N

In biometric domain, odour detection for
authentication is a

novel idea. This, when
implemeted would result in enhanced

security
systems. The added advantage is that, it is a
contactless

approach. A novice will never know
that he is being monitored.

The
development of
such a system may be a little expensive but the

benefits are noteworthy.


IX.
REFERENCES

[1] Biometric technologies and verification systems

By John R. Vacca

[2] Curran, A. M. and Furton, K. G. Optimization
of Collection

and Storage Methods f
or Scent
Evidence and the Identification of

the Volatile
Components Comprising an Individual Human
Odour

Signature. Presented at

the American Academy of Forensic

Sciences,
Dallas, Texas, 2004.

[3] Schoon, G. A. A. Scent identification lineups by
dogs (Can
is

familiaris): Experimental design and
forensic application, Applied

Animal Behavior
Science .

[4] Sommerville, B. A., McCormick, J. P., and
Broom, D. M.

Analysis of human sweat volatiles:
An example of pattern

recognition in the analysis
and interpretati
on of gas

chromatograms, Pesticide
Science.

[5] Curran, A. M., Rabin, S. I., Prada, P. A., and
Furton, K. G.

Comparison of volatile organic
compounds present in human
odour

using SPME
-
GC/MS, Chemical Ecology .