Language Analysis: Supporting English Learners in Accessing Informational Texts

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 10 mois)

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Language Analysis:

Supporting English Learners in
Accessing Informational Texts

Presented by Danielle
Garegnani

English Learner Support Teacher

Sherman Elementary, San Diego Unified School District

dgaregnani@sandi.net

CCSS ELA/Literacy Showcase

June 24, 2013

Session Outcomes

Participants will:


Examine the complex features of academic language


Examine some of the language features and patterns
of informational texts


Engage in text analysis of informational texts


Engage in activities that support student
understanding and use of the language features of
informational texts


Functional Grammar


Based on
Halliday’s

socio
-
cultural theory of language
learning
-

Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL)



The function of language is to make meaning



Language is produced based on choices of the
speaker/writer in relation to demands of the context



Texts are produced for different purposes; the lexical
and grammatical features of these texts are
influenced by the purpose and context

Eggins
, 2004


CCSS
-

Challenges for ELs


The language patterns of different content
areas (the
lexico
-
grammatical features and
syntactic structures) make it more difficult
for students, especially ELs, to understand
and use academic language.




Common Core State Standards AND

Next Generation ELD Standards

Challenges of Academic Language
-

Clause Linking




Because

the climate is dry, farmers there must
use irrigation to water their fields.
However
, the
Central Valley has one of the country’s longest
growing seasons.”
Harcourt Social Studies, grade 4






As

a seed begins to sprout, a root grows from it.
Next
, the seed breaks open and a young plant, or
seedling, appears.”
Harcourt Science, grade 3


Challenges of Academic Language
-

Referencing





“Most
newcomers

arrived in California with only
what they could carry.
These people

needed
places to live, food to eat, clothes to wear,
and
much more.
This

created
demand for
workers

of
many kinds.
Carpenters

built homes and
buildings, and
merchants

sold supplies.”



Harcourt Social Studies, grade 4







Challenges of Academic Language
-

Lexical Density




“When a river slows down, it drops
sediment
that builds up in
layers

at the bottom of rivers,
lakes, seas, and oceans,
which press and stick
together

to form sedimentary rock.”


Harcourt Science, grade 3


Challenges of Academic Language
-

Nominalization





“After
weathering

has broken the rock into
sediment
,
erosion

and
deposition

cause
the
particles
to
build up
as new sand on beaches.
Over time,
sedimentation

forms

new rocks on
the beach.
This formation
of new rock is made
up of several layers.”
Harcourt Science, grade 5


Metalanguage


We need to give our students the linguistic
resources to access, understand, and use the
language required for academic tasks
(
Schleppegrell
, 2013)



Highlight and explicitly teach language function and
forms in context


Engage students in talk about those functions and
forms


Provide opportunity to practice the language in
context


Connect the language to other areas

Academic Content and Language


Learning new content is not separate from
the development of the language that
constructs the new knowledge


The Language of Schooling involves:


Learning Language (vocabulary and forms)


Learning Through Language (content)


Learning About Language (how it works and is
used
-
its function)


Schleppegrell
, 2004

Literacy & Language Across the Content
Areas


Good literacy teaching isn’t something
added to an already crowded curriculum;
it isn’t the icing on the cake, but the
ingredients of it! Instead of thinking in
terms of “covering the content,” we must
think in terms of “uncovering the subject.”








Gibbons, 2009

Language features/patterns of descriptive
texts


SEE HANDOUT


Language features/patterns of causal &
sequential explanation texts




SEE HANDOUT

What are some of the text types students are
required to read/write?

Narrative

Informational
/

Explanatory

Argument

Personal Recount

Informational

Report

Exposition

Fictional

Story

Procedural

Discussion

Historical

Recount

Explanation

Response to Literature

Summary

Response to Literature

Purpose

Describing

Comparing

and Contrasting

Explaining
-

sequential and causal

Persuading

Instructing

Recounting






Kindergarten

Starfish have arms, but no legs.

Starfish have feet, but no toes.

They glide and slide on tiny tube feet.

They move as slowly as a snail.


Tiny brittle stars hide under rocks on pools by the sea.

The mud star hides in the mud.

When a starfish is hungry, it hunts for mussels, oysters, and clams.


Starfish by Edith
Thacher

Hurd

Kindergarten

Starfish
have

arms, *
but no

legs.

Starfish
have

feet, *
but no

toes.

They
glide

and
slide

on tiny tube feet
.

They
move

as slowly as a snail.


Tiny brittle stars
hide

under rocks
on pools
by the sea.

The mud star
hides

in the mud
.

When a starfish is hungry, it
hunts

for mussels, oysters, and clams.


Starfish by Edith
Thacher

Hurd


*don’t have

First Grade



Pumpkin plants don’t stand up tall. As the
stems grow longer, they sprawl all over the
ground. Before long, twisted, tangles vines
cover the pumpkin patch. Soon, flower
buds appear on the vines. After each bud
opens, its orange petals grow bigger and
bigger. They look like bright orange
umbrellas.

From Seed to Pumpkin by Wendy
Pfeffer

First Grade



Pumpkin plants
don’t stand up
tall.
As

the
stems
grow

longer, they
sprawl

all over
the ground.
Before long
, twisted, tangled
vines
cover

the pumpkin patch.
Soon
,
flower buds
appear

on the vines.
After

each bud
opens
, its orange petals
grow

bigger and bigger. They
look like
bright
orange umbrellas.

From Seed to Pumpkin by Wendy
Pfeffer

Second Grade



Turn over a good
-
size brook boulder and look
closely at the wet surface. Chances are you
will see a tiny aquatic insects crawling on it.
The nymphs, or beginning stages of mayflies,
stone flies, and other stream
-
borne flies, live
on submerged rocks, where they feed on
microscopic organisms. Nymphs’ flat bodies
allow them to crawl under and not be
crushed by the heavy stream boulders.


The Brook Book: Exploring the Smallest Streams by Jim
Arnosky

Second Grade



Turn over
a good
-
size brook boulder and
look
closely

at

the wet surface. Chances are
you

will see tiny aquatic insects crawling on it.
The nymphs
,
or beginning stages of mayflies,
stone flies, and other stream
-
borne flies
,
live

on
submerged rocks
,
where they
feed on
microscopic organisms
. Nymphs’ flat bodies
allow

them to
crawl

under and
not be
crushed
by the heavy stream boulders.


The Brook Book: Exploring the Smallest Streams by Jim
Arnosky

Third Grade


Outside the glass, the water evaporates and
spreads throughout the room as vapor. In
time, the drops disappear. In the glass, water
also evaporates, but the vapor is trapped. The
air inside the glass becomes humid, which
means that the air is full of water vapor. And
that vapor condenses back onto the water
drops as quickly as water molecules can
evaporate. Therefore, the drops remain.

A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder by Walter Wick

Third Grade


Outside the glass, the water
evaporates

and
spreads throughout the room as
vapor
.
In
time
,
the drops
disappear. In the glass, water
also
evaporates
,
but

the
vapor

is trapped. The
air inside the glass becomes
humid
,
which
means that the air is full of
water vapor
.
And

that vapor
condenses

back onto the water
drops as quickly as water molecules can
evaporate.
Therefore
,
the drops remain
.

A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder by Walter Wick



Horses move in four natural ways, called gaits
or paces. They walk, trot, canter, and gallop.
The walk is the slowest gait and the gallop is
the fastest. When a horse walks, each hoof
leaves the ground at a different time. It
moves one hind leg first, and then the front
leg on the same side; then the other hind leg
and the other front leg. When a horse walks,
its body swings gently with each stride.

Fourth Grade

Horses by Seymour Simon



Horses
move

in four
natural ways
,
called gaits
or paces
. They
walk
, trot, canter
, and
gallop
.
The walk
is

the slowest gait and
the gallop
is

the fastest.
When

a horse walks, each hoof
leaves

the ground at a different time. It
moves

one hind leg first, and
then

the front
leg on the same side;
then

the other hind leg
and the other front leg.
When

a horse
walks
,
its body
swings

gently with each stride.

Fourth Grade

Horses by Seymour Simon

Fifth Grade


The Martian ice cap has canyons that plunge as
much as three thousand feet beneath the surface.
The canyons are formed by winds cutting through
the ice and by the evaporation of water in the
atmosphere. Scientists believe that an ocean with
ten times the amount of water in the ice cap once
existed on Mars. They think that the remaining
water not in the north polar ice cap is stored below
the surface and in the much smaller south polar cap,
or else it has been lost in space.

Destination Mars by Seymour Simon

Fifth Grade


The Martian ice cap
has

canyons
that plunge as
much as three thousand feet beneath the surface
.
The canyons
are formed
by winds
cutting through
the ice

and by the
evaporation of water
in the
atmosphere. Scientists believe that an
ocean

with
ten times the amount of
water

in the ice cap
once
existed
on Mars. They think that the
remaining
water

not in the north polar ice cap

is stored

below
the surface and in the much smaller south polar cap,
or else it
has been lost
in space
.

Destination Mars by Seymour Simon

Activities to Support Student Understanding and
Use of Language Features


Text Analysis


Theme
-
Rheme

Analysis


Sentence Deconstruction


Sentence Reconstruction


Text Reconstruction


Building Complex Sentences

How can teachers incorporate language
analysis into instruction?


SHARED READING


1.
Use familiar text
-

no “cold” reads



Read and discuss the “gist” of the text first


Discuss overall organization, text features, the big idea


2.
Introduce one feature at a time


Explicitly call students’ attention to the feature and teach the
function


Analyze
one

grammatical feature at a time
-

highlight the form
and use guiding questions to discuss its function


3.
Analyze the text sentence
-
by
-
sentence/clause
-
by
-
clause.


4.
Deconstruct and analyze the text in small chunks
-

one
sentence/paragraph/page at a time


5.
Incorporate language analysis activities





How can teachers incorporate and explicitly teach
language analysis in writing instruction?

Explicit Instruction and the Curriculum Cycle (Gibbons, 2001)

Stage 1

Building the Field



Activate background knowledge of the topic


Read and discuss the “gist” of the text
-
Shared


Reading approach

Stage 2

Modeling the Text



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Stage 4

Independent Writing


Students write their own text


How can language analysis support student
reading comprehension?


It supports reading comprehension by providing access
to the deeper meaning of the text



It heightens their awareness of the language of the
genre/text type



It slows students down, making them focus on the
details of the information which is realized through the
language



It helps students focus on the macro and micro levels
of academic texts (discourse, text type, structure &
organization, form) and gives them
metalanguage

to
talk about academic content



How can language analysis support student
writing?


It scaffolds writing by raising awareness and focusing
on the language features and structures of the text
types students have to produce



It expands their linguistic repertoire and gives them
the resources they need to write in the content areas



It allows for practice using the language features in
context of an academic task



In the absence of
an explicit focus on
language
, children from certain linguistic
and socio
-
economic backgrounds continue
to be privileged and others to be
disadvantaged in learning, assessment,
and promotion, perpetuating the obvious
inequalities that exist today.






Schleppegrell
, 2004