Water Quality and Water Resources of

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 3 mois)

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Anthropogenic
activities Impacts
on
Water Quality and Water Resources of
the Pahang River, Malaysia

Mohd

Shalahuddin, Yukihiro SHIMATANI,
Zulkafli

Rashid

Kyushu University, JAPAN


Introduction


Study area


Methods


Survey setup


WQI calculation


Results


Survey result


WQI result


Analysis result


Conclusion and Recommendations


Presentation

Outline

Introduction



Pahang

river

is

the

longest

river

in

peninsular

Malaysia

and

there

are

no

dam

was

build

on

this

river
.

Many

water

intake

was

build

to

support

the

water

demand

in

this

state
.



Recently,

the

human

activities

along

this

river

has

increase

drastically
.

Due

to

the

rapid

development

such

as

industries

and

agriculture

activities,

the

pollutant

level

has

been

significantly

increased

and

this

is

the

main

threat

to

our

water

resources

in

this

watershed



In

addition,

the

anthropogenic

activities

such

as

excessive

wastewater

discharge,

extensive

agriculture

and

others

has

resulted

in

decreasing

of

surface

water

quality

and

furthermore

has

caused

the

destruction

to

aquatic

habitat
.

Mean annual precipitation: 2,400 mm

Study Area


Affected
by two monsoon periods; the north
-
east monsoon from November
to March and south
-
west monsoon from May to September

Total
catchments area of this river is about 29,300km
2


Ulu

Tembeling

Kuala Mai

Lubuk

Paku


Paloh

Hinai

Main
Sampling
Site

No.

of sub
sampling
sites

Land use types and predominant pollution sources

Ulu

Tembeling

(UT)

8

located

in

the

national

forest

park,

small

agriculture

and

aquaculture,

floating

restaurant

along

the

river

bank,

illegal

and

legal

logging

activities

Kuala Mai
(KM)

5

Located

close

to

big

city

(
Jerantut

and

Temerloh
),

rural

residential

area,

aquaculture

activities

and

agriculture

activities

by

local

people

Lubuk

Paku

(LP)

7

Sand

mining

activities,

urban

residential

area,

land

clearing

for

large

scale

of

oil

palm

and

rubber

estate


Paloh

Hinai

(PH)

4

Sand

mining

activities,

large

scale

of

oil

palm

estate,

land

clearing

for

urban

residential

and

agriculture,

effluent

from

the

industrial

activities

Sampling site and current activities

Local

human
current activities

Floating restaurant

and hotels

Large deforestation/

land clearing for plantation

Sand mining activities

Extensive

aquaculture activities

Waste from many
sources


The

increasing

of

pollution

load

has

been

released

to

the

water

body




Shortage

of

water

resources

during

the

drought

season




The

will

be

a

water

transfer

boundary

project

in

the

future








Problem

Statements



Introduction


Study area


Methods


Survey setup


WQI calculation


Results


Survey result


WQI result


Analysis result


Conclusion and Recommendations


Presentation

Outline


Water Quality


Measured parameters such as water temperature, pH, (DO),
(TN), (TP), ammonia
-
nitrogen (NH
3
-
N), alkalinity,
conductivity, (BOD), (COD) and (SS)


Survey Method


Fish Survey


Gill net was utilized as a fish
catch gear


Identify the species and
measured the weight and body
length

Survey Method


River Physical Environment


River width and depth


River stream flow


Discharge and precipitation


River depth measurement device


Statistical Analysis


Principal component
analysis (PCA)


Cluster Analysis (CA)


Malaysian Water Quality Index was used to calculate the
water quality status in this river (
DOE
-
UM, 1994)



WQI=0.22 x
SiDO

+ 0.19 x
SiBOD

+ 0.16 x SICOD + 0.15
x SiNH3


0.16 x
SiSS

+ 0.12 x
SipH



This index categorized the water quality into 5 classes
from 1
-
5 which will be evaluate based on the WQI value.
The higher value obtained mean better water quality .



Interim Malaysia

Water Quality Index

Class

WQI

Water Use

I

92.6
-
100

Environmental conservation and
protection, Use
for water supply

Aquaculture consists of highly sensitive species

II

76.4
-
92.5

Use for water
supply, Aquaculture
consists of highly sensitive
species

Recreation with water body contact

III

51.9
-
76.3

Use for water supply but require extensive water
treatment
,
Aquaculture
consists of tolerant
species, Use
for livestock drinking

IV

30.5
-
51.8

Used for irrigation

V

0.0
-
30.5

Others uses not mentioned in the above


Introduction


Study area


Methods


Survey setup


WQI calculation


Results


Survey result


WQI result


Analysis result


Conclusion and Recommendations


Presentation

Outline


Upstream


The

lowest

water

temperature

was

measured

in

this

area
.


the

water

generally

in

the

neutral

condition

with

the

pH

ranges

from

5
.
54

-

7
.
90


While

for

the

ammonia,

nitrate,

and

phosphorous

the

values

ranges

between

0
.
01
-
1
.
87

mg/L,

0
.
0
-
0
.
31
mg/L,

and

0
.
01
-
1
.
68

mg/L

respectively


The

water

quality

was

badly

affected

by

the

extensive

eco
-
tourism

and

heavy

boat

navigation
.


Results
-
Physicochemical

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
UT1
UT3
UT5
UT7
KM1
KM3
KM5
LP1
LP3
LP5
LP7
PH2
PH4
Water temperature (oC)

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)

Location

DO
Temp
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
160.0
180.0
200.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
UT1
UT3
UT5
UT7
KM1
KM3
KM5
LP1
LP3
LP5
LP7
PH2
PH4
Disturbed land area (ha)

Suspended Solid (mg/l)

Location

Area
SS
Results
-
Physicochemical

Middle

stream

and

downstream



The

lowest

water

temperature

was

measured

in

this

area



the

water

generally

in

the

neutral

condition

with

the

pH

ranges

from

5
.
54

-

7
.
90
DO

concentrations

are

lower

than

upstream

area

range

from

3
.
4
-
5
.
6

mg/



The

stream

velocity,

BOD,

and

total

suspended

solids

vary

from

60

to

150

cm/s,

20
-

45

µS/cm,

1
.
5
-
4
.
3

mg/L,

and

34
-
233

mg/L

respectively



high

level

of

BOD

at

the

downstream

area

was

contributed

largely

by

untreated

or

partially

treated

sewage

and

discharges

from

agro
-
based

and

manufacturing

industries

and

s
and

mining

activities,

large

scale

of

oil

palm

oil

estate,

land

clearing

for

urban

residential

was

recognized

as

the

sources

of

suspended

solid

0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
mg/L

mg/L

Month

TN
BOD
TP

In

the

upstream

area,

most

of

the

fish

species

inhabited

in

this

area

are

water

column

species

which

is

prefer

to

live

at

the

rapid

and

fast

flowing

water

such

as

Crossocheilus

oblongus
,

Octeochilus

spilurus
.

However,

we

also

caught

the

bottom

fish

species

such

as

Mastacembelus

erythrotaenia
,

Bagrius

yarelli
,

Belondotichthys

dinema

at

the

deep

pool

and

slow

water

flow

area
.




While

at

the

downstream

area,

most

all

the

fish

species

caught

in

the

upper

and

middle

stream

can

be

found

in

this

area
.

More

demersal

and

tolerant

fish

species

can

be

found

in

this

area

compare

with

the

upstream

area
.



The

presence

and

absence

of

intolerant

fish

species

could

be

an

indicator

to

demonstrate

about

the

quality

of

water

at

sampling

area

where,

the

presences

of

intolerant

and

abundance

of

species

demonstrate

the

health

of

the

ecosystem

Results
-

Fish Composition

Location

WQI

Status

Class

Location

WQI

Status

Class

UT1

85.22

Good

II

KM5

58.52

Medium

III

UT2

86.45

Good

II

LP1

61.25

Medium

III

UT3

80.12

Good

II

LP2

61.48

Medium

III

UT4

82.89

Good

II

LP3

62.54

Medium

III

UT5

82.45

Good

II

LP4

58.21

Medium

III

UT6

79.40

Good

II

LP5

68.56

Medium

III

UT7

74.30

Medium

III

LP6

67.54

Medium

III

UT8

74.30

Medium

III

LP7

66.55

Medium

III

KM1

58.23

Medium

III

PH1

62.14

Medium

III

KM2

62.25

Medium

III

PH2

55.89

Medium

III

KM3

59.80

Medium

III

PH3

54.28

Medium

III

KM4

57.52

Medium

III

PH4

55.33

Medium

III

Results
-
WQI

Upstream

Middle & Downstream


From the result we can see the different

between the upstream and downstream area.



Upstream show a better environment and water quality index than downstream area.



The anthropogenic activities along the river such as deforestation, agriculture, industrial
and domestic activities has deteriorate the river water


The

statistical

analysis

has

been

used

to

measure

the

relationship

between

the

water

quality

and

the

human

activities




To

determine

which

parameters

is

the

most

significant

parameters

that

influence

the

water

quality




The

used

statistical

analysis

known

as

as

principal

component

analysis

(PCA)

and

cluster

analysis

(CA)

to

determine

the

relationship

between

the

environmental

variables

and

water

quality

condition



Results
-
Statistical Analysis

PC

Temp.

pH

DO

Conduc
.

Alkalinity

NH
3
-
N

TN

PC1

-
0.5304

-
0.5183

0.4750

-
0.4439

0.4660

-
0.8068

-
0.8508

PC2

-
0.2404

-
0.1611

0.6045

0.2598

-
0.6598

-
0.5064

0.1524

PC3

-
0.2163

-
0.0713

-
0.4174

-
0.0251

0.5664

-
0.5587

0.2396

PC

TP

SS

BOD

COD

Eigenvalue

Total
variance

Cumlative

variance

PC1

-
0.8802

-
0.9586

-
0.7351

-
0.6262

3.057

64.158

64.158

PC2

0.3779

-
0.5490

-
0.1012

0.1225

1.278

11.622

75.780

PC3

-
0.1660

-
0.7094

0.1566

0.1372

1.058

9.563

85.343

Results
-
PCA


The first PC1 accounted for 64.16% of the total variation and significantly correlated
with SS, TP, TN, NH
3
-
N, pH and water temperature



The second factor accounted for 11.62% of the total variance and had a strong
correlation loading with alkalinity, DO and SS



The third factor explained 9.56% of the total variation and has a positive correlation
with alkalinity and negative correlation with SS and NH
3
-
N



Group 1

Group 2

Cluster 1

Cluster 2

Group1

Group 2

Group 3

Results

Dendogram and ordination graph


Introduction


Study area


Methods


Survey setup


WQI calculation


Results


Survey result


WQI result


Analysis result


Conclusion and Recommendations


Presentation

Outline


The

surface

water

quality

of

the

Pahang

River

was

severely

influenced

by

various

human

activities
.

The

human

activities

along

the

river

bank

have

deteriorated

the

water

quality

and

destroy

the

potential

habitat

for

the

aquatic

life

and

further

have

depleted

our

water

resources
.




Based

on

WQI

result,

it

shows

a

significant

decreasing

trend

from

upstream

to

downstream

of

the

Pahang

River
.




In

the

upstream

area,

the

deforestation

and

human

activities

along

the

river

was

recognized

as

the

main

factors

to

deteriorate

the

water

quality

and

further

has

depleted

the

water

resources
.



In

the

middle

area

and

downstream

area,

extensive

agriculture,

aquaculture

activities,

sand

mining

and

large

scale

of

land

clearing

was

recognized

as

the

main

threat

and

has

exhibited

the

high

concentration

of

NH
3
-
N,

TN,

TP

and

SS



Based

on

the

PCA

result,

at

least

seven

parameters

were

necessary

for

interpreting

the

water

quality

in

the

Pahang

River
.




We

found

out

that,

the

combination

between

WQI

and

PCA

result

show

a

good

correlation

to

evaluate

water

quality

in

this

river
.






Conclusion

Recommendation


Build

the

sediment

trap

to

reduce

the

sedimentation




The

government

should

have

a

specified

law

to

control

the

agriculture

and

aquaculture

activities

along

the

river

bank




Polluter

pay

methods

should

be

applied

in

this

river



Build

a

good

network

between

government,

NGO`s

and

local

people

to

monitor

the

water

quality






Thank you for your




kind attention