Current Events Project 1x - itgsfrau - Wikispaces

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14 déc. 2013 (il y a 3 années et 4 jours)

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PART 1 Find an Appropriate Article

1.

Find a current event article to analyze from our quarter theme. It must
contain the 4 required strands in the text (scenario, stakeholders, IT system,
social/ethical concern)

2.

Copy and paste the article at the bottom of
this worksheet.

3.

Highlight the individual words in the article that match each “strand”:

a.

YELLOW

= Theme/Topic

(must match this quarter’s assignment)
;

b.

GREEN

=
IT System

(whatever contains the computer chip)
;

c.

BLUE

=
Social/Ethical Issues

(only from the IT
GS IB List)
;

d.

PINK

=
Stakeholders

(everybody)


4.

If your highlighted article is a match for one of the specific topics in the
quarter theme,
r
ecord the title on the sign
-
up sheet in class in the matching
topic box. No repeat topics.



------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----

PART 2 Complete the
Current Event
Worksheet

5.

Complete the vocabulary table here on the worksheet with several
words
from the article and use G
oogle to define them.
Record the definitions in the
table below.

6.

Save often. Keep a copy in the cloud, on the AW server, or on a flash that
goes to school.

7.

Type your answers on this worksheet in black, size 12, and only submit your
own original work. Do not leave any spaces bla
nk.

8.

Save the completed project as a PDF file.

9.

Drop it into the ITGS Current Event Drop Box as soon as you are finished.

Be sure you have double checked that all sections have been completed
correctly, so that what you turn in is your best work.



------
------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------

PART 3 Make a Video and Complete a Summary Sheet

10.

Make a Blabber video (
www.blabber.com
) to summarize this
quarter’s
theme

and post your video on our class wiki:
https://itgsfrau.wikispaces.com/Blabbers
.

11.

Post your Current Event Project below the video; be sure your name and
topic are in the title above the video.

12.

Watch
everyone’s video and complete the Blabber summary assignment.

13.


Submit the completed summaries online to the Blabber Drop Box.













IDENTIFICATION

Your Name

Jian Forrest

Class Period

4

Today’s Date

August 23, 2012

Date of Article

August 20, 2012

Article Title

India caught in crossfire of global cyber war

Article Author

Unkown

Word Count

519

ITGS
Scenario/Theme

Military

ITGS Topic

Cyber warfare

SUMMARY

India is suffering from a virus known as stuxnet that was create

by the
U.S to stop Iran’s N
-
program.

COMPLETE URL

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012
-
08
-
20/security/33287146_1_stuxnet
-
sophisticated
-
computer
-
virus
-
duqu



FINDING AN ARTICLE



Use the 3 tables below to help yourself find a qualified current event story online.



The article must have at least 500 words, be dated within a year from today and
include all 4 required ITGS components.



Save those that do not match the assigned quarter theme, but can be used for a
different ITGS theme at a later date.



You must claim yo
ur topic/story by recording it on the sign
-
up sheet in class.
First come, first serve, no repeat topics.



You may
use
your textbooks, and the internet to complete this INDIVIDUAL
project.


PART

1:

REFLECT

ON THE “STRANDS”


You will have 5 minutes at the be
ginning of the IB ITGS Paper 2 exam to read an
IT
article.

You are advised to take the next 15 minutes to reflect on

the following 4

“strands” before
formulating your 4 responses.

Assignment 1 will teach you how to reflect at this deep level.


Scan the
tables to help you highlight your article and decide if it can be used for this project.
Using an article which does not involve a computer chip, will earn a zero. Your IT article must
also mention all 4 strands. Highlight only the words that match a stran
d, not entire sentences or
paragraphs. Check with the teacher, if you are not sure you have an appropriate article. Copy and
paste your highlighted news story to the end of this document.




THESE TABLES SHOW WHICH TOPICS
YOU MAY SEE
ON YOUR IB
ITGS EXAMS.




AS YOU READ THROUGH THEM,
GOOGLE & STUDY ANY TERMS
THAT ARE NEW TO YOU.

YOU ARE STUDYING FOR YOUR EXAMS
EACH TIME YOU DO THIS.


1. SCENARIO



Quarter 1 Juniors


Scenario

Theme

Topic

Politics and
Government

Political Processes

online campaigning



voting



lobbying



fund
-
raising and
advertising


Government Information
Sites

For example: travel
warnings, tourist
information,
environmental
information and
warnings, government
policies, city government
websites


Access to and updating of
Personal
Information
held on Government
Databases

collection, storage and
updating of personal
data
-

for example: driving
license, TV license, tax
returns, passport
applications and
renewals, medical
records, military service
records, social security
information, o
nline police
records


Government Control and
Use of Information

censorship



data matching across
agencies



archiving



biometric data



national identity cards


Law and Order

police surveillance



terrorist monitoring



DNA data


Military

cyber
warfare



smart weapons



espionage



battlefield technology



Quarter 2 Juniors


Scenario

Theme

Topic

The Environment

Modeling and Simulations

Climate change



Forecasting natural events or
demographic changes


Data Logging

Sensors



Probes



Real
-
time data collection


Satellite Communication

Remote sensing devices



Satellite imagery



Tagging


Mapping, Virtual Globes

Geographic information
systems (GIS)



Global positioning systems
(GPS)



Cell/mobile phone tracking



Online journey
planning



Online maps


E
-
waste

Disposal and recycling of IT
equipment



Monitoring organizations
(such as the Basel Action
Network).


Resource Depletion

Use of nonrenewable
resources for manufacturing
components



Electrical consumption of IT
systems


Quarter 3 Juniors


Scenario

Theme

Topic

Home and Leisure


Homes and Home
Networks

IT management of home
systems: for example:
lighting, security and
entertainment centers.


Digital Entertainment

films



photographs



music



arts



online and
digital games



gambling



virtual worlds


Social Networking




chat rooms



messaging



blogging



file sharing



wikis


Published and Broadcast
Information




books



newspapers



digital radio and TV



e
-
books



podcasts/vodcasts


Digital

Policing

monitoring organizations
such as the Recording
Industry Association of
America (RIAA) and the
Motion Picture Association of
America (MPAA).



Hardware, Software and
Networks

portable digital devices and
their ability to remotely
control other de
vices



IT
-
enabled appliances


Quarter 4 Juniors


Scenario

Theme

Topic

Business &
Employment

Traditional Businesses

Banks



ATMS



EFT (electronic funds
transfers)



Hotels



Supermarkets



Travel Agencies


Online Businesses

(e
-
commerce)

Teleworking



Web Stores


Transportation

Airline Reservations



Luggage Tracking



Package Tracking



Navigation



Traffic Control Systems



IT Systems in Cars



Quarter 1 Seniors


Scenario

Theme

Topic

Health


Diagnostic and Therapeutic
Tools

S
urgery



P
rosthetic devices



D
iagnostic technology



R
ehabilitation




P
atient monitoring



I
ndividualized IT
solutions for disabled
people



A
ccessibility


Medical Information, Medical
Marketing and Medical Sales

M
edical advice



E
-
prescriptions



T
elemedicine



E
lectronic health records



I
nternational health
cards


Medical Research

G
lobal collaboration



D
atabase for the Human
Genome Project



I
mproving patient
rehabilitation


Psychological and Physical
Considerations

I
nternet addiction



R
epetitive strain injury
(RSI)



E
rgonomics



Quarter 2 Seniors

Scenario

Theme

Topic

Education and
Training

Distance learning over large
areas

Hospitals



Prisons



Schools


Use of IT in Teaching and
Learning

Educational software



Online
research and forums



Quarter 3 & Quarter 4 Seniors


NO CURRENT EVENT PROJECT (WORK ON CASE STUDY & REVIEW FOR
EXAMS)


2.
IT SYSTEM

Identify the IT system(s) in your
current event article.

The story

MUST

involve a
t least one
system that uses a
computer chip. If you can’t find any
-

pick a new article!


Identify the
IT
System
(s) in your
Article.

Highlight

all
those that
Type of Technology?



Highlight

all

those
found in your
Which Social/Ethical
Concerns are there for this IT
System?

Highlight

all
those that match



Virtual learning environments
(VLE)



e
-
Books



Web 2.0/ Web 3.0



Educational networks



Use of mobile devices



Game
-
based learning



Fully immersive environments



Filtering and monitoring of
students’ internet use



1
-
to
-
1



m
-
learning


Hardware and Network
Technologies in the
Classroom

Laptop computers



Handheld devices



Interactive whiteboards


Provision for Special Needs

Inclusive software



Braille keyboards



Accessibility


School Administration

Record
-
keeping of staff and
finances



Libraries



Student Records



EDI (electronic data
interchange)

match

in
green
.

article in
green
.

your article in
green
.

H
ardware

Look for articles dealing with
a computer system consisting
of input devices, output
devices,

a central processing
unit and storage. The
increasing tendency to
develop hardware in modular
units raises a range of social
impacts and ethical issues
such as the use of non
-
renewable natural resources,
the global transportation of
manufactured component
s
and their eventual disposal by
individuals, organizations and
governments. Possible
solutions and their
effectiveness are also
appropriate topics.

o

PDAs

o

laptops

o

desktops

o

netbooks

o

tablets

o

MAC address

o

motherboards

o

CPUs, microprocessors

o

ports

o

keyboards,
mice, touch pads

o

microphones

o

webcams, digital cameras, digital
video cameras

o

sensors, probes, real
-
time data
collection

o

composite devices, such as game
controllers

o

touch sensitive devices

o

printers,

o

monitors,

o

speakers,

o

projectors

o

CD
-
ROM, DVD readers and bu
rners

o

optical mark recognition (OMR),
optical character recognition
(OCR), magnetic ink character
recognition (MICR)

o

radio frequency identification
(RFID), radio tags, bar code
scanners, magnetic stripe readers

o

smartcard readers

o

clock speeds: megahertz(MHz
),
gigahertz (GHz), terahertz (THz)

o

primary storage: read
-
only
memory (ROM), random
-
access
memory (RAM)

o

secondary storage: optical, and
magnetic; flash memory: USB
(universal serial bus) flash drive

o

Bit, byte, kilobyte (KB), megabyte
(MB), gigabyte (GB),
terabyte (B),
petabyte (PB), exabyte (EB),
zettabyte (ZB), yottabyte (YB)

o

character encoding: ASCII
(american standard code for
information interchange) and
unicode

o

analog and digital data

o

data, information, and hardware.

o

operating systems

o

responsible comp
uter use

o

a responsible and systematic
approach to implementing or
upgrading IT systems

o

health issues

o

ergonomics (physical comfort)
related to the use of hardware

o

increase in teleworking and
the virtual office

o

password protection, security,
biometrics and

authorized
access

o

the economic value of
information

o

proper disposal of old
hardware

o

greater dependence of
organizations on IT

o

other:




Software

Look for articles about
software associated with a
particular computer system.
The development of software
can have social impacts such
as increased access for
disabled people, and ethical
issues, such as only producing
packaging in a limited
number of languages,
o

applications such as word
processing, desktop publishing,
presentations, photo and video
editing, music and sound
development, website development

o

system software, such as operating
systems and utilities

o

interface
s, such as graphical user
interfaces (GUI),
command line
interface (CLI), menu
-
driven
interface (MDI),

and
voice

o

interfaces adapted for the
disabled

o

bug
-
free software

o

software piracy

o

globalization of software

o

use of pas
sword protection to
prevent unauthorized access

o

selecting a suitable operating
system

o

verifying that software is
legally installed, registered
effectively making English the
global language. Articles that
examine the effects of these
developm
ents on
stakeholders are also
appropriate.

o

licensing: shareware, public
domain, freeware, proprietary and
open source software

o

licensing authorities: Business
Software Alliance (BSA)

o

com
mercial and custom
-
built
(bespoke) software

o

registration, serial number,
warranty, copyright agreement

o

web
-
based software

o

user support: manuals, assistants,
tutorials, help systems, “Read Me”
files

o

Macros, templates, wizards

o

File formats, for example, RTF
(rich text format), TXT (text), PDF
(portable document format), XLS

(Excel spreadsheet), SWF (small
web format), ZIP (zipped file),
JPG/JPEG (Joint Photographic
Experts

Group bitmap), PNG
(portable network graphics
bitmap), CSV (comma
-
separated
values), HT
M/HTML

(hypertext
markup language)

o

Data transfer: ASCII (American
Standard Code for Information
Interchange), tab
-
delimited text
file,

zipped file

o

software and shareware

o

GUI, command
-
line interface, and
voice recognition.

o

d
efragmentation/optimization
and
disk utility software

o

backup, file management, account
and accessibility management

o

monitor and keyboard settings,
for example, international
settings, disability settings

o

virus scan, malware detectors
and removers

o

compression/decompression
(lossless, los
sy)

o

color synchronization

o

tutorial software, training software,
wizards and assistants

o

using wizards, assistants and online
assistants and web sites


and has available tech support

o

selecting protection from
viruses and malicious software

o

selecting a source to
obtain
software

o

balance in responsibility
between an individual and an
organization for training

o

the need for IT companies to
consider global and cultural
diversity when preparing
training and tutorial software

o

the requirement of
organizations to provide
t
raining when implementing
change

o

other:




Networks

Look for articles focused on a
type of network, the
development of acceptable
-
use policies, compatibility
protocols, effectiveness of
networks, the impact of
ineffective management and
network failure.

Almost all
businesses, institutions and
organizations, and an
increasing number of
households, are linked by
networks. The increasing use
o

e
-
commerce

o

security measures

o

types of intrusion like viruses and
hacking

o

encryption
and SSL

o

LAN and WAN

o

client, host and server

o

main frame, supercomputers

o

grid computing, distributed
processing

o

ethernet, peer
-
to
-
peer (P2P)

o

local area network (LAN), wide
area network (WAN), virtual LAN
(VLAN), wireless WAN (WLAN),
o

vulnerability of networks to
intrusion

o

ability to filter incoming data,

o

need for interface standards

o

implic
ations of network
failures

o

need for network use policy

o

other:

of networks raises a range of
social impacts and ethical
issues such as unauthorized

access, intrusive software
(viru
ses, worms and Trojan
horses), spam, phishing,
pharming, spoofing and

identity theft. Students are
expected to discuss possible
solutions and evaluate their
effectiveness.

and home networks

o

internet, intranet, extranet, virtual
private network (VPN)

o

routers, switches, hubs

o

connection types:
optical fiber, cable, wireless
technologies such as wireless
fidelity (WiFi), worldwide
interoperability for microw
ave
access (WiMax), Bluetooth,
microwave

o

network operating systems and
utility software

o

cloud computing

o

storage technologies: such as SAN
(storage area network), RAID
(redundant array of inexpensive
disks)

o

protocols for network functionality

o

synchronous a
nd asynchronous
functionality

o

remote access

o

bandwidth, broadband

o

bit rates

o

electronic security issues:
authorized access, levels of access,
biometrics, login, password,
firewalls, proxy server, encryption,
secure socket layer (SSL), audit
trails

o

licenses:
single
-
user, multi
-
user,
concurrent, network, site license

o

physical security, such as locks

o

monitoring, such as keystroke
monitoring, system performance,
surveillance

o

network policies, such as: backup,
archiving, disaster recovery, usage,
redundancy, fallo
ver

o

codes of ethics and professional
conduct: ACM (Association for
Computer Machinery)

o

data centers

o

energy usage, uninterruptable
power supply (UPS)




Internet

Look for articles about the
technology that enables
access to the internet, as well
as the tools and applications
that contribute to the creation
of web
-
based resources. The
use
of the internet for
activities such as e
-
commerce, academic research
and social networking can

raise ethical issues and have
positive or negative social
impacts. These may include
exposure to undesirable

materials, cyber
-
bullying, e
-
fraud, improved
communi
cation between
individuals and groups,
intellectual property theft,
plagiarism, spamming and the
o

e
-
mail

o

viruses

o

global d
atabases

o

encryption methods

o

features of a web page

o

the limiting effect of bandwidth

o

means for blocking access to
information

o

WWW (World Wide Web), URL
(uniform resource locator),
internet, intranet, extranet

o

internet

protocols: for example,
HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol),
HTTPS (hypertext transfer protocol

secure), FTP (file transfer
protocol), TCP/IP (transmission
control protocol/internet protocol)

o

IP address

o

m
odem, browser, internet service
provider (ISP), band
width,
download, upload, streaming
o

ethical considerations relating
to the

use of encryption and, to
workplace monitoring

o

social impact of global viruses
and dependence on the
Internet

o

reliability of the information

o

etiquette rules for appropriate
behavior when using the
Internet

o

ethical considerations relating
to workplace
monitoring

o

internet security: for example,
firewall, proxy server, SSL
(secure sockets layer),
encryption, public and private
keys, digital signatures

o

internet threats: for example,
global viruses, hackers, spam,
phishing, pharming, spyware,
adware

global dissemination of ideas.
Possible solutions to a
specified problem and an
evaluation of their
effectiveness are also
appropriate.

audio/video, compression,
decompression, cache

o

domain names, domain name
system (DNS)

o

f
eatures of a website: for example,
hyperlinks, navigation, metatags,
tags, forms

o

f
eatures of a browser: for example,
bookmarks, visite
d links, tabs

o

Web
-
based languages: for example,
hypertext markup language
(HTML), JavaScript

o

a
dding functionality to a browser
(for example, plug
-
ins)

o

d
ata
-
driven websites: for example,
active server page extended
(ASPX), personal home page (PHP)

o

s
ite mana
gement: for example, web
hosting, uploading

o

other site use: for example, bounce
rate, click
-
through rate (CTR),
avatar, profile

o

search engines, web
crawler/spider, search directories,
search techniques, filtering,
keyword density,

o

keyword prominence, ranki
ng of
sites

o

social networking: for example,
newsgroups, message boards, chat
rooms, forums, instant messaging

o

email, email server, list server

o

Web 2.0, Web 3.0 and beyond,
collaborative online tools: for
example, wikis, blogs, micro
-
blogs,
RDF (resource de
scription
framework) site summary feeds,
RSS (really simple syndication)
feeds, mashups, forums, social
bookmarking, online collaborative
applications, podcasts, photocasts,
vidcasts, social networking sites,
templates, tagging, viral marketing,
webcasts,
widgets, virtual worlds
and learning environments

o

web databases, encyclopedias

o

online advertising and marketing
technologies: for example, banners,
pop
-
ups, cookies

o

push

pull technologies: for
example, email newsletters

o

content management systems: for
exam
ple, Moodle, Blackboard

o

E
-
commerce technology: for
example, business
-
to
-
business
(B2B), business
-
to
-
consumer
(B2C),

o

consumer
-
to
-
consumer (C2C),
payment services, secure
transactions

o

The World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C)

o

other:




Personal & P
ublic

C
ommunication
s

Look for articles that discuss
the wealth of information
o

face
-
to
-
face communication versus
via technolog
y

o

mobile phones and associated
services and uses

o

social effects of telecommuting

o

effect on the environment of
personal communication
devices

available to society that can
be accessed on demand and
has changed the way in which
people behave. The social
impacts and ethical issues
related to a plethora
of
devises and means of
communication may include
the health implications of
mobile devices, unauthorized
access to wireless networks,
interception of
communications, storage of
personal communications for
security purposes, and

tracking of people. How the
se
devices work independently
and as part of a network
should also include weighing
their benefits and drawbacks.
Future developments of these
converging technologies and
their compatibility can be
evaluated.

o

personal mobile devices such as
laptops and PDA

o

undetected intrusions into IT
systems

o

personal digital assistants (PDAs)
and handheld digital devices

o

global positioning systems (GPS),
navigation systems and

geotagging

o

cell/mobile phones

o

digital radio and TV

o

embedded systems

o

videoconferencing

o

remote access: for example,
teleworking, distance learning

o

telephony: voice over internet
protocol (VOIP)

o

accessing, sharing and
distributing text, photos, video,
audio
and television via IT
devices

o

synchronization of information
between portable systems,
desktop systems, servers and
web
-
based services

o

social effects of widespread
use of teleconferencing and
video conferencing

o

other:




Multimedia & Digital
Media

Look for articles involving the
use and integration of media
(for example, text, images and
graphic elements, animation,
sound and music, and video)
to create digital
products that
are available online or offline.
These technologies make
information accessible
through different media and
online services. It is
important to be aware of the
actual uses of
multimedia/digital media and
the

practical work in this
topic
. Eval
uation of their
effectiveness in various
scenarios is also appropriate.

Multimedia/digital media
raises questions about a
range of impacts, issues and
solutions that must be
investigated, including
copyright, intellectual
property, and current
practices an
d policies used to
grant permission for use.


o

design and creation concepts such
as data integrity and storage

o

design guidelines for creating
multimedia/digital media

o

design methods: for example, site
map, storyboard

o

p
rimary and secondary data

o

multimedia

file formats: for
example, text formats, audio
formats, video formats,
presentation formats,
image/graphics formats

o

policies, copyright, citing sources,
Creative Commons, licensing and
watermarking

o

digital rights management (DRM)

o

storage, processing and
access
concepts such as file formats,
loading time, and portability

o

folder and file management:
importance of file and folder
naming, appropriate folder
structures

o

tutorials: for example, help pages,
online manuals

o

templates and wizards, online
and provide
d with software

o

i
mporting and exporting data

o

integrating software applications
and online tools: for example,
embedded videos, web
-
based

databases

o

text
-
processing software

o

formatting: for example, page
layout, fonts, headers and footers

o

text file formats:
for example,
PDF, RTF, TXT

o

typography

o

copyright issues

o

intellectual property rights

o

licensing

o

biased information

o

reliability of data

o

surveillance and privacy

o

selecting a commercial
provider

o

social impacts of speech
-
enabled input / output

o

economic
effects of DTP on
business

o

the effects of word processing
and DTP on the workplace like
job loss

o

other:

o

Software types: for example,
albums, animated, 3D, bitmapped,
vector, photo editing, photo
casting,

simulation

o

bit depth, color depth (grayscale,
shades of gray, millions of colors)

o

layers, grouping, divisions,
alignme
nt

o

r
esolution, pixels, dots per inch
(dpi)

o

image file formats: for example,
JPG, GIF, TIF

o

computer
-
generated imagery
(CGI)

o

audio
-
editing software, podcasts

o

digital audio: for example, MIDI
(musical instrument digital
interface), MP3 (MPEG
-
1 audio
layer 3),

MP4(MPEG
-
4 part 14),
WAV (waveform audio format)

o

audio file formats: for example,
MP3, MP4, WAV

o

v
ideo
-
editing software, vidcasts
and special effects (for example,
morphing, transitions)

o

d
igital

video: for example, AVI
(audio video interleave), MPEG
(Moving Picture Experts Group),
video

CODECs (coder
-
decoders)

o

video file formats: for example,
AVI, MOV, MP4,etc.

o

s
oftware types to house and
display the multimedia
components: for example, word
proce
ssing,

desktop publishing,
presentations, web pages

o

differences in files (for example,
graphics, images, audio, video)
for print and online versions

o

i
nserting and manipulating
objects (graphics, sound or video
files)

o

t
ables: cell merge, borders, cell
paddi
ng, cell spacing, nested
tables

o

l
ayers

o

l
inks: relative and absolute,
internal and external, for
example, anchors, pop
-
ups

o

word processing and desktop
publishing (DTP)

o

referencing and reviewing: for
example, spellchecker, thesaurus,
outliners, word count

o

wo
rd processing versus page
layout

o

appropriate use of templates

o

effective use of word processing
functions

o

appropriate use of fonts, white
space and line spacing to create
output which communicates
effectively

o

i
nline and floating graphics

o

interactive multime
dia,
slideshows and websites

o

a
pplications and online tools used
for creating and making available
interactive multimedia, games,
presentations, slideshows and
websites

o

u
se of scripting in creating web
pages (for example, HTML,
JavaScript, URL links to onli
ne
media)

o

i
ntegration of online tools





Databases

Look for articles showing how
databases are used in schools,
retail stores, online shopping,
reservations, etc.). Databases

lie at the
heart of most IT
systems whether in
businesses, organizations or
other institutions.

Databases enable
organizations to maintain
accurate and comprehensive
records. In order to
appreciate the

role that databases play, there
must be an understanding of
how t
hey work, which can
only be gained from the
design and creation of basic
relational databases as well
as by examining how
databases are used in the
specified topics listed under
each of the 6 ITGS scenarios:
business & employment,
education & training, the

environment, health fields,
home & leisure, and politics &
government (2012 ITGS
Guide: pgs. 23
-
25).

The increasing use of
databases raises a range of
social impacts and ethical
issues such as the rights of
individuals with respect to
the storage and pote
ntial sale
of their personal data or the
ease of data mining

and data matching. Discussing
these issues and evaluating
possible solutions is useful.

o

table

o

field, data types, key field/primary
key, secondary key

o

record

o

flat
-
file database, relational
database, normalization

o

database management system

o

specialized databases: for example,
web databases, online
encyclopedias

o

design and creation concepts like
updating data

o

data validation: data types, range
check, check digit, field size, input
mask, drop
-
d
own list

o

data integrity, reliability,
redundancy

o

queries: for example, searching,
sorting, filtering, use of Boolean
operators (AND, NOT, OR)

o

data entry form

o

report generation

o

macros

o

transfer of data between databases
and other applications

o

storage and acc
ess concepts such as
data mining and data matching

o

presentation concepts such as
special purpose databases in
libraries or encyclopedia systems

o

design and creation concepts like
updating data

o

storage and access concepts such as
data mining and data matchi
ng

o

presentation concepts such as
special purpose databases in
libraries or encyclopedia systems

o

design and creation concepts like
cell, cell format

o

privacy of information in
different cultures

o

rights of individuals with
respect to the storage of
personal
data,

o

ethical issues related to the
collection and use of personal
data

o

ethical issues related to the
selling of data stored in
databases.

o

database security

o

other:




Spreadsheets &
Modeling and
Simulations

Look for “what
-
if” articles
with statistics,
data, graphs
or financial details used to
discuss real
-
world what
-
if
scenarios. The increasing
o

storage and access concepts such as
data transfer betwee
n a data base
and a spreadsheet.

o

presentation concepts like select
print, use of appropriate graph or
chart and special purpose
spreadsheets

o

cell types, such as text, number,
date, currency, hyperlinks. Etc.

o

formulas, such as relative and
o

privacy of information in
different
cultures

o

rights of individuals with
respect to the storage of
personal data,

o

ethical issues related to the
collection and use of personal
data

o

ethical issues related to the
selling of data stored in
capabilities of computers
have allowed individuals
and organizations to
develop software that can
be used to test “what
-
if”
scenarios and create
simulations and

models of
real
-
world events.

Spreadsheets
, through the
use of worksheets and
graphs, can be used to
manage, predict using a
series of “what
-
if” scenarios,
and display financial details
of businesses.

Modeling and simulations

can be used to recreate or
predict the conditions that
may result from an event,
for example, the areas that
will be affected by coastal
flooding as a result of
different levels of global

warming. It is important to
be aware of the benefits of
creating accurate
spreadsheets, models
and

simulations, as well as, the
social impacts that could
result from simulations
being unable to replicate the
real world, and the ethical
issues that may arise during
the development of the
model.

absolute cell ref
erences

o

sorting, filtering, and replicating
data

o

types of charts

o

formatting and presentation, such
as test/fonts, background,
paragraphs, and pages

o

data validation, verification and
testing

o

functions, such as math, text, logic,
date, etc.

o

protection for
sheets and
workbooks

o

cell locking

o

advanced functions, such as lookup,
pivot tables, macros, etc.

o

worksheet modeling: “what
-
if”
analysis (scenarios, goal seek tool)

o

models

o

simulations

o

different types of models and
simulations

o

virtual reality, augmented real
ity,
gaming, such as MMORPG
(massively multiplayer online
roleplaying game)

o

graphics and animations (2D, 3D)

o

visualization of data

o

feedback loop

o

the validity of a model

o

the verification of the results of a
simulation

o

reproducibility of results

o

relationship

of a model to reality

o

relationship between a model and a
simulation

o

faulty or hidden assumptions

o

processing power needed to create
complex models

o

visualization of information

o

correspondence of the model with
reality

spreadsheets.

o

reliability of predictions based
on comput
er models like in
global warming

o

security issues involved in
military simulations

o

social impact of reliance on
simulations to examine issues
of public policy

o

other:




Project Management

Look for articles focused on
the creation of a product. All
IT development requires a
management method.
Knowledge and
understanding of the
product

development life cycle (PDLC)

is often used as a framework
to develop IT solutions.

o

stakeholders: client, e
nd
-
user(s),
developer

o

the need for project management

o

data collectiontechniques for
content and product design

o

citing of sources

o

role of testing

o

processes used

o

technical manuals

o

end
-
user documentation

o

end
-
user training

Product development life cycle (
PDLC
)

has
these 11 steps:

o


investigation of existing systems

o


feasibility study

o


requirements specifications

o


project schedule

o


appropriate design techniques

o


product design

o


product development

o

other:

o


data capture

o


product testing and debugging

o


technical documentation

o


client and end
-
user evaluation




IT Systems in
Organizations

Look for articles about Most
organizations, at some stage
of their development, require
the introduction of a new IT
system, as well as, the
maintenance and
eventual
retirement of their current
systems. Their ability to
manage this change can
determine the future viability
of their organization. Look for
articles about this situation or
about real IT professionals
who maintain legacy systems
or develop new sys
tems.

o

development methodologies: agile
development and waterfall
development

o

project management
methodologies: PRINCE2 (projects
in controlled environments 2);
SSADM (structured systems
analysis and design method);
PMBoK (project management body
of knowled
ge); CMMI (capability
maturity model integration)

o

iteration

o

time constraints, tasks, resources,
and milestones

o

Gantt and Pert charts

o

modeling systems: entities, entity
relationship diagrams (ERD), data
flow diagrams, etc.

o

maintenance of legacy systems

o

syst
em support: internal support,
maintenance contracts, etc.

System development life cycle (
SDLC
)
includes these steps:

1.

analysis of current situation

2.

organizational requirements

3.

methods of data collection:
questionnaires, interviews.
observation, literature
searches

4.

feasibility study

5.

identification of possible IT
solutions

6.

requirements specification

7.

justification of preferred IT
solution

8.

project plan (who, why, what, when
and how part of the project)

9.

project goals, scope and
constraints, such as financial, ti
me,
technical, human
-
resource
-
related,
risks,

10.

communication, procurement,
quality

11.

project initiation document

12.

design considerations

13.

inputs, data structure, processes,
outputs, user interface

14.

prototyping

15.

development of the IT solution

16.

initial testing, alpha

testing

17.

quality assurance and quality
control

18.

implementation

19.

training and support of staff,
documentation to support the new
IT system

20.

changeover methods: direct,
o

the need for IT systems in
organizations

o

the role of IT systems in
organizations

o

organizational IT policies

o

IT personnel and
organizational structure, such
as Information System (IS)
managers, support staff,
network manager, database
administrator

o

development personnel:
manager, pro
grammer,
analyst, project manager, etc.

o

incident management and
escalation

o

other:

phased and parallel running

21.

beta testing

22.

maintenance

23.

phase out






Robotics, Artificial
Intelligence & Expert
Systems

Look for articles highlighting
products that can imitate
human behavior. The
increasing capability of IT
systems has
allowed
developers to implement
systems that attempt to

understand and imitate
human behavior. These
systems have already had
profound effects on society,
although their effectiveness is
largely determined by the
accuracy of the algorithms
that underpin th
em.

The increasing use of
robotics, artificial intelligence
(AI) and expert systems
raises a range of ethical
issues. For example, at which
point should humans hand
over key decision
-
making to a
computer? Should robots
have the same rights as
humans? What
social impacts
might arise with the
replacement of human
workers or the creation of
smart weapons?



o

why robots don't have android
human
-
like forms

o

processing power in relation to the
capabilities and limitations of
robots

o

the capabilities and limitations
of
robots with respect to vision, touch,
sound and movement

o

Input devices: for example, camera,
sensors, microphones

o

O utput devices: for example, claws,
wheels, motors, relays, speakers

o

robot, android, cyborg

o

sensors: for example, heat,
proximity,
magnetism, light,
humidity, pH

o

artificial intelligence

o

artificial intelligence versus
computational intelligence

o

man or machine: Turing test,
CAPTCHA (completely automated
public Turing test to tell computers

o

and humans apart)

o

capabilities and limitations:

for
example, learning to identify
human emotions, evaluation of
living

o

things and machines (intuition,
prior knowledge, judgment)

o

AI techniques: searching, pattern
recognition, heuristics, machine
learning

o

fuzzy logic, set theory

o

machine learning: can mac
hines
become independent?

o

natural language communication
and translators

o

neural networks: similarity to
biological systems

o

pattern recognition: OCR (optical
character recognition), image
analysis, speech recognition,
speech

o

synthesizers

o

processing and stor
age
requirements for AI

o

processing requirements for AI

o

collection / creation of a
knowledge base

o

storage requirements for
common
-
sense knowledge

o

identifying domains that are
suitable for expert systems

o

Collection, creation and
maintenance of knowledge base

o

c
reation of inference engine,
inference rule (“if

then” rules),
chaining, suitable domains for
expert

systems

o

e
xpert systems, knowledge base,
o

social and economic effects of
replacing people with robots
in the work place

o

ethical decisions regarding the
use of robots in situations that
endanger

human beings

o

social impact of human
interaction with robots

o

reliability of robotic devices

o

handing over decision
-
making
to a computer

o

social impact and ethical
considerations regarding the
use of robotics in medicine and
surge

o

robot rights

o

robots as smart

weapons

o

reliability of AI systems

o

costs of AI, robotics, and
expert systems

o

implications of creative
production by computers
using AI

o

responsibility for the
performance of an expert
system

o

social impact of using smart
machines in everyday life

o

responsibil
ity for the
performance of an expert
system

o

other:


knowledge engineer, expert system
shells, inference engine,

domain,
common
-
sense knowledge

o

p
urpose of an algorith
m within
expert systems: for example, fault
finding, product development

o

e
mbedded systems: for example,
cell/mobile phones, GPS, washing
machines

o

i
nternet search engines

o

smart systems: for example, used at
home or in warfare, medicine, cars

o

u
se of
artificial intelligence (AI): for
example, language translation,
chess, voice recognition, modeling,

games, predictive text, business
intelligence systems

o

u
se of expert systems: for example,
medical diagnosis, fault diagnosis,
flight simulators, fraud dete
ction

o

use of robots: for example, in
industry, health, warfare, airlines,
space, underwater exploration






3.
STAKEHOLDERS

These are the people, groups, and organizations mentioned in your article. Find them
in
your story

by answering the questions below, and then highlight the
PRIMARY

stakeholder

in
pink
. Can’t find any

stakeholders? Then
pick a new article!


Who initiated and
controls this IT
system?

The suspects in the creation of the stunext virus, which is the IT
system, are the
U.S and Israel.


Who is responsible
(decided to do the
work) for
this IT
system?

The
U.S and Israel

are the countries that decided to create this IT
system for slowing down the N
-
program in Iran.

Who is accountable
(gets financial and
legal consequences) for
this IT system?

According to this article no other country h
as the capabilities to
create such a virus other than the U.S with the help from Israel.

Who can benefit

from this IT system?

The
U.S and Israel

benefit from it the most because the sole purpose
for fabricating the virus was to create havoc to the nucle
ar
installations in Iran which it successfully done.

Who can lose

Countries such as
India, Indonesia and Iran

are currently suffering the
from this IT system?

most from this virus. The virus
w
as not properly contained and so
spread to other countries.

What are the
economic

(money) advantages
and/or disadvantages
of the IT system on the

stakeholders?

Cleaning up the effected computers cost companies immense sums of
money. Although India was not the intended target, a lot of company
computers were affec
ted. According to
Verizon’s Mark Goudie
, who
handles the investigation in the Asia Pacific region, the main cost has
been the resources they had to employ to contain the clean the
infection. Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been use to get rid
of the
virus.

What are the
political

advantages and/or
disadvantages of the IT
system on the

stakeholders?

It has created serious tension between countries that relay heavy on
technology. Developing countries such
as India and Indonesia

that
need technology to

increase their economic status in the world have
been temporary stop due to the virus.


What are the
cultural

advantages and/or
disadvantages of the IT
system on the

stakeholders?

There are not really any cultural advantages or disadvantages that this
IT system affects because most of the damages are done in the
computer systems.

What are the
legal

advantages and/or
disadvantages of the IT
system on the

stakeholders?

Depending on the person’s point of view, the virus has successfully
stolen vital info
rmation on the N
-

program in
Iran

illegally. That may
have been an advantage or disadvantage depending on the person.

What are the
environmental

advantages and/or
disadvantages of the IT
system on the

stakeholders?

The virus has stop the production of
ma
n
y companies
, effectively
stopping the pollution created by those companies.
Many companies

that were affected by the virus are in the production industries
creating a lot of waste. As the result of the virus the waste created
have significantly decrease
.

What are the
ergonomic

(physical
comfort) advantages
and/or disadvantages
of the IT system on the

stakeholders?

An ergonomic disadvantage is that,
workers working

in companies
may have to let go as the direct result from the virus.

What are the
heal
th

advantages and/or
disadvantages of the IT
system on the

stakeholders?

The computer system does not really affect any health related issues.
The virus focuses on the health of the computer.

What are the
psychological

advantages and/or
disadvantages of

the IT
system on the

stakeholders?

Many
computer
technicians

are scared with the fact that

ma
y
be

one
da
y all their hard work can be taken away in a matter of seconds.

Describe a feasible
solution to overcome
one of the
disadvantages
Countries
should not be able to create virus to this extent, so there
should be limitation

on the creation of certain IT system on the
computer. This will therefore prevent the creation of other viruses.

mentioned above.


4.
SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES


State briefly how each of these issues relates to your
a
rticle’s
topic, the IT system and/or
s
takeholders. If it’s not stated directly in the article, use your ITGS knowledge to make a
connection.
Check theses terms and memorize their definitions from the
ITGS Guide 2012,
pages 21
-
22.
Highlight the
PRIMARY

concern

in
blue
.


reliability

& integrity

Reliability and integrity relate to this article because

integrity is a
major factor is
stopping an accident like this from ever happening
again.



security

Security relates to the article because it is one of the underlying
factors
in
battling the spread of the virus
. It is also a vital factor in
understanding how the virus is able to create havoc to the N
-
program
in Iran.


privac
y & anonymity

Privacy and anonymity relates to the article because one country is
violating the privacy of another

by
sending the virus to their
designated location.


intellectual property

The intellectual
properties of many people are

stolen
.

authenticity

The virus is one of a kind and there is on other like it in the world.

the digital divide

&

equality of access


Digital divide and equality of access relate
to this article because the
virus is crippling the chance for less people to use computers
.

surveillance

In order to prevent another virus such as the stunext surveillance
plays a large role finding and
stopping people in the computer
.

globalization and
cultural diversity

As a result of globalization many developing countries a
re having
greater access to computers
without the right knowledge of how to
prevent the spread of virus to one another.


policies
, rules, or laws

Law
s and rules relate to this article because
there are no specific laws
required in the cyber world and so it is easy for countries to take
advantage of that.


standards & protocols

Standards and protocols relate to the article because when using a
computer there are standards no how to use them correctly and there
are protocols if there are problems.

people and machines


People and machines are related to this article because
the virus was
created by people to destroy machines.


Describe one major
problem emerging
from one of the impact
areas above.

The virus
is affecting innocent
countries because

it is not properly
contained.
Innocent companies are feeling the greatest effected
because most of them had to shut down.


Describe two
alternative ethical
decisions or feasible
solutions to that
problem.

Universal laws should be in place to stop the spread
and creation of
certain viruses. There are already laws in the place that

stop other
countries from stealing information from one another

but there is no
laws concerning the cyber world. Another feasible

solution is to
create
stronger virus protection program
s

and
install them in every
computer as a precaution
.


What is a possible
consequence of each of
these two decisions or
solutions?

For the universal law solution, it will be hard to actually have eve
ry
country abide to that rule because a lot of developing countries do
actually have access to computers. For the
anti virus program
, it is
very expensive and most people risk to chance not have any
protection.

Evaluate why one is
The
anti virus program protection

is more realistic than the universal
better than the other.

law. To prevent
any person to create or spread viruses every

computer should have a virus protection program before being sold to
the buyer.




PART
2: THE 4 EXAM QUESTIONS

Straight
from the exam you will take.


Time yourself to see how long it takes you to complete all 4 sections:



Start Time:

4:02 pm

End Time
:

5:12

pm


Your goal is to write the 4 most complete responses in 1 hour. Keeping time will help you
get a feel for how
much you can do in 60 minutes, so that you can pace yourself and avoid
feeling nervous or rushed during the actual Paper 2 exam.



You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.

Criterion A

Make reference to relevant
social/ethical concerns and
stakeholders

Identify (name) an ITGS
social or ethical issue in
the article.
*Choose your
specific issue
thoughtfully, since you
will have to use it again
in criterion B to show
how it relates to the IT
system.


India and Indonesia are suffering from
a virus

known as stunext
created by the U.S with the help of Israel in an attempt to stop and
slow down the N
-
program in Iran.



Describe (= use details)
the social/ethical issue
identified above.


India and Indonesia are suffering from a virus known as
stunext created by the U.S with the help of Israel in an attempt to
stop and slow down the N
-
program in Iran. The virus was not
properly contained and so spread to neighboring countries and
fi
nally across the sea. It has the capabilities to extract vital
information and ultimately destroy a
computer
. It

only effects
machines with
Siemens components

so any companies with it will
be greatly effected.



Identify (name) the
relationship between on
e
primary stakeholder to
the IT system in the
article.


It is not really clear who created this type of virus that it is
certain that it is the work of a combination of countries. It is evident
that it was the work of the U.S and Israel in the hopes
in stopping
the N
-
program in Iran.

Describe the relationship
between
this
primary
stakeholder and the IT
system identified above.


It was not the first time the U.S was caught creating viruses.
There is a growing field are
cyber warfare

in the U.S and is
becoming more popular. Stunxt was sent from the U.S to Iran in the
intent of not causing any people harm. The relationship between
them both is that, the U.S was the creator of it.


Write approximately 100
words total, and
highlight

e
ach individual
ITGS key term.


TOTAL WORD COUNT =
252




Score Your Criterion A Answer Using the
IB Paper 2

Rubric Above:

4

Explain how your original answer matches
the score description.

*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
and fix the original answer with
red

text

until it matches the highest possible score.

I think that is explained in detail the social and
ethical concerns of the IT system and the
relationship of the primary
stak
eholder
.



You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.

Criterion
B

Make reference to relevant stakeholders, information
technologies, data and processes.

Identify (name) ALL of
the major components of
the IT system
using
appropriate technical IT
terminology.


Stuxnet is a highly sophisticated US
-
Israeli computer worm.

It
appears in the form of
code, scripts, active content
, and other
software
. It is
created when a programmer creates computer code
that has the
capability to replicate itself, hide, watch for a certain
event to occu
r.



Write a detailed
description of the step
-
by
-
step process of how
the IT system works,

First the
virus

initially sp
reads
via Microsoft Windows

through
various methods such as
USB, mail

or just opening up a
website.

It
attaches it self one any type of file and spread rapidly
as infected
files are used by other computers. W
hat makes this virus so unique
which goes beyond
what’s written in the
article. Show that you
have a clear
understanding of
this
process.

is that it does little harm to computers and networks that do not
meet the specific configuration requirements.



Explain (by including
reasons or causes) the
relationship between the
IT system in the article
and the social/
ethical
concern you identified in
Criterion A above. Be
sure to use ITGS
terminology.



Many companies in India have Siemens machines, which is one
of the
specific configuration

requirements for the stuxnet virus.
Many companies in India are suffering
in containing computers that
are affected make it very time consuming and costly.


Write approximately 150
words total, and
highlight

each individual
ITGS key term.


TOTAL WORD COUNT =
163




Score Your Criterion B Answer Using the
IB Paper 2

Rubric Above:

5

Explain how your original answer matches
the score description.

*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
and fix the original answer with
red

text

until it matches the highest possible score.

I think that I gave a detail account on
how the
IT system works and shared detailed
components of the IT system in IT
terminology.




You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.

Criterion
C

Evaluate the impact of the social/ethical issues on relevant
stakehol
ders.

Identify a social/ethical
problem for the relevant
stakeholders.



During the cyber battle between U.S and Iran, India was caught
in between both of them. When effected much of the virus affected
India’s companies. India was, at a point unable
to function properly.


Write a detailed
description of the impact
of any social and/or
ethical issues on the
stakeholders. DO NOT
COPY FROM THE
ARTICLE.

(indent)

There is no confirm reports that stuxnet has derailed Iran’s
N
-
program. However, Kaspersky

in India has estimated that last
year at least 80,000
computer
s have been infected in India. There is
also information that the virus has infected so computers in the
United States of America. But the companies and government
agencies suffer the most due
to it. The cost for cleaning up the
computers has taken a toll to India’s economy.




Analyze the impact of
the social/ethical issues
on the stakeholders by
breaking down the
relationship to show the
essential elements or its
structure.

(indent)
The economy of India has suffered from the virus directly
and indirectly. Many of the companies in India have stop in the
stand still, trying desperately to contain the breakout.
The
relationship between the stakeholders and the social and ethical
impact i
s that, the virus creates a domino effect to a country way of
life.


Evaluate the impact of
the social/ethical issues
on the stakeholders by
weighing the strengths
and limitations (pros and
cons, or positives and
negatives). Refer back to
the info in the

article
with explicit and well
-
developed references.
Use ITGS terminology.

(indent)

The strength of using the stuxnet virus is that when used
properly it may mean the end of nuclear installations and nuclear
weapons. The limitation is that, most of the ti
me it is never used
correctly and is usually not contained correctly and so as a result
spreads to innocent countries.
If you look at it from the bigger
picture the limitations out weigh the positive aspects of using it.
India has been greatly infected by
it and has suffered extensively.
There are no actual reports of it causing good.


Write approximately 250
words total, and
highlight

each individual
ITGS key term.


TOTAL WORD COUNT =
251


Score Your Criterion B Answer Using the
IB Paper 2

Rubric Above:

6

Explain how your original answer matches
I have done everything that is required
to
the score description.

*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
and fix the original answer with
red

text

until it matches the highest possible score.

receive a full mark for criterion B and have
gone in detail about how the system have
affected the livelihood of the Indian people.



Score Your Criterion C Answer Using the
IB Paper 2

Rubric Above:

7

Explain how your original answer matches
the score description.

*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
and fix the original answer with
red

text

until it matches the highest possible score.

I explained the social and ethical issues on the
stakeholder
s and have done everything the is
required. I used appropriate ITGS terminology
when describing the impact of the IT system.



You must use complete sentences and indent the beginning of each new paragraph.

Criterion
D

Evaluate one solution that
addresses at least one

problem identified
in
Criterion C

Propose, and then write
a detailed description of
ONE possible solution to
any problem(s) identified
in criterion C. DO NOT
COPY TEXT FROM
THE ARTICLE.

(indent)

One possible solution to battle this situation is to allow all
computers before being purchase to have an anti virus protection
program in it. This will prevent the spread of future stronger virus
and will help make the
cyber world

a happier and healthier
place.
Furthermore this solution will allow police officer catch cyber
criminals.




Evaluate this solution by
talking about both its
strengths and potential
(indent)

The strength of this
system is that it will limit the
possibility of spreading viruses.

Having computers being purchase
with anti virus protection will serve as a better method than having
weaknesses. Make a
reference back to the
info in the article.

universal laws.

The limitation is that it will be very costly to
provide
all the compute
rs with anti viruses. However, it maybe a
stepping
-
stone in finally stopping the spread of viruses.


Identify areas for future
development. Make sure
you have used ITGS
terminology.

(indent)

There should be stronger security systems for the future
and there should be laws in place to stop countries from attempting
to extract information through the form of technology.
Having
computers built with anti virus protection is the ideal solution to
the
growing problem. Companies should have harsher protocols in
place for all work computers.


Write approximately 250
words total, and
highlight

each individual
ITGS key term.


TOTAL WORD COUNT =
172



Score Your Criterion D Answer Using the
IB Paper 2

Rubric Above:

5

Explain how your original answer matches
the score description.

*If it is not worth the full marks, go back
and fix the original answer with
red

text

until it matches the highest possible score.

I provided a solution to the problem and list the
problem implication to that solution. I have not
really used ITGS terminology.



Please Add all Four Word Counts
from Above
=


787

(they must total between 725 and 775
words
-

if not, go back and adjust)

Did you remember to
HIGHLIGHT

each ITGS flashcard word you used
in all responses?



SUBMIT THIS ASSIGNMENT
(as a pdf file)
TO THE TEACHER
ONLINE
AS
SOON AS YOU HAVE FINISHED.

TURN IN YOUR CLIP. YOU WILL BE
POSTING IT ON OUR CLASS WIKI AS SOON AS IT IS SCOR
ED.


COPY AND PASTE YOUR
HIGHLIGHTED CURRENT EVENT BELOW.


YELLOW

=
Theme/Topic;
GREEN

=
IT System;


BLUE

=
Social/Ethical Issues
;

PINK

=
Stakeholders


*You may stop highlighting after 500 words, but include the entire article.


New IT Vocabulary Term

Definition

1
. Stuxent

Computer viruse that infects machines that contain
Siemens attributes.

2
. cyber warfare

Cyberwarfare refers to politically motivated hacking to
conduct sabotage and espionage

3
. trojan

A harmful computer virus.

4
. digital

infrastructure

The relationship of personal computers and local
network connections.

5


6


7



PASTE URL HERE:

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012
-
08
-
20/security/33287146_1_stuxnet
-
sophisticated
-
computer
-
virus
-
duqu

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------
-

(paste highlighted article here)

India caught in crossfire of
global cyber war

There is
a
cyber war

going on between
Iran

and a few
other countries
. And
India

has been caught
in the crossfire. It all started two years ago with
Stuxnet, considered the mos
t sophisticated
computer virus ever

and the
virtual world's first weapon of mass

destruction.
Stuxnet is like a
laser guided missile
. Compared to it, the older generation of
viruses

and
trojans (malicious
computer programmes)

seem like crude bombs, says
Shantanu Ghosh, MD, Symantec,

a cyber
security firm.
It is capable of wrecking massive damage to digital infrastructure.

There is a reason why
Stuxnet
, caught in the wild by cyber security researchers in 2010, acquired
this fearsome reputation.
Cyber secu
rity
firms like Kaspersky

believe
Stuxnet

is the work of a
nation. The likely suspects are the
US and Israel

because the
malicious programme

seems to
have been designed with a single purpose
-

to disable and
create havoc inside the nuclear
installations of

Iran by targeting several components manufactured by
Siemens which are used
by machines inside Iranian facilities.

While no one has confirmed anything, reports say that
Stuxnet

has hit a home run as far as
derailing Iran's N
-
programme

is concerned. This a
ttack was followed
by Duqu, a virus

caught
last year. It was designed
to collect information

from
official computer systems in

Iran and
several other Middle East countries
. And just a few months back,
Iran

was hit by
Flame,

which
too is believed to be the
handiwork of
state agencies.

Computer Emergency Response Team for India

(CERT
-
IN ) issued the first alert regarding
Stuxnet

infection in
India

on July 19, 2010. But by then,it was already too late.
Kaspersky

estimated that by September that year,
Stuxnet

h
ad
infected over 80,000

computers

in
India
.
Another security firm, ESET, estimates that the virus even infected some
computers

in the US.

By the end of last year,
India

was the third most affected country by
Stuxnet
, after
Iran

and then,
Indonesia
.
Duqu

too took a toll with
India

being the 8th most affected country. We even found a
command and control server for Duqu

in Mumbai, says Ghosh. There were reports in June that
CERT
-
IN came across
computers

that had even been infected by
Flame.

While
Stuxnet

ha
s affected thousands

of
machines

in India, including
computers in vital and
strategic installations
, it doesnt damage
a machine

unless it finds certain Siemens components,
says
CERT
-
IN director Dr Gulsha Rai
. But that doesnt mean it is not a danger.
We had

cleaned
the infection from nearly 60,000

computers
.

Nonetheless, companies and government agencies have suffered losses due to it.

The main cost
has been the resources we had to employ to contain and clean the infection, says
Verizon's Mark
Goudie
, who ha
ndles investigative response in the
Asia Pacific region
. Goudie says, "We have
seen that many
cyber criminals

are trying to take control of
Stuxnet

so that they could modify
and use it.
Companies

have to get rid of it. Our
clients,

who are mostly part of
I
ndia's service
industry
,
have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars to get rid of it.