When rocks are broken down into fragments, either through the mechanical means of
weathering, or through chemical reactions, the fragments are called sediment. When that
sediment is compacted or cemented together, it forms a sedimentary
•Sedimentary rocks are the most common rocks that we encounter, because the Earth has
so many efficient weathering processes that constantly break down rock and create
•Common sedimentary rocks include sandstone (made up, not surprisingly
, of sand) and
limestone (made up of calcium carbonate precipitated out of solution).
•Sediments become sedimentary rock through compaction (squeezing sediments together
and forcing out any fluids) and cementation (introduction of a cementing agent).
ediments are either clastic or chemical. That is, rocks are broken down through either
mechanical or chemical means.
•Clastic sediment is what one usually thinks of when speaking of sediment. From the
Greek word klastos (broken), it refe
rs to the broken remains of rocks of all types, broken
and altered by weathering processes such as wind, water and ice. Clastic sediment is also
known as detrital sediment.
•Clastic rocks (sedimentary) differ from igneous rocks not by the mineral composit
but by the grain texture that shows its history of mechanical weathering, the cementation
material and the possible presence of fossils (which cannot survive the high temperatures
required to melt igneous rocks).
•Sedimentary layering is also a powerf
ul clue to sedimentary origin. Igneous rocks have
minerals which grow in every direction. Sedimentary rocks, on the other hand, are often
laid down in layers that mimic the horizontal surface of the Earth.
•Chemical sedimentary rocks may
contain fossils and other sedimentary characteristics,
but their components were not broken up mechanically. Rather, rocks were dissolved in
solution (as salt can dissolve in water) and transported, then precipitated chemically (as
salt can precipitate ou
t of a saturated solution).
•Precipitation can occur biochemically. Example: tiny plants living in seawater can
decrease the acidity of the surrounding water and so cause calcium carbonate to
•Precipitation can also occur through inorganic
means. Example: As seawater
evaporates, it often leaves behind salts which have precipitated out. This is how halite
(salt) is formed.
Lithification of a sedimentary rock
•Once either clastic or chemical sediment is formed, it becomes sedimentary rock th
sediment transport, deposition and diagenesis, or the alteration of sediments that create
rock out of deposited sediments.
•Each of these steps occur in many ways, but each of these processes will leave clues in
the characteristics of the rocks.
•Sediment can be transported in many ways. The main types of transport are through
wind action, water action, glacial or ice action, or mass wasting (mass movement of
Earth, through avalanches, slides, slumps and so on).
•Each of these processes l
eaves telltale marks on the rocks that are produced.
•Example: Sediments transported by water often have rounded, sorted grains because of
the abrading, polishing action of the sediments transported in the flow.
•Example: Sediments transported by glac
iers are often broken and shattered by the
grinding action of the travelling glacier. Thus, the sediments are commonly angular rather
•Sediment deposition occurs when the method of transport is unable to carry the sediment
•This is related to the size and weight of the grains and thus is an indicator of the power
and speed of the transporting mechanism.
•Example: Wind action cannot transport grains much larger than sand.
•Example: Glaciers are slow movers, but because
they are so large, they can carry
sediment the size of boulders for great distances, depositing them only when the ice melts
transported sediment is usually no larger than sand
Glacial till can be comprised of all sizes of
sediment from silt and mud to boulders.
Diagenesis or Lithification
Changes that sediment undergoes after deposition are referred to as diagenesis. This
includes any transformations during and after formation into a rock. The actual process of
ation from sediment is called lithification.
•Diagenesis occurs through the processes of compaction, cementation, recrystallization
and chemical alterations of the sediment.
Compaction is the simplest change that sediments can undergo.
rs as the weight of accumulating sediment forces the rock and mineral
grains together. This reduces pore space and eliminates some of the contained water.
Cementation is a result of water circulating through the pore spaces of a sediment.
•If that wa
ter carries in it dissolved substances that then precipitate out during circulation,
those substances left behind in the sediments can act as cementing agents.
•Calcium carbonate is one of the most common cements because it is found abundantly in
After burial, occasionally less stable minerals may change to more stable forms through
recrystallization. That is, the minerals begin to grow again, interlocking with each other.
•This process is important in the alteration of more porous limeston
e to harder, more
compact versions of this mineral.
Chemical alterations can also affect sediments.
•If oxygen is present, organic remains are quickly converted into carbon dioxide and
water. This is called an oxydizing environment.
•In the absence of
oxygen to bond with, organics will be transformed into solid carbon,
such as peat and coal.
•From a planetary perspective, chemical alterations can also occur. For example, the
transported sediments of Mars have been subjected to the chemical proces
s of rust.
Classifying sedimentary rocks
•Sediments can be distinguished from other rock types by the presence of stratification,
by the size and texture of the grains, and by the presence of grain sorting.
•Although each of these characteristics may not
be present, those that are, are usually
excellent clues as to the processes that formed the sedimentary rocks in question.
•Because sediments are typically laid down at the Earth’s surface, they tend to form in
s. These are called strata (singular = stratum).
•This layered arrangement of strata in a body of rock is referred to as bedding. Each bed
may be different from those around it, in thickness, in typical grain size, or in other
rences in beds are clues to changes in the way sediments were deposited or
bedded standstone near Kanab, Utah, consists of ancient sand dunes that have been
converted to sedimentary rock. Cross strata are inclined to the right, in the
toward which the winds were blowing.
•Planar, or parallel bedding usually occurs in water, where currents or waves are
•Ripple marked bedding indicates wave or wind action.
•Cross bedding are the work of turbulent flow in water or
•Graded bedding, or sorting of grains with large ones near the bottom, is usually formed
from standing water in which sediments have been able to settle out.
•Often sedimentary rocks are classified by grain size.
•Grain size is
an indicator of the strength or speed of the transport mechanisms.
•An abundance of smaller grains indicates a weaker or slower transport mechanism (wind
or a slow moving stream). Conversely, larger grains of sediment would result from
stronger or faste
r forces (floods, glaciers).
•Example: Wapatki sandstone, with grains almost too small to be seen. These sediments
were laid down by slow
•Grain texture refers to the angularity or roundedness of the grains in a sedimentar
•Angular grains are commonly broken from bedrock, while rounded grains have been
abraded by other fragments.
•Typically the more rounded a grain is, the more time that grain has come into contact
with other grains, and thus the longer the dista
nce of travel for that grain.
•Sorting is a conspicuous feature of many sedimentary rocks. Sorting is the process by
which grains of like size or weight are grouped together in a rock. This process is most
common in air or water transported sedime
•Sorting is often an indicator of the energy of the transport mechanism: poor sorting
means lower energy or glacial transport.
•Grains can be sorted by specific gravity, for instance, as heavier particles carried in a
stream may fall out of the flo
w before lighter particles.
•Grains in a rock or bed may also be sorted by size, which is more important when most
grains are of the same mineral (and thus similar specific gravity).
•Finally, if transport if sediment is particularly long, grains may be
sorted by durability.
Thus, in some cases, the only grains that survive the distance are the most resistant to
weathering and fracture
Well sorted grains in a sandstone sample.
Poorly sorted grains in a conglomerate.
•Other features that are found commonly in sedimentary rocks include fossils and various
•Fossils, the remnants of animals and plants, are often buried with sediments, protected
against oxydation and erosion, and are converted to ro
ck. Fossils are indicators of the
climate, surface or sea temperature, and precipitation at the time of burial.
•Ripple marks from waves and mud cracks of dry lake beds can also be preserved and
lithified to create sedimentary rock.
•Sediments (and thus sedimentary rocks) are formed in many environments, which can be
grouped into four large categories: non
marine water environments, ice or glacial
environments, eolian environments and ocean environments.
marine water sedim
ents are formed in streams and lakes. Both mechanical and
chemical sediments are important. Lakes or dry lake beds, especially, are places to look
for chemically deposited sediment.
•Sediments eroded and transported by glaciers are deposited at the base o
f the glacier or
released at its edge during melting.
transported sediments are typically found in eolian environments, better known as
•Ocean sediments are formed either in near
shore environments such as beaches, lagoons
and deltas, offs
hore on the continental shelf (like reefs), or in the deep sea.