QR Codes rough draftx - APStudioArtCurriculumModule2012

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14 déc. 2013 (il y a 3 années et 3 mois)

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Cracking the QR Code


Alice Taylor


Killeen Independent School District Career Center


Lesson Summary:


All art is communication. Sometimes the artist’s message is very easy to understand;
other times we have to work at teasing out the intent behind the
subtle arrangement of
line, shape, color and value.




In this lesson the student will use the tools of commerce, QR

(Quick Response)

Codes
and Bar Codes, to transcend the commercial origins of the codes and create ar
t that is a
part of both worlds
-

the wo
rld of fine art and the world of commercial art
-

and in that
process explore how
to create interactivity in art that encourages communication and
understanding between the artist and the viewer
.


Lesson Background

and Goals
:



In commercial art the
artist’s intent is overt. His drawin
g is used to promote or explain a
product or an idea
.

In fine art, the artist still has a message, but the message is more
personal

and subtle

and the fine artist’s goal isn’t as

much as to promote or explain, but to
sh
are his ideas and feelings with the wider world.

The g
oal of this lesson is to take a
commercial

application, the QR code, and use it as a medium of artistic communication
and in doing so learn how technology can serve artistic goals as well as commercial
and
technological needs.


Marketers and manufacturers use QR codes to s
tore and retrieve information and to
communicate with customers.
Originally, QR codes
, which were invented in Japan in
1994,

were first used by the automotive indus
try to track car part
s, but now
the
ubiquitous marks

are

on all types of products and advertising. The information they hold
can be made up of anything that is printed as data
, such as numbers,
images,
symbols and
words
.
The message hidden inside can be as simple as a web
address

or telephone
number

or as complex as a poem.


Connections to the AP Course:



Cracking the QR Code

is designed to support the AP course curriculum by emphasizing
composition and the roles texture and patter
n

play in creating a lively arrangement of
focal point and elem
ents, but, more importantly,
also emphasizes the communication that
all artists have with their viewers. At all point
s in

this lesson the communication, both
literally and figuratively, between

the artist and the view
er

is emphasized

so that this
lesson is not about simply creating a pattern with visual interest, but creating work with a
message
. Within the confines of the QR code itself, the artist
-
student is encouraged to
create engaging and
creative art that

keeps the viewer's interest visually, emotionally and
intellectually.



Student Learning Outcomes
:

-

The student will learn how QR Codes are used in industry and advertising.

-

The student will learn how to use the artistic principles
and elements of pattern,
repetition of shape, and focal point to create unity and to lead the eye around the artwork
in an effective and interesting composition. Texture and pattern as a part of the overall
composition will be emphasized as a lower
-
level l
earning objective.

-
The student will learn
to consider the overt as well as the hidden

messages that are a part
of a work of art. As an upper
-
level learning objective, the student will
work at

integrating
the visual aspects of the total work with the messa
ge hidden in the QR code to create a
coherent piece that conveys meaning to the view
er

and takes advantage of the
interactivity inherent in using QR and bar codes.


T
eacher Prerequisite Knowledge:



-
The teacher will

need
to understand

how QR and bar codes
are

used
.



-

The teacher will need to be familiar wi
th downloading images from the I
nternet and
the
basic use of a search engine and a web browser.

To use a QR code you need to first
download a QR scanning application to your smartphone. Then, when you see a code,
you open the scanning application and use the camera in the phone to focus the code on
your screen. The application will unlock the code a
nd if you are connect to the Internet,
automatically give you a link, video, words or an image in your phone's browser.


-

The teacher will need to b
e familiar with digital graphic

technology (scanners,
computers, and digital graphics

software and

applicat
ion
s
) OR graphics and drawing
techniques used

to trace and/or transfer the QR code on to a suitable drawing surface.


Student Prerequisite Knowledge:



-

The student will need to be familiar with downloading images from the Internet and
basic use of a sear
ch engine and a web browser.


-

The student will need to be familiar with digital graphics technology (scanners,
computers, and digital graphi
cs software and applications).
This lesson can be taught with
a basic understanding of digital graphics applicatio
ns, but it would be helpful if the
student came in to t
he lesson knowing how to upload
, create, open and save files.
Using a
selection tool, compositing skills and the basic use of his applications tool bar would also
be helpful, however this lesson can be

used

in conjunction with training

those skills, if
needed.



[B]
Materials and Equipment:


This lesson can be taught with or without sophisticated computer applications

by using
traditional tracing and transferring techniques
, however you will still need
som
e access to
the Internet for downloading the QR codes
.

This lesson plan is written with the
assumption that the class will have access to computers with digital manipulation
software such as Adobe Photoshop or Autodesk Ske
t
chbook or an equivalent.


You
will need

or it will be helpful to

also

have
:


-

Access to the Internet, where a student
can download a QR or bar code.
While

websites come and go, here are a few that you can try out.



Site to create a bar code


h
ttp://www.barcodesinc.com/generator/ind
ex.php


Site to create a QR code


h
ttp://www.
qrcode.kaywa.com/


Site to create a QR code


http://www.qurify.com/en/


Site to create a QR code


http://www.qrstuff.com/



-
Access to a digital scanner to scan original drawings (optional)


-
Access to a
digital camera for original photographs (optional)


-
Access to a drawing pad or tablet (optional)


-
Access to a smart phone (optional, although it's good to have at least one in the

room to test your QR codes with)


Download

to your

smart phone a QR code
reader.
QR code readers and bar code readers
can be
downloaded as an app for free.
They are available on Apple, Blackberry,
Microsoft,

and Android products.

For more information on downloading a QR/bar code
reader to your phone you can

consult your cell ph
one carr
ier or manufacturers website or

go to


http://www.708media.com/qrcode/qr
-
code
-
readers
-
iphone
-
android
-
blackberry
-
windows
-
phone
-
7/


Student Activity:


The student's

assignment is to create an artwork using QR codes as part of the overall
design of an original artwork. The purpose of a QR code is to deliver a message.
The
student's

job is to
create an artwork that
deliver
s

a message with the visuals
he

create
s

and, at

the same time, encourage
his

audience to interact with
the

art by finding a relevant
message hidden in
the
QR codes.


Guide the students to

look at these artists who use QR codes in their artwork



http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2011/technology/1111/galle
ry.23_coolest_qr_codes.fortu
ne/index.html


http://www.pcworld.com/article/243123/qr_codes_help_paint_the_deeper_pictures_behin
d_art.html


A search engine query using the terms "QR", "code", "artwork",
and
"illust
ration" will
also turn up samples of QR code

artwork.


When viewing the artwork, ask your students these questions.
How do the artists
integrate QR codes in their work? In some works the codes are just one element in a
larger work; in other pieces the artwork is hidden in the code or is part of the
code.
Which do you think is more effective as a means of communicating a message and why?


How To Get S
tarted
;

Instructions for Students
:


Step one


Decide on a theme for your art and how the QR code will be used to enhance
the message. Will the code driv
e your viewer to a website? Will it hide a poem or a
message?

Will it answer a question?
You are planning an artwork that is both visual and
has a deep level of interactivity with your viewer. Give them a reason to pull out their
phones and scan your work.



Step two


Gather artwork, photographs and drawings you wish to include in your final
work of art.

Sketch out three thumbnails (
minimum) and plan your artwork.
What is your
focal point? What elements are you using to lead the eye

around the page?
Are
you going
to use color in the code or leave it black and white? Is the code going to be hiding in the
work or is it going to

be up front and in your face?
How will your composition and the
elements you use in it enhance your message?


Step three


Using the

provided web sites, create a QR code with your message.
Write
your message and check it for spelling and grammatical errors.
Use the largest possible
file option that the website gives you. You
may create as many as you want.
The code
(depending on which
website you use) will download or save as a .png or .jpg file. Some
websites will allow you to use color

for the code instead of black and white
, but be
careful and make sure that the colors you use will scan. Read the comments under the
Hints for Working
with QR Codes

first.


Step four


Create a file in your application that is
16 x 2
0 inches (landscape or portrait
orientation), RGB mode,
72

dpi. (
Teachers
-

You can

change the specs to suit your

own

technical

requirements.
)


Step five


Import your QR codes, artwork, photographs, etc
.

in to your digital graphics
program and create your
art
work!

As you work, remember to constantly test your codes
to make sure they continue to be readable.


Hints For Working W
ith QR Codes:


Print, post o
r publish these hints where students can go back and refer to them during the
project.


Adding color


You can add color and gradients to your QR codes without effecting
readability, but contrast is very important. Keep the colors dark and again
st a light
background.
High contrast will keep the
code's ability to scan intact.
Don't use a reverse,
inverse or negative code because many scanners can't read them.


Roughing up the edges


You can soften the hard edges of the code bars

(the black parts)

and round the corners and the code will still scan, but it's important that the three corner
boxes you see in all co
des stay reasonably whole.
The

three main

corner blocks are used
by the scanner to li
ne up the
image

so

that

it can be decoded
. If you alter

the edges

of the
black boxes and lines
, test your code frequently with your phone to make sure you're not
degrading the code to the point that it's unworkable.


How far can you go

with inserting images or messing up the code
?


Thirty (30
%)
percent of the

QR code's data can be obstructed or missing

and the code will still scan.
You can generate code with

a

10, 20, 3
0 percent error rate built in.
If your code generator
has the option
, use the highest number of data

input your code generator
allows
.
In othe
r
words, write lots of stuff.
A paragraph of writing
will create code with

more squiggles,
lines and boxes than
one

with only three word
s and so will create extra squares and lines

in the code and more "noise".
With more "noise" you can remove or manipulat
e more of
the code and it will still work.


How do I know if I've gone to
o

far?


Figuring out how much

of the

code

image

you
can remove or change is simply a trial and error exercise. Set up your phone to read the
cod
e

and then scan directly from your computer screen as you're working to see if the
code is still good.


Teacher Learning Outcomes:


This lesson will help teachers improve their skill in teaching composition and the use of

the principle of

pattern and

the el
ement of

texture. QR codes create a strong, eye
-
catching pattern and as such can quickly become the focal point of a compos
ition. The
teacher can use this to help students understand how

a viewer's eye

is attracted to pattern
and

tracks around a composit
ion much the same way a computer scanner tracks and scans
the QR code.

Because of the strong patterns already inside the codes, the students will
need to be very cognizant of their focal point and how to add elements that won't be
overwhelmed by pattern and will contribute to the artist's message.


The teacher will also ne
ed to emphasize the planning process
, no matter how brief,

that is
inherent in all good art. The student must be aware of his message from the very
beginning because it's embedded in the code and he must refer back to his message as he
creates his art.


A
teacher will need to be familiar with strategies to explain to students how compositions
are designed in the beginning stages with a deliberate intent to create a focal point and to
position elements that lead the eye around the page.



Formative Assessme
nt
:


The goal of a formative assessment is to mea
sure progress and understanding and using
the assessment to guide students back on to the right track if they get off course, so the
best time to schedule a formative assessment is in the beginning

of the pr
ocess, not at the
end

when most of the work has been done.


Ask yourself, as a teacher, these questions

when you look at the formative assessments
-

-

Do my students understand the technical demands of this assignment? Am I answering
the same questions from

multiple students about how to manage the computer
applications? If you're answering the same question from several students, you can be
sure that there are students too shy to ask and that area might need re
-
teaching.


-

Look at your student's work and
see if they understand what you mean by "artist's
intent"

and how a QR code can tie in another media (a poem, for instance) with the visual
work the student is creating
. Sometimes students take the teacher's description of what an
artist's i
ntent is too li
terally and think

that your examples are part of the assignment

and
you end up with 30 students drawing QR codes of "The Raven" and all leading to a Edgar
Allan Poe site
. Reinforce individual creativity and encourage your students to take risks
with their
work.


A rubric for a formative assessment for the QR code project can look like this

handout
,
with each section counting as 25 points.


[A]
Handout #1
, Rubric for a Formative Assessment


Summative Assessment
:


The goal of a summative
assessment is to
measure the quality of the product as well as
the

understanding

of the student's knowledge of a subject at a particular point in time
.
Now

that

the project is done the teacher will make sure the

learning

goals he had a
t

the
beginning of the project have been met.


A rubric for a summative

assessment for the QR code project can look like this

(Handout
#2)
. This simple, three part rubric broadly aligns with the AP Draw and 2D portfolio
rubrics

and emphasizes composition, t
echnical proficiency and creativity
.

If you have
included technical lessons as a part of this project (for instance, how to use selection tools
in Photoshop or how QR codes are used in

industry) then now would be good

time to
include an objective test as p
art of the summative grading package.



When you are reviewing this assignment, ask yourself these questions
-


-

Did my students understand the technical requirements of this assignment and would I
teach those aspects differently next time? Would I need to

go over how to import photos,
use gradients, composite artwork or any other technical aspects more deeply?


-

Did my students understand how to use a pattern

as strong and eye
-
catching as a QR
code

as part of the overall composition? Did they understand w
hat a focal point was and
did they use the image of the code in the composition in such a way that it either
enhanced

the focal

or

deliberately

became

the focal point?


-

Did my students understand how to creatively meld different media (artwork and
techno
logy) to create a coherent work of art with a unified message?



In this rubric o
ne point is given for completing and turning in the work on time. Add the
remaining points for a score and then multiply the score by 10 to create a score suitable
for a
grade book.

Adding a ".5" to a score for those instances where you think it's
merited will not disrupt the math.


[A]
Handout #2
, Rubric for a Summative Assessment


Reflection and Critique:


Print off the works on to standard printing paper and tape them
up in a hall or other
public area where all of them can be seen at the same time.

Have your class review them
as a group and allow them to use their phones to interact with the art.


You'll find that some works will not scan and it's a good time to ask y
our students why
they think the art didn’t

scan correctly.
Lead them back to the
Hints for working with
QR Codes
if they need to
remember

the technical requirements.


Pass out 3 sticky
-
notes to each student and ask them to leave a message to the artists,
creating a further interactive loop with the artwork. Guide your students with a brief
reminder of critique etiquette; "Eff
ective critiques are specific.
Saying "this is good" or

"this is bad" is not helpful.
Tell him WHY you did or didn't like a certain e
lement of the
art and WHAT the artist can do to remedy or enhance the features you are talking about.
Tell him WHAT you specifically like
d

and W
HAT

you don't understand.
And before you
walk away, tell yourself what you think is interesting and what you wo
uld l
ike to try out
later."


Timeline for Teaching:


This timeline assumes a 55
-
minute period and that the students do not need training on
using the computer or the digital g
r
aphic software. This is a six
-
day assignment

but the
amount of time you allot depends on the level of complexity you require in the finished
work
.

Work that uses type and photographs will take less time than work using original
drawings.


Day one
-

Introduce the assignment

Investigate other artist's

work

Discussion of technical problems

Discussion of the
art and items that the student will gather such as QR codes,
photog
raphs, artwork, typography, etc.

Discussion of the grading criteria and the timeline for completion

Remaining time will be used for
investigating QR code websites, developing the idea and
creating thumbnails.


Day two
-

Class time will be used to set up files, create photographs and/or artwork to use in the
finished piece.

Work day for students.


Day three
-


Formative grade assessed to
make sure students are keeping o
n track and are ready to
work.
Work

day for students.


Day four
-

Work

day for students.


Day five
-


Finish
artwork

and print.
Turn in work by the end of class.


Day six
-


Post work in hall and critique.
Have fun!


Student
Work Samples
:


[A] Handout #3


References:


Hetland,

Lois
,

et al
.

Studio Thinking
-

The Real Benefits of Visual Arts Education
.

Teachers College:

Columbia Univers
ity,

2007
. Print.


Fish, Elizabeth.

"QR Codes Help Paint the Deeper Pictures Behind Art". PC World, Nov.
3, 2011

<
http://www.pcworld.com/article/243123/qr_codes_help_paint_the_deeper_pictures_beh
ind_art.html
>


Kantrowitz, Alex. "Gallery
-

The 23 Coolest QR Codes." CNN
-
Money, Nov. 2, 2011

<
ht
tp://money.cnn.com/galleries/2011/technology/1111/gallery.23_coolest_qr_codes.fort
une/index.html
>


Pidaparthy, Umika.
"
Marketers embracing QR codes, for better or worse
.
"

CNN, March
28, 2011

<
http://articles.cnn.com/2011
-
03
-
28/tech/qr.codes.marketing_1_qr
-
smartphone
-
users
-
symbian?_s=PM:TECH
>


Alice Taylor teaches at the Killeen Independent School District Career Center, a Career
and Technology Education (CTE) school in Killeen, Texas. Her stud
ents
, all juniors and
seniors,
use

2D and 3D

computer graphics

programs and non
-
traditional media

as they

focus

on career and professional development

in the fields of animation,
graphic design
,

and
digital
illustration.
She has been teaching AP Studio Art

since 2003 and has been a
Reader for the AP Studio Art Exam since 2010
.