Heuristics - Quincy College

imminentpoppedIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 8 mois)

87 vue(s)

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1

Chapter 7


Thinking, Intelligence, and
Language

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2

Chapter Preview


The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology


Thinking


Intelligence


Language

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3

The Cognitive Revolution



What is Cognition?


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4

The Cognitive Revolution


Cognition


Way in which information is processed and
manipulated in remembering, thinking, and
knowing


The advent of computers in 1950s


Computer science, a key motivator in the birth of
the study of human cognition


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5

The Cognitive Revolution


Computer used as an analogy to help explain
the relationship between cognition and the
brain


Cognitive psychology


Approaches seeking to explain observable
behavior by investigating mental processes and
structures that cannot be directly observed

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6

Figure 7.1
-

Computers and

Human Cognition

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7

The Cognitive Revolution


Artificial intelligence (AI)


Focuses on creating machines capable of
performing activities that require intelligence
when they are done by people


Especially helpful in tasks requiring speed,
persistence, and a vast memory

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8

Thinking


What is Thinking?


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9

Thinking


Involves manipulating information mentally
by:


Forming concepts


Solving problems


Making decisions


Reflecting in a critical or creative manner


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10

Concepts


Mental categories used to group objects,
events, and characteristics


Are important because:


Allows generalization


Allows association of experiences and objects


Aids memory


Provide clues about how to react to particular
object or experience

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11

Concepts


The structure of concepts can be explained by
the prototype model


When evaluating whether a given item reflects a
certain concept, people compare the item with
the most typical item(s) in that category


Look for a “family resemblance” with the item’s
properties

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12

Problem Solving


Finding appropriate way to attain a goal which is not readily
available


The problem
-
solving process:


Find and frame problems


Develop good problem
-
solving strategies


Subgoaling

involves setting intermediate goals or defining
intermediate problems that put you in a better position for
reaching a final goal or solution.


Algorithms
are strategies that guarantee a solution to a
problem. A recipe for cooking a dinner dish is an example
of an algorithm.


Heuristics

are shortcut strategies that suggest a solution to
a problem but do not guarantee an answer.

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13

Problem Solving


Evaluate Solutions


A person will not know if a particular solution is
the correct one until trying it to see if it works.


Rethink and Redefine Problems and Solutions
Over Time


People should continually rethink and redefine
problems.

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14

Obstacles to Problem Solving


Fixation
-

Using prior strategy and failing to
look at problem from fresh, new perspective


Functional fixedness
-

Failure to solve problem
due to fixedness on usual function of
something


Effective problem solving necessitates trying
something new

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15

Reasoning and Decision Making


Reasoning
-

Mental activity of transforming
information to reach conclusions


Inductive reasoning
-

Reasoning from specific
observations to make generalizations


Deductive reasoning
-

Reasoning from a general
case that we know to be true to a specific instance


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16

Reasoning and Decision Making


Decision making
-

Evaluating alternatives and
choosing among them


Reasoning uses established rules to draw
conclusions


In decision making rules are not established
and consequences of the decisions are
unknown


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17

Reasoning and Decision Making


Two systems of reasoning and decision making


Automatic
-

Involves processing that is rapid,
heuristic, and intuitive


Entails following one’s hunches or gut feelings


Controlled
-

Involves conscious reflection about an
issue


Is slower, effortful, and analytical


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18

Biases in Decision Making


Confirmation bias
-

The tendency to search for
and use information that supports ideas
rather than refutes them


Hindsight bias
-

The tendency to report falsely,
after the fact, that outcome was accurately
predicted


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19

Heuristics in Decision Making


Availability heuristic
-

Prediction about
possibility of event based on recalling or
imagining similar events


Base rate fallacy
-

Tendency to ignore information
about general principles in favor of very specific
but vivid information


Representativeness heuristic
-

Tendency to
make judgments about group membership
based on match to group stereotype

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20

Thinking Critically


Thinking reflectively and productively


Evaluating evidence


Cultivation of two mental habits


Mindfulness
-

Being alert and mentally present for
everyday activities


Open
-
mindedness
-

Being receptive to other ways
of looking at things

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21

Thinking Creatively


To think about something in unusual ways


To devise unconventional solutions to
problems


Divergent thinking
-

Producing many solutions to
same problem


Brainstorming


Convergent thinking
-

Producing single best
solution to problem


Creative thinkers do both


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22

Thinking Creatively


Characteristics of individuals who think
creatively


Flexibility and playful thinking


Inner motivation


Willingness to face risk


Objective evaluation of work


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23

Thinking Creatively


Why we make bad decisions


http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_gilbert_resear
ches_happiness.html


Creative Confidance


http://www.ted.com/playlists/11/the_creative
_spark.html



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24


End Part I

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25

Intelligence


Cultures vary in ways they define intelligence


An all
-
purpose ability to:


Do well on cognitive tasks


Solve problems


Learn from experience

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26

Measuring Intelligence


Criteria for a good intelligence test


Validity
-

Extent to which test measures what it is
intended to measure


Reliability
-

Extent to which test yields consistent,
reproducible measure of performance


Standardization


Involves:


Developing uniform procedures for administering and
scoring a test


Creating norms

performance standards

for the test


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27

IQ Tests


Mental age, developed by Binet
-

Individual’s
level of mental development relative to that of
others


Intelligence quotient, developed by Stern


IQ = (MA/CA) x 100, where:


MA
-

Mental age


CA
-

Chronological age




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28

IQ Tests


Normal distribution


Symmetrical, bell
-
shaped curve


A majority of the scores falling in the middle of
the possible range


Few scores appear toward the extremes of the range



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29

Figure 7.9

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30

Cultural Bias in IQ Testing


Culturally biased tests have favored people


From urban, rather than rural, environments


Of middle, rather than low, socioeconomic status


Who are White, rather than African American


Culture
-
fair tests
-

Two types


Intelligence tests intended to be culturally
unbiased


Includes
no verbal questions
-

Raven progressive
matrices


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31

Genetic Influences on Intelligence


Heritability
-

Proportion of observable
differences explained by genes


Can change over time and across groups


Environmental factors have an impact on
heritability



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32

Environmental Influences on
Intelligence


Effect of education on intelligence evident in
rapidly increasing IQ test scores around the
world


Called the Flynn effect


The word
intelligent describes
not only people
but also behaviors


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33

Extremes of Intelligence


Giftedness
-

High intelligence and/or superior
talent in a particular area


Product of heredity and environment


Intellectual disability
-

Condition of limited
mental ability in which an individual has a low
IQ


Difficulty adapting to everyday life


Characteristics exhibited by age 18


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34

Intellectual Disability


Organic intellectual disability
-

Caused by a
genetic disorder or brain damage


Cultural
-
familial intellectual disability
-

A
mental deficit with no evidence of organic
brain damage

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35

Intellectual Disability


Levels of adaptive behavior:


Conceptual skills
-

Understanding of numbers,
money, and time


Social skills
-

Interpersonal skills, responsibility,
self
-
esteem, and ability to follow rules and obey


Practical skills
-

Activities of daily living such as
personal care, occupational skills, health care,
travel/transportation, and use of the telephone



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36

Theories of Multiple Intelligences


Sternberg’s triarchic theory
-

Intelligence
comes in three forms:


Analytical intelligence
-

The ability to analyze,
judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast


Creative intelligence
-

The ability to create, design,
invent, originate, and imagine


Practical intelligence
-

The ability to use, apply,
implement, and put ideas into practice

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37

Theories of Multiple Intelligences


Verbal


Occupations


Mathematical


Spatial


Bodily
-
kinesthetic



Musical


Interpersonal


Intrapersonal


Naturalist


Existentialist


Howard
Gardner’s frames

of mind

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38

Language


Form of communication, whether spoken,
written, or signed


Based on a system of symbols


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39

Basic Properties of Language


Phonology


Morphology


Syntax


Semantics


Pragmatics

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40

Language and Cognition


Connection between language and thought
has been of considerable interest to
psychologists


Is thought dependent on language, or is language
dependent on thought?


Intellectual disability often, but not always,
accompanied by reduced language proficiency


Language and thought not part of single system

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41

Biological Influences on Language


Biological evolution that occurred long before
language emerged undeniably shaped humans
into linguistic creatures


Language universals
-

Human came into the world
biologically prewired to learn language


Strongest evidence
-

Children all over the world reach
language milestones at about the same time and in
about the same order


Language and the brain
-

Brain contains particular
regions that are predisposed to language

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42

Environmental Influences on

Language


Language represents nothing more than
chains of responses acquired through
reinforcement


Language is a complex learned skill


Not tenable, given rapid language development


Critical period
-

Special time in a child’s life
during which language must develop


Biology and environment interact when children
learn language


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43

Figure 7.13
-

Language Milestones

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44

Language Development

Over the Life Span


Milestones of language development


Babbling


Sorting through sounds for ones with meaning


First words


Two
-
word statements


For adults, learning a new language requires a
special kind of cognitive exercise