Biometric Authentication in a Biometric Authentication in a Wireless Environment Wireless Environment

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 1 mois)

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Biometric Authentication in a
Biometric Authentication in a
Wireless Environment
Wireless Environment
7/16/2013
1
Wireless Environment
Wireless Environment
Dr. Mohammad Iqbal
Thanks to : Alex Kotlarchyk, Florida Atlantic University
Goals
Goals

Biometric protocols suitable for a
wireless networked environment

Secure system/network access via
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Secure system/network access via
biometric authentication

Secure wireless transmission of
biometric data
Why Wireless Biometrics?
Why Wireless Biometrics?

Combination of two rapidly growing
technologies
1.
Biometric systems for verification and
identification
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identification

Homeland Security
2.
Wireless systems for mobility

Over 1 trillion wireless phone min. in US,
2004

Common advantage is convenience
Current Examples of Biometric
Current Examples of Biometric
Deployments
Deployments

Eastern Financial’s Boca Mission Bay branch

Handprint scan to unlock the door to safe deposit boxes

Statue of Liberty

Fingerprint scan to access lockers
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4

Nine Zero hotel in Boston

Iris scan for entrance to $3,000
-
a
-
night suite

Piggly
-
Wiggly grocery stores

Testing pay
-
by
-
fingerprint system

Bank of Tokyo
-
Mitsubishi

Credit cards w/ embedded vein
-
pattern information
Human authentication
Human authentication

Types of human authentication

What you
know
(secret)

Password, PIN, mother’s maiden name

What you
have
(token)
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What you
have
(token)

ATM card, smart card

What you
are
(
biometric
)

Stable: fingerprint, face, iris

Alterable: voice, keystroke

Where
you are (authorization?)

Wireless
Suitability of Biometrics
Suitability of Biometrics

Paradox of secure biometrics

A biometric is stable and distinctive. This is
good for identification.

However, something unique can never be
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However, something unique can never be
changed. This is not so good for verification if
the biometric is compromised.

Furthermore, a biometric is not a secret, so it
can be found and copied. This is bad.

So, are stability and uniqueness not good after
all?
Keyspace
Keyspace

Number of possible codewords (CW)

Token

12
-
digit: CW = 10^12 CWs

Password

Full 62 ASCII alphanumeric chars used randomly in an 8
-
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Full 62 ASCII alphanumeric chars used randomly in an 8
-
char password = over 10^14 CWs

Most actual users selection
≈ 10^6 CWs, so in practice, the
12
-
digit token is more secure

Biometrics (2001 technology, may change)

≈ inverse of FAR

Iris ≈ 10^6 CWs

Fingerprint ≈ 10^4 CWs

Voice ≈ 10^3 CWs

Face ≈ 10 → 100 CWs
Increasing Keyspace
Increasing Keyspace

Combined authentication to increase
keyspace

Multibiometric authentication

More than one biometric
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More than one biometric

Combine standard biometrics (e.g. face and fingerprint
(multimodal), or multiple fingerprints)

Combine standard biometric with “soft” biometric

Soft biometric = gender, height, race, eye color,
etc.

Multifactor authentication

More than one authentication type

Combine biometric w/ password or token
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Source: Technology Review, June 2004
Biometric Advantages
Biometric Advantages

Convenience

Can’t be lost (in general)

Can’t be forgotten

Can’t be loaned
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Can’t be loaned

Mostly unique (matching may not be)

Perceived strong non
-
repudiation

Does not change significantly (in general)
(Ident.)

Both verification and identification
applications
Biometric Disadvantages
Biometric Disadvantages

Ability to authenticate dependent on
technology (FAR, FRR)

Personal data, but not secret/secured data

Easy to copy raw data
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Easy to copy raw data

Cost of technology

Non
-
revocable

Cannot change if compromised (Ver.)

Inexact matching (variable presentation)

Social acceptance
Biometric Authentication System
Biometric Authentication System
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Source: Podio, NIST
Template Size
Template Size
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Wireless Biometric System Security
Wireless Biometric System Security

Security issues

Biometric authentication to ensure secure
access to the system/network

In other words, wireless system access security
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In other words, wireless system access security

Wireless message authentication to ensure
secure transmission of biometric data

In other words, personal information security and
privacy across the wireless network

Physical security

Devices, computers, transmitters/receivers, etc.
Biometric Authentication Threats
Biometric Authentication Threats
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Defense of Biometric System
Defense of Biometric System

Capture device presented with ‘false’
biometric

e.g. fake finger, short video, high
-
res
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e.g. fake finger, short video, high
-
res
color iris image, latent image

Use biometric ‘in addition’ not ‘instead
of’ (multi
-
verification)

Vitality sensor, 3
-
D confirmation
Defense of Biometric System
Defense of Biometric System
(continued)
(continued)

Modification of capture device

Only a problem if capture and template
generation (and maybe matching) are done on
the device (trusted biometric device)
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the device (trusted biometric device)

Tightly integrate capture mechanism with
processing hardware

Ruggedize device

Display physical sign of tampering

Inactivate if tampered (TILT!)

Encryption of template
Defense of Biometric System
Defense of Biometric System
(continued)
(continued)

Remainder are network security or
template database security issues

Wireless network security will be
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Wireless network security will be
discussed

Database security is beyond the scope
of this presentation

Don’t forget OS security
Biometric Cryptography
Biometric Cryptography

Use of biometric data for encryption
& decryption

“fuzzy” commitment, vault

Ari
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“fuzzy” commitment, vault

Ari
Juels, RSA Labs
Biometric Cryptography (example)
Biometric Cryptography (example)
Template
(key)
Password
(hashed)
E(h(Pwd))
Enroll
(Encrypt)
00000 11111
01010 10101
01010 01010
“stored”
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Verify
(Decrypt)
Template
(key)
compare
11010 11101
10000 10111
Hamming
Distance = 2
Within
Threshold?
“live”
Biometrics Standards
Biometrics Standards

Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFF)

ANSI
-
NIST
-
ITL
-
2000

Data exchange & quality

Criminal identification

American Association for Motor Vehicle Administration (AAMVA) DL/ID
2000

FBI
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FBI

Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ)

fingerprint image (de)compression

Electronic Fingerprint Transmission Standard (EFTS)

Intel Common Data Security Architecture (CDSA)

ANSI X9.84

Biometric data security (life cycle)

Originally developed for financial industry; uses CBEFF

APIs

Open: BioAPI, Java Card Biometric API; uses CBEFF

Proprietary: BAPI
…what is Microsoft planning?

XCBF

XML Common Biometric Format from OASIS; uses CBEFF

Mechanisms for secure transmission, storage, integrity, & privacy of biometrics
Biometric Standards
Biometric Standards

Recently from NIST…

Biometric Data Specification for Personal
Identity Verification (PIV)

January 24, 2005 (Draft)

New standards governing interoperable use of
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New standards governing interoperable use of
identity credentials to allow physical and logical
access to federal government locations and systems

Technical and formatting requirements for biometric
credentials

Restricts values and practices for fingerprints and
facial images

Geared toward FBI background checks and formatting
data for a PIV card

CBEFF and BioAPI compliant
CBEFF
CBEFF
-
-
Overview
Overview

Framework for sharing raw or template
data

Supports encryption & digital signature
for security
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for security

File = SBH (header) + BSMB (data) + SB
(signature)

Patrons identify the data format

Approved interchange formats

Finger Minutiae, Finger Pattern, Finger Image,
Face Recognition, Iris, Signature/Sign, Hand
Geometry
CBEFF Patron Formats
CBEFF Patron Formats

Format A

The CBEFF Data Structure

Patron: CBEFF

Small embedded or legacy systems, limited storage

No data exchange between systems

Format B

The BioAPI Specification Biometric Identification
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Format B

The BioAPI Specification Biometric Identification
Record (BIR) Format

Patron: BioAPI Consortium

BioAPI compliant systems

Client / server data exchange

Format C

ANSI X9.84 Biometric Object

Patron: ANSI Subcommittee X9, Working Group F4

Large systems

Data exchange in a secure manner with authentication

Format D

Biometric Information Data Objects for Use Within
Smart Cards or Other Tokens (recent)… e.g. Java Card
Wireless Advantages
Wireless Advantages

Mobility

Flexibility

Easier to relocate and configure

More scalable

Cost
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Cost

No cost due to physical barriers, private property.

Productivity

More opportunity to connect

Aesthetics

No clutter from wires

Robustness

Less physical infrastructure to damage and repair
Wireless Disadvantages
Wireless Disadvantages

Lower channel capacity

Limited spectrum available

Power restrictions

Noise levels
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Noise levels

Noise and interference

Frequency allocation

U.S.

FCC

Greater security concern

Information traveling in free space
Wireless Protocols
Wireless Protocols

Network domains

Broadband

IEEE 802.16, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)

framework, not single system or class of service

Cellular networks

Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS =WCDMA)
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Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS =WCDMA)

Cordless systems

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Time Division Duplex (TDD)

Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP)

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

IEEE 802.11 (Wi
-
Fi) a,b,g
(n … not yet ratified)

Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)

IrDA, Bluetooth, ultra wideband, wireless USB

Home Automation (narrow band)

Infineon, ZigBee, Z
-
Wave
Wireless Protocol Comparison
Wireless Protocol Comparison
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Source: PC Magazine, March 22, 2004
Security and Protocols
Security and Protocols

Security domains

Application security

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

Uses Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)

Current Class 2 devices based on IETF SSL/TLS

Future Class 3 devices will use a WAP Identity Module (WIM)

Web services
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Web services

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

toolkits available for Java & .NET

Operating system security (Java run
-
time, Palm OS, Microsoft Windows CE)

Device security (PINs, pass
-
phrases, biometrics)

Security of wireless protocols

IEEE 802.11 (Wi
-
Fi)

Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP)… weak and flawed

Wi
-
Fi Protected Access (WPA). Uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)

IEEE 802.11i

Wireless Security spec. (WPA, AES, FIPS 140
-
2 compliant)

Authentication security

Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

Kerberos

SSL
Network Encryption
Network Encryption

Secure Shell (SSH)

Application Layer

Secure remote connection replacement for telnet, rlogin,
rsh

Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
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Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Uses TCP & has specific port numbers

Main use is HTTPS (port 443)

Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)

Network Layer

Includes a key management protocol

Included in IPv6
Network System Architecture
Network System Architecture

Where does authentication happen?

Device

Data not externally transmitted

Local Computer

Data transmitted between device(s) and PC (WPAN)
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Data transmitted between device(s) and PC (WPAN)

LAN
-
Connected Computer

Data transmitted locally (WLAN)

Remote Computer

Data transmitted remotely (WWAN)

Application dependent

Data transmitted between capture device and database

Database template storage requirement = template size *
number of templates
Avenues of Attack
Avenues of Attack
Local Computer
LAN
-
connected Computer
LAN
= wireless
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Capture
Device
WAN
Remote Computer
Wireless Security Issues
Wireless Security Issues

Denial of Service (DoS)

Jamming…Use Spread Spectrum (DSSS, FHSS) technology

As a device battery attack, i.e., more processing = more battery usage

Eavesdropping

Signal is in the open air (war dialing)

Theft or loss of device
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Theft or loss of device

Due to size, portability, and utility

Dependency on public
-
shared infrastructure

What security is in place?

Masquerading

Rogue clients pretend to be legitimate endpoint

Rogue access points trick clients to logging in

Malware

Worms (Cabir) and Viruses (Timfonica, Phage) on wireless devices

Use Antivirus software
Wireless Security Paradox
Wireless Security Paradox

We use wireless devices for
convenience

Security measures often decrease
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Security measures often decrease
convenience and performance

Result: Security features are often
disabled or given lower priority
System Design Considerations
System Design Considerations

Verification

Are you who you claim to be (or are supposed to be)?

1:1 matching

Usually consensual

Typically smaller template databases

Authorization (computer, network, building)
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Authorization (computer, network, building)

Identification

Who are you?

1:n matching

Often no explicit consent or awareness

Typically larger template databases

Surveillance (homeland and border security), forensics, criminal
investigation (AFIS)

Why not both?

i.e. You are not who you say you are, so who are you?
Scenario: Biometrics at the Airport
Scenario: Biometrics at the Airport

Workforce security

Biometric authentication

Identify all employees who require restricted area access

ID card encoded to protect data

Biometric scanning devices networked at access control points to
permit/deny access

Facility integrity
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Facility integrity

Employees w/ vehicle access must be authenticated via biometrics

Access control within aircraft

Biometric devices for authorized personnel to access sensitive areas within
aircraft

Communications infrastructure

Networked biometric scanning stations

Passenger security

Authenticate passengers with passports or ID cards containing
encoded biometrics

Identify suspicious or unknown people with biometric surveillance
Putting it Together
Putting it Together

How do we maximize advantages and
minimize disadvantages when a
biometric system is combined with a
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biometric system is combined with a
wireless system for an optimal
wireless biometric system?
Future Research
Future Research

Pattern for “fuzzy” matching?

Biometrics, digital watermarks, IDS, search
engines

Biometric cryptography
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Biometric cryptography

Biometric key generation

Fuzzy matching methodologies

Embedding biometric keys within wireless protocols

X.509 certificates

Protocol payload area

Protocol header (authentication) area

Use coefficients? (polynomial, elliptic curve)