SDF_Slide_Show_1

jellytrickInternet et le développement Web

10 nov. 2013 (il y a 7 années et 10 mois)

255 vue(s)

Site Development

Foundations

© 2004 ProsoftTraining

All rights reserved

Lesson 1:

Introduction to

Web Site Development


Objectives


Distinguish between using a text editor and using
a GUI markup language editor


Identify Web page design issues


Identify the standards organization that controls
markup languages


Identify front
-
end and back
-
end Web issues


Define the concepts of creative design and
branding standards, and demonstrate their
importance to business

Creating Web Pages


The need for skills in Web
-
based technologies:


Contribute to team projects


Create Web pages


Create r
é
sum
é
s


You must know at least the following markup
languages:


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


Extensible HTML (XHTML)

Additional Web Page Elements


Web pages use more than HTML or XHTML
--

additional technologies include:


Flash


Java


ActiveX


You must also understand how Web pages
use:


Databases


Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

Databases and Web Pages


Databases can store information about
company inventory


Databases can store customer information

Web Pages and CGI


CGI is used for many purposes:


To help Web pages pass information to and
from databases


To provide active content (e.g., hit counters)


To provide dynamic content


Examples of CGI technology include:


Perl


PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)


Active Server Pages (ASP) and .NET


JavaServer Pages (JSP)


Server
-
Side JavaScript (SSJS)


ColdFusion

Text Editors and

Markup Languages


You do not need to use a special editor
application to create markup


You can use a simple text editor (e.g.,
Notepad or Vi)


When creating HTML or XHTML files, you
must:


Save the text as plaintext


Save the file using either the .html or
.htm file name extension

Graphical User Interface (GUI)
HTML Editors


GUI HTML editors:


Create HTML/XHTML code for you


You type page text as you would with
a standard word processor


You point and click with a mouse


Popular GUI HTML editors include:


Macromedia DreamWeaver


Microsoft FrontPage


Mozilla/Netscape Composer



Why Learn

Markup Languages?


GUI HTML editors do not keep pace with
the latest improvements in markup
language


You can add features to pages not
supported by the editor


You will not be limited by the GUI editor’s
capabilities

Front
-
End Issues


A Web page is an interface that should:


Provide a distinct message


Be accessible by all users


Incorporate appealing images and graphical
elements


Include constantly updated hyperlinks


Use tables wisely


Present carefully designed Web forms


Connect pages to databases securely


Use the most current technologies appropriate


Use images sparingly


Be easily navigable and without dead ends


Include alternative navigation

Web Page Accessibility


An accessible Web page has:


A user
-
friendly and accessible front end


Back
-
end server resources that process and
store user input


The WC3 estimates that up to 10 percent of
people have disabilities that, if not
accommodated by Web sites, can cause
companies to lose significant amounts of
revenue


Why adhere to accessibility standards?


It makes your site available to all users


You can be penalized for failing to provide
accessibility, either by losing customers or
through government
-
imposed fines

Disabilities Acts


The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


Enforced by the U.S. Justice Department


Requires Web designers to create “reasonable
accommodations” for disabled users:


Ensuring that all images have text
-
based
descriptions


Providing text
-
based alternatives to all non
-
text content (e.g., Java applets and Flash
presentations)


Providing easy
-
to
-
read forms


Additional disabilities acts and initiatives:


Canada’s Common Look and Feel for the
Internet


The Australian Government’s Guide to Minimum
Web Site Standards


Accessibility


India’s Maharashtra Right to Information Act

Disabilities Acts
(cont’d)


Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)


Provided by the W3C Web Accessibility
Initiative (WAI)


A product of worldwide cooperation


14 WAI guidelines


Rehabilitation Act: Electronic and Information
Technology Accessibility Standards, Section
508


Known simply as Section 508


All federal agencies must ensure that all
electronic and information technology
developed, procured, maintained or used by
federal agencies be comparably accessible to
users with disabilities


Based on the WCAG



Child Online Protection Act
(COPA)


Designed to protect minors from harmful
material


U.S. government law


Penalties specified


You can learn more about COPA at:


The COPA Commission Home Page
www.copacommission.org


The COPA Act Text
www.copacommission.org/commission
/original.shtml

Verifying Web Page
Accessibility


Many tools available, including:


Bobby (
www.cast.org/bobby
)


STEP508 (
www.section508.gov
)


RetroAccess (
www.retroaccess.com
)


One way you can help improve accessibility
is by adhering to the XHTML 1.0 standard
when you write Web page code

General Web Page
Accessibility Considerations


Visual challenges


Text readability


Text support for images


Screen reader support


Audio challenges


Alternative audio support


Alternative speech input


Text support for audio elements


Cognitive and technical challenges


Site maps can improve accessibility


Change documentation can improve
accessibility


Creative Design and Branding
Standards


A Web page is often part of a larger marketing
and sales strategy


Creating and ensuring brand recognition
(name recognition)


Presenting a strong message


A Web page allows you to develop:


A market


Mind share


A brand


Creative Design and Branding
Standards


Design and branding standards


topics for
meetings include:


Target markets


Market messages


Media choices


Color combinations


Sales strategies


Technologies to use


Audience development techniques include:


Flash, Java


Company logos


Strategies developed by sales and marketing


Push and pull technologies


Visitor tracking



Portals


A Web site that act as a centralized access
point for additional Web sites


Portal types:


Vertical


Horizontal


Portal benefits:


Direct users to the best sites


Attract users to products


Improve brand name

Wiki Site


A Web site that allows all visitors to collaborate
in its construction


Wiki software is installed on a Web server


You can lock down certain pages and leave
others open to editing


Wiki examples


Wikipedia (
www.wikipedia.org
)


LinuxQuestions.org
(
http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/wiki/Main_Pa
ge
)



MemoryAlpha
(
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_Alpha
)


Wiki software purveyors


Open Wiki (
www.openwiki.com
)


JSP Wiki (
www.jspwiki.org
)

File Formats and Active
Content


Your pages will include various content
formats, including PDF documents, images and
media files


Common file formats and MIME types


HTML: text/html


JPEG: image/jpeg


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS): text/css


MPEG: audio/mpeg


MP3: audio/mp3


Evaluating proprietary formats


Difficulty/inconvenience


Cost


Audience limitation


Back
-
End Issues


Database connectivity


Types of databases


Web servers use relational databases to store
data


Relational databases


Creating relational databases


Relational database vendors


Databases, Web servers and SQL

Relational Database
Manipulation Terminology


Join
--

combining two database tables to create a
new table


Table
--

a database topic that contains rows
(records) and columns (attributes or fields)


Record
--

one row of a relational database table


Field
--

one column of a relational database table


Entity (i.e., record)
--

a person, place or thing
represented in a database table row


Attribute
--

a category of information related to an
entity


Linking attribute
--

common attribute between
tables that allows a join to occur


Relation
--

a link generated between two entities


Tuple
--

two or more entities currently linked by a
relation


Query
--

searching a database



Types of

Database Table Joins


Inner join


Results in a new table in which the
information in one column of the first table is
combined with a column of the second table


The most common type of join


Outer join


Used to combine tables when one column of a
table contains an empty, or null, value


Less common


SQL Commands


SELECT


requests data from a particular table
or table row


FROM


delimits the beginning search point in
a table or table row


WHERE


delimits the ending search point in a
table or table row


JOIN


creates a new table from selected data


SUM


adds numerical information within
records




Accessing and Updating
Databases


Ways to access databases include:


Locally


Over the LAN from a share you establish


Via the Web through a Web application


Database connectivity methods


Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)


Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)


Indexing and cataloging

Bandwidth and Download Time


Download time


Factor in all files


Consider typical connection speeds


Calculate download time for a Web page


Check the size of the HTML file and all
associated images, files or programs


Determine the speed of your network
connection


Convert the connection speed and file size to
common units of measure (e.g., bytes or bits)


Divide file size by connection speed

Naming Web Page Files


Web servers search for default page names


Default page names include:


index.html


index.htm


default.htm


default.asp


Default page names can change from server to
server


Apache Server
--

usually index.html


IIS
--

usually default.htm, default.html or
index.html

HTTP 404


File Not Found
Error


Indicates that a user has requested a file that
does not exist on the specified Web server


Generated by the server


Can be customized

Habitat For Humanity

Web Site


A not
-
for
-
profit, volunteer
-
driven organization
that builds and sells homes for families
worldwide


Has built more than 150,000 homes worldwide


A Web site example in this course


Like any Web site, it targets an audience


The site is part of a concerted effort to bring
in volunteers


People with technical expertise must run the
site


More than technical expertise is required


The Web design team must also understand
the business goals