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jellytrickInternet et le développement Web

10 nov. 2013 (il y a 7 années et 11 mois)

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The biography of U.S. President BarackObama that appears on White House.govWebsiteFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaA website, also written as Web site,[1] web site, or simplysite,[2] is a set of related web pages containing content(media), including text, video, music, audio, images, etc. Awebsite is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via anetwork such as the Internet or a private local area networkthrough an Internet address known as a Uniform ResourceLocator. All publicly accessible websites collectivelyconstitute the World Wide Web.A webpage is a document, typically written in plain textinterspersed with formatting instructions of HypertextMarkup Language (HTML, XHTML). A webpage mayincorporate elements from other websites with suitablemarkup anchors.Webpages are accessed and transported with the HypertextTransfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employencryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security andprivacy for the user of the webpage content. The user'sapplication, often a web browser, renders the page contentaccording to its HTML markup instructions onto a displayterminal.The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simpleUniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. The URLs of the pages organize them into ahierarchy, although hyperlinking between them conveys the reader's perceived site structure and guidesthe reader's navigation of the site.Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscriptionwebsites include many business sites, parts of news websites, academic journal websites, gamingwebsites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websitesproviding real-time stock market data, and websites providing various other services (e.g., websitesoffering storing and/or sharing of images, files and so forth).Contents1 History2 Overview3 Static website4 Dynamic websiteWebsite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
4.1 Dynamic code4.2 Dynamic content4.3 Purpose of dynamic websites5 Software systems5.1 Content-based sites5.2 Product- or service-based sites6 Spelling7 Types of websites8 Awards9 See also10 References11 External linksHistoryThe World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1990 by CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.[3] On 30 April1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone.[4] Before theintroduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocolwere used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structurewhich the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as plaintext files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats.OverviewOrganized by function, a website may bea personal websitea commercial websitea government websitea nonprofit organization website.It could be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, and is typically dedicated to someparticular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinctionbetween individual sites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes be blurred.Websites are written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and areaccessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwiseaccessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, includingdesktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cell phones.A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called an HTTP server, and theseterms can also refer to the software that runs on these systems and that retrieves and delivers the webpages in response to requests from the website users. Apache is the most commonly used web serverWebsite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
software (according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft's IIS is also commonly used. Some alternatives,such as Lighttpd, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are fully functional and lightweight.Static websiteMain article: static web pageA static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client webbrowser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext Markup Language, HTML.Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or abrochure website are often static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to theuser. This may include information about a company and its products and services via text, photos,animations, audio/video and interactive menus and navigation.This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out aprinted brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standardinformation for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically,it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and other content and may require basic website designskills and software.In summary, visitors are not able to control what information they receive via a static website, and mustinstead settle for whatever content the website owner has decided to offer at that time.They are edited using four broad categories of software:Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulateddirectly within the editor programWYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver(previously Macromedia Dreamweaver), with which the site is edited using a GUI interfaceand the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor softwareWYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages,widgets, intro, blogs, and other documents.Template-based editors, such as RapidWeaver and iWeb, which allow users to quickly createand upload web pages to a web server without detailed HTML knowledge, as they pick asuitable template from a palette and add pictures and text to it in a desktop publishing fashionwithout direct manipulation of HTML code.Dynamic websiteMain article: dynamic web pageA dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically, based oncertain criteria.Dynamic websites can have two types of dynamic activity: Code and Content. Dynamic code is invisibleWebsite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
or behind the scenes and dynamic content is visible or fully displayed.Dynamic codeThe first type is a web page with dynamic code. The code is constructed dynamically on the fly usingactive programming language instead of plain, static HTML.A website with dynamic code refers to its construction or how it is built, and more specifically refers tothe code used to create a single web page. A dynamic web page is generated on the fly by piecingtogether certain blocks of code, procedures or routines. A dynamically-generated web page would recallvarious bits of information from a database and put them together in a pre-defined format to present thereader with a coherent page. It interacts with users in a variety of ways including by reading cookiesrecognizing users' previous history, session variables, server side variables etc., or by using directinteraction (form elements, mouse overs, etc.). A site can display the current state of a dialogue betweenusers, monitor a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to therequirements of the individual user.Dynamic contentThe second type is a website with dynamic content displayed in plain view. Variable content is displayeddynamically on the fly based on certain criteria, usually by retrieving content stored in a database.A website with dynamic content refers to how its messages, text, images and other information aredisplayed on the web page, and more specifically how its content changes at any given moment. Theweb page content varies based on certain criteria, either pre-defined rules or variable user input. Forexample, a website with a database of news articles can use a pre-defined rule which tells it to display allnews articles for today's date. This type of dynamic website will automatically show the most currentnews articles on any given date. Another example of dynamic content is when a retail website with adatabase of media products allows a user to input a search request for the keyword Beatles. In response,the content of the web page will spontaneously change the way it looked before, and will then display alist of Beatles products like CDs, DVDs and books.Purpose of dynamic websitesThe main purpose of a dynamic website is automation. A dynamic website can operate more effectively,be built more efficiently and is easier to maintain, update and expand. It is much simpler to build atemplate and a database than to build hundreds or thousands of individual, static HTML web pages.Software systemsThere is a wide range of software systems, such as ANSI C servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSP), the PHP,Perl, Python, and Ruby programming languages, ASP.NET, Active Server Pages (ASP), YUMA andColdFusion (CFML) that are available to generate dynamic web systems and dynamic sites. Sites mayalso include content that is retrieved from one or more databases or by using XML-based technologiessuch as RSS.Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
Static content may also be dynamically generated either periodically, or if certain conditions forregeneration occur (cached) in order to avoid the performance loss of initiating the dynamic engine on aper-user or per-connection basis.Plug ins are available to expand the features and abilities of web browsers to show active content oreven create rich internet applications. Examples of such plug-ins are Microsoft Silverlight, Adobe Flash,Adobe Shockwave or applets written in Java. Dynamic HTML also provides for user interactivity andrealtime element updating within web pages (i.e., pages don't have to be loaded or reloaded to effect anychanges), mainly using the Document Object Model (DOM) and JavaScript, support which is built-in tomost modern web browsers.Turning a website into an income source is a common practice for web developers and website owners.There are several methods for creating a website business which fall into two broad categories, asdefined below.Content-based sitesSome websites derive revenue by selling advertising space on their site either through direct sales orthrough an advertising network. (see Contextual advertising).Product- or service-based sitesSome websites derive revenue by offering products or services for sale. In the case of e-commercewebsites, the products or services may be purchased at the website itself, by entering credit card or otherpayment information into a payment form on the site. While most business websites serve as a shopwindow for existing brick and mortar businesses, it is increasingly the case that some websites arebusinesses in their own right; that is, the products they offer are only available for purchase on the web.Websites occasionally derive income from a combination of these two practices. For example, a websitesuch as an online auctions website may charge the users of its auction service to list an auction, but alsodisplay third-party advertisements on the site, from which it derives further income.SpellingThe form "website" has become the standard spelling, but previously "Web site" (capitalised) and "website" were also widely used. Some academia, some large book publishers, and some dictionaries still use"Web site", reflecting the origin of the term in the proper name, World Wide Web. There has also beensimilar debate regarding related terms such as web page, webmaster, and webcam.Among leading style guides, the Reuters style guide,[5] The Chicago Manual of Style,[6] and the APStylebook (since April 2010)[7] all recommend "website".Among leading dictionaries and encyclopedias, the Canadian Oxford Dictionary prefers "website", andthe Oxford English Dictionary changed to "website" in 2004.[8] Wikipedia also uses "website", butEncyclopædia Britannica[9] (including its Merriam-Webster subsidiary[10]) uses "Web site".Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
Among leading language-usage commentators, Garner's Modern American Usage acknowledges that"website" is the standard form,[11] but Bill Walsh, of The Washington Post, argues for using "Web site"in his books and on his website[12] (however, The Washington Post itself uses "website"[13]).Among major internet technology companies and corporations, Microsoft uses "website" andoccasionally "web site",[14][15][16] Apple uses "website",[17] and Google uses "website".[18]Types of websitesWebsites can be divided into two broad categories - static and interactive. Interactive sites are part of theWeb 2.0 community of sites, and allow for interactivity between the site owner and site visitors. Staticsites serve or capture information but do not allow engagement with the audience directly.There are many varieties of websites, each specializing in a particular type of content or use, and theymay be arbitrarily classified in any number of ways. A few such classifications might include:Click "show" or "hide" to toggle this tableType of WebsiteDescriptionExamplesAffiliateA site, typically few in pages, whose purpose is to sella third party's product. The seller receives acommission for facilitating the sale.AffiliateAgencyEnabled portal that renders not only its custom CMSbut also syndicated content from other contentproviders for an agreed fee. There are usually threerelationship tiers. Affiliate Agencies(e.g., Commission Junction),Advertisers (e.g., eBay) and consumer(e.g., Yahoo!).Archive siteUsed to preserve valuable electronic contentthreatened with extinction. Two examples are:Internet Archive, which since 1996 has preservedbillions of old (and new) web pages; and GoogleGroups, which in early 2005 was archiving over845,000,000 messages posted to Usenetnews/discussion groups.Internet Archive, Google GroupsAttack siteA site created specifically to attack visitors computerson their first visit to a website by downloading a file(usually a trojan horse). These websites rely onunsuspecting users with poor anti-virus protection intheir computers.Blog (web log)Sites generally used to post online diaries which mayinclude discussion forums (e.g., blogger, Xanga).Many bloggers use blogs like an editorial section of anewspaper to express their ideas on anything rangingfrom politics to religion to video games to parenting,along with anything in between. Some bloggers areprofessional bloggers and they are paid to blog abouta certain subject, and they are usually found on newssites.Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
Brand buildingsiteA site with the purpose of creating an experience of abrand online. These sites usually do not sell anything,but focus on building the brand. Brand building sitesare most common for low-value, high-volume fastmoving consumer goods (FMCG).CelebritywebsiteA website whose information revolves around acelebrity. This sites can be official (endorsed by thecelebrity) or fan made (run by his/her fan, fans,without implicit endorsement).jimcarrey.comClick-to-donatesiteA website that allows the visitor to donate to charitysimply by clicking on a button or answering aquestion correctly. An advertiser usually donates tothe charity for each correct answer generated.The Hunger Site, Freerice, Ripple(charitable organisation)Community siteA site where persons with similar interestscommunicate with each other, usually by chat ormessage boards.Myspace, Facebook, orkutContent siteSites whose business is the creation and distributionof original content(e.g., Slate, to provide background information about abusiness, organization, or service.Dating websiteA site where users can find other single peoplelooking for long range relationships, dating, or justfriends.Many of them are pay per services suchas eHarmony and, but thereare many free or partially free datingsites. Most dating sites today have thefunctionality of social networkingwebsites.Electroniccommerce(e-commerce)siteA site offering goods and services for online sale andenabling online transactions for such sales.Forum websiteA site where people discuss various topics.GalleryWebsiteA website designed specifically for use as a Gallery,these may be an art gallery or photo gallery and ofcommercial or non-commercial nature.GovernmentSiteA website made by the local, state, department ornational government of a country. Usually these sitesalso operate websites that are intended to informtourists or support tourism.For example, is thegeodomain for Richmond, Virginia.Gripe siteA site devoted to the criticism of a person, place,corporation, government, or institution.GamingwebsiteGamblingwebsiteA site that lets users play online games. Some enablepeople to gamble online.Humor siteSatirizes, parodies or otherwise exists solely to amuse.Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
InformationsiteMost websites could fit in this type of website to someextent many of them are not necessarily forcommercial, Free InternetLexicon and Encyclopedia. Mostgovernment, educational and nonprofitinstitutions have an informational site.Media sharingsiteA site that enables users to upload and view mediasuch as pictures, music, and videosFlickr, YouTube, PureVolume andGoogle VideosMirror siteA website that is the replication of another website.This type of websites are used as a response to spikesin user visitors. Mirror sites are most commonly usedto provide multiple sources of the same information,and are of particular value as a way of providingreliable access to large downloads.Microblog siteA short and simple form of blogging. Microblogs arelimited to certain amounts of characters and workssimilar to a status update on FacebookTwitterNews siteSimilar to an information site, but dedicated todispensing news, politics, and commentary.cnn.comPersonalwebsiteWebsites about an individual or a small group (suchas a family) that contains information or any contentthat the individual wishes to include. Many personalhomepages are rare, thanks to the modern era ofsocial networking sites such as Myspace, but some arestill used for at home businesses. This website isdifferent from a Celebrity website, which can be veryexpensive and run by a publicist or agency.Phishing sitea website created to fraudulently acquire sensitiveinformation, such as passwords and credit carddetails, by masquerading as a trustworthy person orbusiness (such as Social Security Administration,PayPal) in an electronic communication (seePhishing).p2p/TorrentswebsiteWebsites that index torrent files. This type of websiteis different from a Bit torrent client which is usually astand alone software.Mininova, The Pirate BayPolitical siteA site on which people may voice political views,show political humor, campaigning for elections, orshow information about a certain political party orideology.Porn siteA site that shows sexually explicit content forenjoyment and relaxation. They can be similar to apersonal website when it's a website of a pornactor/actress or a media sharing website where usercan upload from their own sexually explicit materialto movies made by adult studios.Question andAnswer (Q&A)SiteAnswer site is a site where people can ask questions& get answers.Yahoo! Answers, Stack ExchangeNetwork (including Stack Overflow)Rating siteA site on which people can praise or disparage what isfeatured.Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
Religious siteA site in which people may advertise a place ofworship, or provide inspiration or seek to encouragethe faith of a follower of that religion.Review siteA site on which people can post reviews for productsor services.School sitea site on which teachers, students, or administratorscan post information about current events at orinvolving their school. U.S. elementary-high schoolwebsites generally use k12 in the URLScraper sitea site which largely duplicates without permission thecontent of another site, without actually pretending tobe that site, in order to capture some of that site'straffic (especially from search engines) and profitfrom advertising revenue or in other ways.Search enginesiteA website that indexes material on the internet or anintranet (and lately on traditional media such as booksand newspapers)and provides links to information as aresponse to a query.Google Search, Bing, GoodSearch,EcosiaShock siteIncludes images or other material that is intended tobe offensive to most, rotten.comShowcase siteWeb portals used by individuals and organisations toshowcase things of interest or valueSocialbookmarkingsiteA site where users share other content from theInternet and rate and comment on the content.StumbleUpon and Digg are examples.Socialnetworking siteA site where users could communicate with oneanother and share media, such as pictures, videos,music, blogs, etc. with other users. These may includegames and web applications.Facebook, Orkut, Google+WarezA site designed to host or link to materials such asmusic, movies and software for the user to download.WebmailA site that provides a webmail service.Hotmail, GmailWeb portalA site that provides a starting point or a gateway toother resources on the Internet or an,, yahooWiki siteA site which users collaboratively edit its content.Wikipedia, WikiHow, WikiaSome websites may be included in one or more of these categories. For example, a business website maypromote the business's products, but may also host informative documents, such as white papers. Thereare also numerous sub-categories to the ones listed above. For example, a porn site is a specific type ofe-commerce site or business site (that is, it is trying to sell memberships for access to its site) or havesocial networking capabilities. A fansite may be a dedication from the owner to a particular celebrity.Websites are constrained by architectural limits (e.g., the computing power dedicated to the website).Very large websites, such as Facebook, Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google employ many servers and loadbalancing equipment such as Cisco Content Services Switches to distribute visitor loads over multiplecomputers at multiple locations. As of early 2011, Facebook utilized 9 data centers with approximately63,000 servers.Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
In February 2009, Netcraft, an Internet monitoring company that has tracked Web growth since 1995,reported that there were 215,675,903 websites with domain names and content on them in 2009,compared to just 18,000 websites in August 1995.AwardsThe Webby Awards, Favourite Website Awards, Interactive Media Awards and WebAwards areprominent award organizations recognizing the world's best websites.See alsoLink rotLists ofwebsitesWeb contentmanagementsystemWeb designWebdevelopmentWeb hostingserviceWeb templateWebsitearchitectureWebsiteawardsWebsitegovernanceWebsitemonetizationWorld WideWebConsortium(Webstandards)References^ "website - definition of website by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia"( . Retrieved 2011-07-02.1.^ "site - definition of site by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia"( . 2011-07-02.2.^ "The website of the world's first-ever web server" ( . Retrieved2008-08-30.3.^ Cailliau, Robert. "A Little History of the World Wide Web" ( . Retrieved 2007-02-16.4.^ "Handbook of Journalism" ( . Reuters. Retrieved 2010-08-05.5.^ "Internet, Web, and Other Post-Watergate Concerns" ( .University of Chicago. Retrieved 2010-09-18.6.^ "AP tweets that it will change from Web site to website" ( . Retrieved 2010-04-16.7.^ "Ask Oxford: How should the term website be written in official documents and on the web?"( . Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 2007-02-23.8.^ "Web site (computer science)" ( .Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved2010-09-18.9.^ "Website - Definition and More" ( . Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2010-09-18.10.^ Lisa Gold (2010-04-17). "AP Stylebook surrenders the battle over “Web site” vs. “website”"( - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM
website/) . Retrieved 2010-08-05.^ "The Slot—Sharp Points: Here We Go Again—Eeee!" ( . Retrieved 2007-02-25.12.^ Nakamura, David; Wallsten, Peter; Aizenman&, N.C.. "The Washington Post"( . Washington Post. Retrieved2010-08-05.13.^ "Microsoft Windows" ( . Microsoft. Retrieved 2010-08-05.14.^ "Internet Explorer 9 Preview Builds" ( . Microsoft. Retrieved 2010-08-05.15.^ "Microsoft (R) Expression (R)" ( . Microsoft. Retrieved 2010-08-05.16.^ "Site Map" ( . Apple. Retrieved2010-08-05.17.^ "Welcome to Google Business Solutions" ( . Google. Retrieved 2010-08-05.18.External linksInternet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ( Wide Web Consortium (W3C) ( Internet Society (ISOC) ( from ""Categories: WebsitesThis page was last modified on 21 February 2012 at 19:33.Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional termsmay apply. See Terms of use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profitorganization.Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia of 112/23/12 4:22 PM