Introduction & Background to Cognitive Psycholog

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23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 8 mois)

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1

Cognition


Study of how the mind works. Study of basic
mental functions of the mind.


Includes a variety of mental process: perception,
pattern recognition, language, etc.

2

Cognition =
Organization of
Kn
o
wl
e
d
g
e
Memory
A
tte
n
tio
n
Decision
Making
Perception
P
robl
e
m
Solving
Pattern
Re
c
ogni
t
i
on
Language
Reasoning
Cognition Equals

3

Cognitive Psychology


Theoretical orientation emphasizing mental
structures and processes and breaks them down
into component structures and processes


How sensory information is acquired, stored,
transformed and used.


Mental activity or acquisition, storage,
transformation, and use of knowledge

4

Neisser

猠䑥晩s瑩潮t潦o
Cognitive Psychology



Cognitive Psychology refers to all
processes by which the sensory input is
transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored,
recovered, and used.


5

Question


Answer this question as quickly as you
can:


How many hands did Aristotle have?

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Perception


Attention


Pattern
Recognition

Memory


Organization
of Knowledge


Language

Reasoning


Problem
Solving


Decision
Making

Levels of Cognition

7

Codes


System of signals used to
represent

something
--

e.g. code for music on CD


Cognitive Code: the word

hands


--
>
phonemes (language sounds), letters,
meaning


Neural Code: e.g. the word

hands


encoded
as a pattern of neural activity in the brain

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Level of Description


Mental Level


Cognitive Level


Neural Level

9

Cognitive Process Analysis

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Cognitive Psycholgy Development Timeline

1880
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1960
1950
1970
1990
1980
1890
Structuralism
T
itchener
Psychology 1879
W
undt
Functionalism --
James
Behaviorism -
W
atson
V
erbal Learning
Gestalt
Psychology
Linguistics -
Chomsky
Cognitive
Psychology
Neo-Behaviorism
Computer
Science
Information
Theory
Ethology
Neuroscience
Anthropology
Cognitive Science
T
imeline of the Development of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive & Brain
Sciences
Ebbinghaus
Skinner
Natural Science,
Physiology
, Psychophysics
Philosophy
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Thinking as a Sequence of
States


12

Wilhelm Wundt




Conscious
processes and
immediate
experience



Introspection or

self
observation



Rigorous Methods

13

Titchener


Structuralism


Training of observers


Structuralism


Imageless thought
controversy

14

Herman Ebbinghaus


Study higher mental
processes using
scientific method


Process of
association formation


Non
-
sense syllables


Savings Method


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Nonsense Syllables

DAX

GIK

TEB

KOV

SUV

HET

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Ebbinghaus


䵥瑨潤

1.
Learn list to 2 perfect recitations (# trials)

2.
Set aside (varied delay)

3.
Relearn (# trials)

4.
Measurement of Savings

# Trials to Learn

-

# Trials to Relearn

# Trials to Learn

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Measurement of Savings

# Trials to Learn

-

# Trials to Relearn

# Trials to Learn

18

Forgetting Curve

19

William James


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William James
-

Functionalism


Interested in the
functions

of consciousness


Infer mental mechanisms or processes from the
way organisms behave in different situations.


Functions of Memory


Primary Memory


Secondary Memory

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20th Century

22

Behaviorism


John B. Watson (1924)


Reaction to Introspection


Emphasis on observable, quantifiable
behavior


No unobservables, no
internal

mental
states, no images, ideas, or thoughts

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Behaviorism


Psychology = Scientific study of behavior


Humans as passive reactors to external
stimuli



Tabular Rasa


-

Environmental
determinants of behavior


Rats in mazes, puzzle boxes, etc.

24

Behaviorism
-

Positive
Contributions


Insistence of precise & careful definition of
concepts


Operational Construct


e.g. performance = # trials necessary to
complete a maze with no errors


Experimental Control

25

Gestalt Psychology


Laws of organization


Law of proximity


Law of similarity


Insight problem solving

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Law of Similarity

O O O O

X X X X

O O O O

X X X X

27

Law of Proximity

O

O

O

O

X

X

X

X

O

O

O

O

X

X

X

X

28

Frederick C. Bartlett


Remembering: An Experimental and
Social Study

(1932)


Meaningful materials
--

e.g. stories


Human memory constructive process


Original material interpreted and
transformed

29

The Cognitive Revolution


Return to mentalistic ideas (1940

s and 50

s)


MIT


Sept. 11, 1956


Neisser

s book
Cognitive Psychology

(1967)


Information processing perspective


Diverse Influences/ Causes

30

Stimulus
-
Response

31

Dissatisfaction with
Behaviorism


Challenges to

tabular rasa



Innate structure or knowledge


Complex human behavior not explainable
in terms of stimulus
-
response relations
alone

32

World War II

33

World War II


Practical Problems


Problems of perception, judgement,
thinking, and decision
-
making


Operating technical equipment


Performance over Learning


Human Factors

34

Information Processing

35

Verbal Learning


Flourishing of Ebbinghaus tradition


Different types of memory, memory
organization, models


Active nature of learner
--
what is brought to
learning


Formation of
new associations

--
> Use of
pre
-
existing

associations.


Emphasis on Memory over learning

36

Bousfield (1953)

apple

bicycle

shirt

chair

banana

car

socks

desk

peach

truck

dress

couch

orange

train

hat

rug

Words
presented in
this order:

desk

couch

chair

peach

apple

hat

shirt

dress




Etc.

But recalled

In this order

37

Verbal Learning …


Existing memory associations lead to
reorganization of words during recall


Mental Processes: rehearsal, storage,
organization, retrieval


Acceptance of objective methods & procedures


But increased commitment to
inferred processes

--

e.g. encoding, storage, retrieval

38

Noam Chomsky

39

Linguistics


Rejection of behaviorist notions of language


Emphasis on mental processes underlying
language learning


Novelty of utterances


2 Major Claims


Language knowledge innate


Grammatical rules/system

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Evidence


Same age of acquisition


Similar stages and length of time to
acquire


Limited # of Grammars


Novel utterances


Evidence for rule use: Irregular past tense
verbs

41

Evidence for Rule Use:
Irregular past tense formation


Initially



go


--
>

went




eat


--
>

ate



Later (after acquiring regular past tense
rule)



go


--
>

goed




eat


--
>

eated


42

Telephone example


UD has improved the appearance of the
university over the last few years.


43

Communications Theory


Information processing idea


Similarity between communication devices and
people


1st approximation analogy for psychology to
describe mental processes


Channel, information processing filters,
limited
capacity
, serial vs. parallel processing.

44

Information Theory

Information

Source

Transmitter

Channel

Receiver

Destination

45

Computers & Computer
Science


Numerous contributions


Analogy of computers & humans


Both process information: Take in
information, transform, manipulate, store, &
output information (or some type of product
--
e.g. behavior)


Humans & computers as symbol
manipulators

46

Schematic Diagram of
Computer System

47

Atkinson & Shiffrin Memory Model

48

Many Contributions


Borrowing of concepts & characteristics
of computers to describe human
system: sensory store, short
-
term store,
long
-
term store


Limited capacity
--
immediate memory &
attention

49

Additional Contributions


Computer programs/processes analagous to
mental processes


Simulation modeling


AI


Computer as tool


Modeling


Stimulus Presentation

50

Current Issues Related to
Cognitive Psychology


Ecological Validity


Cognitive Science


Cognitive Neuroscience


Artificial Intelligence


Parallel Distributed Processing Approach

51

Cognitive Neuroscience


Examines how the structure & function
of the brain explain cognitive processes


Kossylyn

s Message


Complexity


Necessity of cognitive/functional analyses


New Tools/Techniques

52

Cognitive Neuroscience
Techniques


Brain Lessions


Brain Imaging Techniques


PET


MRI


fMRI


Event
-
related Potential


Single
-
cell Recording Technique

53

PET Scan

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Pet Scan 2


PET Scan while
listening to a
language task
(unpracticed)


PET Scan after
practice with the task
(spelling)

55

Event
-
related Potentials

56

An ERP Recording

57

Artificial Intelligence


Machine Metaphor


Artificial Intelligence (Pure AI)


Computer Simulation

58

PDP
-

Parallel Distributed
Processing


Cognitive processes can be understood in terms
of networks of

neuron
-
like


units


Connectionism vs. neural networks


Parallel vs. Serial Distinction


59

Matlin

猠s⁔桥浥


Cognitive processes are active


Cognitive processes remarkably efficient &
accurate


Cognitive processes handle positive
information better than negative


Cognitive processes are Interrelated


Many cognitive processes rely on both
bottom
-
up

and
top
-
down

processing

60

What do you see?

61

Context Effects