Byrd Polar Research Center

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Page
i

Document Date:
April 2
4
, 2009



Joseph A. Alutto

Executive Vice President and Provost

Office of Academic Affairs

203 Bricker Hall

190 N. Oval Mall


attn: Crystal Garrett,
garrett.8@osu.edu


May 29
, 2009


Proposal due date:
Friday
,
May 29
, 2009



Dear Provost Alutto,


Please find attach
ed a proposal
in response to the call for Centers for Innovation.
The title is
"
Integrating Energy and the Environment at The Ohio State University."

I will serve as the point
con
tact regarding our proposal.


Indi
cate collaboration with food COI.


My colleagues and I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,





Doug Alsdorf











Byrd Polar Research Center

Doug Alsdorf

123 Scot
t Hall

1090 Carmack Road

Columbus, OH 43210
-
1002


BPRC Main Office: 614
-
292
-
6531

Alsdorf Phone:
614
-
247
-
6908

Fax:
614
-
292
-
4697

E
-
mail
alsdorf.1@osu.edu


Page
ii

Document Date:
April 2
4
,

2009

Title of Center:
Integrating Energy and the Environment at The Ohio State University


Principal Investigators:

(alphabetically, al
l share equally in proposal responsibilities)

Assoc.
Prof. Douglas Alsdorf
, School of Earth Sciences, College of BMPS

Prof. Steve Ringel, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering

Prof. Giorgio Rizzoni
, Department of Mechani
cal Engineering, College of Engineering

Prof. Suvrajeet Sen
, Dept.
Industrial, Welding, & Systems Engineering

College of Engineering


Contact

(individual to whom questions/correspondence should be addressed)
:


Doug Alsdorf, alsdorf.1@osu.edu


List of Part
icipating Colleges and Programs:

Biology, Engineering, FAES, Fisher, Glenn School,
Humanities, MPS, Public Health, and SBS. The Ohio Sea Grant College Program and Stone
Laboratory have both indicated their strong desire to participate.


List of
Collabora
ting

Faculty:

We have two lists of collaborators. The first list indicates those who have "signed
-
on" to our
Center for Innovation proposal and thus indicated that they will not sign
-
on to any other Center
initiative, i.e., they are the people who count t
oward the 8 college and 30 faculty requirement
(9 colleges and
nearly

6
0 faculty are noted in this list)
.

Faculty who have "Signed
-
On"

(Date:
April
24
,

2009; This
list
continues to grow as we welcome new additions.)



First

Last

Department

College

1

Dou
g

Alsdorf

Earth Sciences

MPS

2

Mike

Benzakein

Aerospace Engineering

Engineering

3

Paul

Berger

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

4

Leonard

Brillson

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

5

David

Bromwich

Geography

SBS

6

John

B
rooke

History

Humanities

7

Yu
-
Ping

Chin

Earth Sciences

MPS

8

Benjamin

Coifman

Civil & Environ. Engineering & Geodetic Sci.

Engineering

9

Ozeas

Costa

Earth Sciences

MPS

10

John

Crawford

Environmental Health Sciences

CPH

11

Jose

Cruz

Electrical and Comp
uter Engineering

Engineering

12

Jeff

Daniels

Earth Sciences

MPS

13

Joanne

DeGroat

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

14

Steven

Gordon

Knowlton School of Architecture

Engineering

15

Andrea

Grottoli

Earth Sciences

MPS

16

Jean
-
Michel

Guldma
nn

Knowlton School of Architecture

Engineering

17

Curt

Haugtvedt

Marketing & Logistics

Fisher

18

Joseph

Heremans

Mechanical Engineering

Engineering

19

Winston

Ho

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Engineering

Page
iii

Document Date:
April 2
4
,

2009

20

Chris

Jekeli

Earth Sciences

M
PS

21

Joel

Johnson

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

22

Chiu
-
Yen

Kao

Mathematics

MPS

23

Andy

Keeler

Glenn School of Public Affairs

JGS

24

Ali

Keyhani

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

25

Karrie
-
Ann

Kubatko

Environment & Nat
ural Resources

FAES

26

Michael

Leiblein

Management & Human Resources

Fisher

27

Yebo

Li

Food, Agricultural, and Bio. Engineering

FAES

28

Desheng

Liu

Geography

SBS

29

Brian

McSpadden
-
Gardener

Plant Pathology

FAES

30

Fred

Michel

Food, Agricultural, and

Bio. Engineering

FAES

31

Ellen

Mosley Thompson

Geography

SBS

32

Stephen

Myers

Horticulture & Crop Science

FAES

33

Jack

Nasar

City & Regional Planning

Engineering

34

Morton

O'Kelly

Geography

SBS

35

Susan

Olesik

Chemistry

MPS

36

Umit

Ozguner

Electric
al and Computer Engineering

Engineering

37

Umit

Ozkan

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Engineering

38

Steve

Ringel

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

39

Giorgio

Rizzoni

Mechanical Engineering

Engineering

40

Paul

Rodewald

Environment &
Natural Resources

FAES

41

Roberto

Rojas

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

42

Burkhard

Schaffrin

Earth Sciences

MPS

43

Frank

Schwartz

Earth Sciences

MPS

44

Suvrajeet

Sen

Industrial, Welding, & Systems Engineering

Engineering

45

Andrea

Ser
rani

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

46

C.K.

Shum

Earth Sciences

MPS

47

Brent

Sohngen

Agricultural, Environ., & Develop. Economics

FAES

48

Doug

Southgate

Agricultural, Environ., & Develop. Economics

FAES

49

Bob

Tabita

Microbiology

Biol
ogy

50

Alex

Thompson

Political Science

SBS

51

Henk

Verweij

Materials Science & Engineering

Engineering

52

Mark

Walter

Mechanical Engineering

Engineering

53

Jin

Wang

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

54

Wolfgang

Windl

Materials Scienc
e & Engineering

Engineering

55

Karen

Hopper Wruck

Finance

Fisher

56

Longya

Xu

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

57

Zhongtang

Yu

Animal Sciences

FAES








Page
iv

Document Date:
April 2
4
,

2009

Non
-
Faculty Who Have Signed
-
On


First

Last

Title

Office

1

Christopher

Andersen

Program Director

Office of Research

2

Eugene

Braig

Assistant Director

Sea Grant

3

Robert

Davis

Co
-
Director

PVIC
Wright Center

4

Aparna

Dial

Director

Business and Finance

5

Joseph

Fiksel

Director

Center for Resilience

6

Vincenzo

Marano

Research Associ
ate

Center Automotive Resch.

7

Sharell

Mikesell

Associate Vice President

Industry Liaison Office

8

Kathy

Sullivan

Director

OAA

9

Melinda

Swan

Associate Vice President

University Communications


T
his second list includes people who have indicated their
interest in this Center proposal. Some
have "signed
-
on" to other Center initiatives, but would like to be kept well
-
informed regarding
the energy and environment proposal noted here.

Faculty Who Have Indicated Their "Interest"

(Date:
April
2
4
, 2009)

1

Ni
ck

Basta

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

2

Tom

Blue

Mechanical Engineering

Engineering

3

Jason

Box

Geography

SBS

4

Robert

Burkholder

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

5

Kate

Calder

Statistics

MPS

6

Malcom

Chisholm

Chemistry

MPS

7

Maria Manta

Conroy

Knowlton School of Architecture

Engineering

8

Rich

Denning

Mechanical Engineering

Engineering

9

Warren

Dick

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

10

Prabir

Dutta

Chemistry

MPS

11

Avner

Friedman

Mathematics

MPS

12

Kentaro

Fujita

Ps
ychology

SBS

13

Charles

Goebel

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

14

Radu

Herbei

Statistics

MPS

15

Fred

Hitzhusen

Agricultural, Environ., & Develop. Economics

FAES

16

Ian

Howat

Earth Sciences

MPS

17

Elena

Irwin

Agricultural, Environ., & Develop. Ec
onomics

SBS

18

Rattan

Lal

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

19

Roman

Lanno

Entomology

Biology

20

Jin
-
Fa

Lee

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

21

Bryan

Mark

Geography

SBS

22

Alan

Randall

Agricultural, Environ., & Develop. Economics

FAE
S

23

Amanda

Rodewald

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

24

Stephen

Sebo

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Engineering

25

Saleh

Tanveer

Mathematics

MPS

Page
v

Document Date:
April 2
4
,

2009

26

Lonnie

Thompson

Earth Sciences

MPS

27

Eric

Toman

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

28

Hal

Walker

Civil & Environ. Engineering & Geodetic Sci.

Engineering

29

Linda

Weavers

Civil & Environ. Engineering & Geodetic Sci.

Engineering

30

Roger

Williams

Environment & Natural Resources

FAES

31

ST

Yang

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Engineerin
g


We have created a brief web
-
page where documents, presentations, and spreadsheets related
to the development of our proposal are archived. Please see:

http://earthsciences.osu.edu/~als
dorf/files/EandE/


Page
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Document Date:
April 2
4
,

2009
;
Blue text may/not be used

Integrating Energy and the Environment at
The Ohio State University

A
Proposal

in Response to the Call for
Center
s

for

Innovation

Abstract
:

250
-
word maximum summarizing purpose and focus of group

This will be written after the propo
sal has more text. Could use the following text from the LOI,
as a starter for the abstract.


We propose to integrate OSU's research, curriculum, development, and communications into
"one university" with the foundational goal of solving Ohio's and the Un
ited State's energy and
related environmental problems.


Our Center for Innovation is aligned with President Gee's six
goals for OSU:
(1)

integrate energy and environment by focusing on our well known research
strengths and by stimulating new discoveries,
(2)

create a new energy and environment
curriculum, with degrees from bachelors through PhD, and
(3)

facilitate the transferring of
OSU's research to commercial implementation, thus helping to grow Ohio's economy by
creating new jobs and a highly educated
workforce in renewable energy and environmental
resource stewardship.

Renewable energy is inextricably tied to the environment, and especially to climate change.
Wind and solar energy both rely on climate patterns that will sustain the required power for
d
ecades (e.g., wind vectors, solar radiation, and atmospheric water vapor are all changing
climate variables). Biofuels require water and land, both tied to climate change through
precipitation, soil moisture, drought, runoff, stream flow, and plant ecologi
es. Nuclear power
will be an important transitional energy source, if public acceptance issues can be resolved
(e.g., environmentally contained disposal issues). Existing fossil fuel sources impact the
environment both through global warming and mining pra
ctices. These interconnected
challenges range from local to global scales and solving them requires integration of
environmental sciences, engineering, and social sciences. Therefore, the Center will produce
workable solutions to the energy and climate cr
ises, aiming at specific chronological

goals [e.g.,
Ohio's 2025 Senate Bill 221] with the associated social, policy, and technical questions vetted
and coordinated.


Three fundamentally new ideas will guide us toward accomplishing these
goals.


Three funda
mentally new ideas will guide us toward accomplishing these goals.


Signature page:
Signatures from Dea
ns representing colleges
of all faculty participants

1. Biology
-

Matt Platz

2. Engineering
-

Greg Washington

3. FAES
-

Bobby Moser

4. Fisher
-

Stephen
Mangum or Christine Poon

5. Glenn School
-

Charlie Wise

6. Humanities
-

John Roberts

7. MPS
-

Matt Platz

8. Public Health
-

Stanley Lemeshow

9. SBS
-

Giff Weary

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,

2009
;
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Integrating Energy and the Environment at the Ohio State University


1. The Problem

"Ohio Sta
te is the source of a great deal of promising work on new energy development."
"Now is the moment to leverage that work with the creation of a new intellectual
infrastructure. To do so, we are fully committed to broadening and extending partnerships


wit
h private industry, government, our national laboratories, Battelle, and other institutions."
"As supplies dwindle and our environment suffers potentially irreversible damage, we cannot
sit idly by." [President Gee, 2009].
Our Center for Innovation propos
al is designed to enable
this vision to be realized at OSU through an unprecedented multidisciplinary collaboration.


Both our energy and environmental worlds are changing.
Measurements of receding glaciers
around the world
show that the world is warming a
nd that t
he levels of atmospheric carbon
dioxide (CO
2
) are increasing at unprecedented rates [
Brook
e
, 2008
].

Ecological systems are
changing with lengthening growing seasons, earlier Spring events (e.g., species migrations), and
shifts in population geogra
phic ranges [IPCC, 2007a]. The global water cycle is changing such
that lakes in the Arctic are disappearing into the underlying melting permafrost [Smith et al.,
2005] and that heavy precipitation events and areas of drought are increasing [IPCC, 2007b].
World
oil
consumption is presently a little over 80 million barrels per day and the proved
reserves are about 1.3 trillion barrels, thus about 45 years of oil is available, globally

[DOE,
2009].

While the numbers have errors, the issue remains that the oil

world of our generation
will not be the same energy world when the next generation retires.


These changes have fa
r reaching consequences because of the
intimate
coupling between
energy and the environment.
Existing fossil fuel sources impact the environm
ent both through
global warming and mining practices.

For example, coal
-
fueled power plants remains a
significant source of electricity, thus their CO
2

emissions will require ecological and geological
sequestration to avoid further increases in this atmosp
heric greenhouse gas.

Both w
ind and
solar

energy

rely on climate patterns that will sustain the required power for decades (e.g.,
wind vectors, solar radiation, and atmospheric water vapor are all changing climate variables).
Biofuels require water and lan
d, both tied to climate change through precipitation, soil
moisture, drought, runoff, stream flow, and plant ecologies.

Nuclear power will be an important
transitional energy source, if public acceptance issues can be resolved (e.g., environmentally
contai
ned disposal issues).


The fundamental problem is to develop
re
new
able

energy sources
that can be sustained by
our changing climate while also growing our economy.

These interconnected challenges range
from local to global scales and solving them requires

integration of environmental sciences,
engineering, and social sciences. Therefore, the Center will produce workable solutions to the
energy and climate crises, aiming at specific chronological

goals [e.g., Ohio's 2025 Senate Bill
221] with the associated

social, policy, and technical questions vetted and coordinated.




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Three questions were raised during the review of our Letter of Intent. These questions are
noted below, along with summary replies. More details are provided throughout the proposal.


(1
)

"
What special contributions can OSU make on a topic such as energy and environment,
where there is great national and international competition?
"

First, b
ecause of our breadth and depth of faculty research expertise in energy and the
environment, we can
build integrated teams that cover critical aspects of each research topic.

Second, we can take a leadership role in the State of Ohio toward building industry
partnerships, forming a continuum from research lab to commercial operations. Rather than
treatin
g research as independent of industry, we will form partnerships.

Needs more.


(2)

"
What are the specific areas within the general category of energy that will make this
project stand out from others and generate significant external support?
"

Senator Gl
enn has stated, "We need a better means of energy storage" [Glenn, 2008]. OSU is
well poised to
take a leading role in batteries. Needs more.


(3)

"
What senior leadership is proposed for on
-
campus work as well as for connecting with
external partners and
groups?
"

We have already enlisted OSU
's new Industry

Liaison Office
. We have letters of interest from X,
Y, and Z universities.

As noted in Section 4, our governance includes an oversight committee
comprised of OR, OAA, and deans.

Discuss Deans?
Needs mor
e.


1.A
.

Research Focus

The Center
for

Innovation will address a set of global challenges that are
interdependent,
specifically "climate change" and "access to energy". In a broader context, we recognize that
the U.S. and the rest of the world
need to
ac
hieve sustainable economic development that
enables developed nations to prosper while addressing the problems of poverty, disease, and
injustice in developing nations
.

At the root of these problems is the conflict between a growing
demand for energy and i
ncreasing pressure on environmental resources. OSU
, with its breadth
and depth,

is one of the few research institutions that has the capacity tackle these challenges
in an integrated manner.


The Center will pursue a set of
four
research thrusts
, described

below in Sections 1.A.1
-

1.A.4
,

that bring together teams of talented faculty and students from a number of colleges and
departments. Each thrust will focuses on a particular aspect of energy and environmental
innovation, but they share a common overarch
ing

application to the electrical grid (described in
Section 1.A.5) and share a common overarching

approach
, i.e., "systems analysis"

(described in
Section 1.A.
7
)
. This systems method
creates a deep understanding of the socioeconomic and
policy issues asso
ciated with each research initiative

and how these change with feedbacks
from the integration of environment and energy, particularly as these transition from research
to commercialization.

This
"
systems approach
"

will be an important outcome of

our Center
.


Thus, the Center will develop innovative solutions to the combined challenges of satisfying Ohio
and U.S. energy and transportation demand in the 21st century, meeting greenhouse gas
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emission constraints, competing economically with other countries, and

understanding the
emerging energy and environmental context of regulation, pricing, and enterprise
management.
The Center

will help to implement sustainable practices on OSU's various
campuses via adoption of innovative technologies such as renewable ener
gy, smart grids,
alternative propulsion systems, and local food supply, using OSU as a “living laboratory” for
energy and environmental research and applications.


1.A.1. Energy for Transportation

Assess impact of hybrid vehicles and the integration of re
newable energy sources on Ohio's and
U.S. electrical power and grid system, and research new generations of mobile and stationary
energy storage systems that can increase the efficiency of vehicular transportation and the
quality and reliability of the pow
er grid. Will also
develop "Intelligent Transportation Systems",
e.g.,
managing the existing road network more efficiently.


1.A.2. Climate Based Renewable Energy Systems

With hundreds of Terawatts of power always available from the sun and wind, solar an
d wind
energy are the two leading sources for clean, secure and sustainable energy for the planet. The
US electricity demand is projected to increase by 40% from 2005 to 2030 reaching 5.8 billion
MWh

[
REFERENCE
]
. DOE is sponsoring renewable energy initia
tives such as Solar America,
aimed at expanding domestic photovoltaic capacity to 5
-
10 GW, and a
"
20% wind by 2030
"
initiative

[
REFERENCE
]
. OSU is engaged in key research on breakthrough technologies for
photovoltaic and wind energy that will enable the n
ation to achieve these goals.


Over the past decade solar energy related research has yielded promising solar cell
technologies for consumer and commercial grid/off
-
grid energy. The interdisciplinary OSU
Advanced Photovoltaics Group affiliated with Ohio
State’s Institute for Materials Research
spans 2 colleges and 5 departments, receiving support from DOE, NREL, Department of
Defense, private industry, NASA and the State. Leading
-
edge research includes (1) high
efficiency multijunction photovoltaics usin
g a low
-
cost, high
-
yield, scalable manufacturing
process, that makes use of existing silicon electronics equipment (2) low cost and mechanically
flexible polymer based solar cells that leverage Ohio’s leadership in polymer manufacturing; (3)
basic science
exploration of photo
-
chemical means to harvest solar photons. Notable OSU
achievements in
"
third generation PV research
"

the world’s highest performance scalable III
-
V/Si multijunction solar cell, a materials synthesis approach that promises to create the

highest
performance organic solar cell technology with already near
-
record efficiency, and a new class
of photochemical compounds that enable organic materials to be sensitive to the entire usable
solar spectrum for the first time.


With regard to wind

energy, several major challenges are facing state
-
of
-
the
-
art wind turbine
generators, including the bulky, heavy, and unreliable gearbox, and the high costs of
maintaining the gearbox, brushes and slip rings. Wind turbine generators without gearbox and
b
rushes, which use permanent magnets, are challenged by the high price of the magnets which
can account for more than 50% of the total material costs; furthermore, the Nd
-
Fe
-
B magnet is
thermally sensitive with a temperature limit below 100 C, and the mater
ial is very scarce. Based
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on more than 15 years of OSU research on wind turbine generators, a core technology now
exists for wind turbine generator systems based on a Non
-
Permanent Magnet Brushless
(NPMB) electric machine. OSU has the potential to develop

a next generation wind turbine
system with no gear box, no windings, no brushes and slip rings on the rotor, resulting in much
smaller size, lower costs, easier maintenance, and higher reliability. At the same time, the
cooling system can be greatly sim
plified; and the NPMB wind turbine generator is also more
robust in the humid and salty air conditions. In the doubly fed operational mode, the capacity
of the inverter in NPMB wind turbine generator is only a fraction of the total system capacity,
much sm
aller than the one used for direct
-
driven permanent magnet wind turbine generators.
Operated with a DC power grid, the NPMB is suitable for high voltage DC power transmission
for off
-
shore wind farms.


OSU also has a broad spectrum of expertise and resea
rch strengths to meet the challenges of
"
20% wind by 2030
"
. In the field of aerodynamics, Ohio State has been working on horizontal
and vertical axis turbines for over 10 years. Wind tunnel studies are performed for the
National
R
enewable
Energy L
aborato
ry (NREL) on a multitude of airfoils. Steady state and unsteady
state conditions are evaluated; and leading edge contamination is being investigated. Research
on flap characteristics as well as boundary layer control is carried out for

the Air Force Rese
arch
Laboratory (
NFRL
)

in a subsonic tunnel at the OSU Aeronautics and Astronautics Laboratory.
Currently the work is being expanded to investigate: a) Wind tunnel aerodynamics
optimization; b) Aeroelasticity/Aeromechanics of wind turbine structures; c) C
omputational
fluid mechanics; and d) Aeroaccoustics and noise optimization. Collaborative work with GE
Energy and NASA Glenn began in 2008 and OSU is working to establish a Total Wind Turbine
Center Capability. The success of this work will pave the road
to mass production of modern
wind turbines and the growth of a new industry.


The above research will be supported by integrate
d

systems analysis to understand the
opportunities and impacts related to renewable energy deployment. Specifically, OSU has th
e
capabilities to develop a multi
-
model simulation of the Ohio climate system for the past 50
years that extends from the surface to the upper stratosphere. This will utilize the new state
-
of
-
the
-
art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric mode
l designed through the
collaborative efforts of federally
-
funded research centers, universities, and the United States
military. WRF simulates over 30 variables that describe the variability of the atmosphere, such
as winds, temperature, and moisture at m
ultiple levels, and can be coupled to spatial models
that simulate air chemistry and land surface processes in order to capture the effects land use
changes over time on atmospheric temperature and winds. This will help policy
-
makers and
private sector in
vestors to account for the regional variability of renewable energy resources
and the role they will play in supplementing coal
-
based energy.


1.A.
3
.
Biologically

Based Renewable Energy Systems

As a major manufacturing state, energy and materials are inte
gral components of Ohio’s
economic future. A 2005 Cleveland State University study identified polymers, energy, medical,
agriculture, and transportation as the Ohio industry sectors driving the economy and giving
"
the best opportunities for protecting and

augmenting Ohio’s economic base and facilitating
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growth in the State" [
REFERENCE
]
. The convergence of new technologies (i.e. biotechnology,
nanotechnology) at the intersection of these industry sectors is opening doors to innovations.
Developing alternat
ives to fossil
-
based sources for energy and materials may mitigate risk as
well as provide sources of innovation and economic growth. Ohio is well
-
positioned to
capitalize on emerging opportunities associated with biobased energy and materials. Ohio’s
st
rategic assets include strong polymer and agricultural industries, comprehensive supply
chains and logistics, extensive research capabilities, abundant natural resources, and prime
location.


A 2005 DOE/USDA study projects that U.S. agricultural and fore
stlands have a significant
capacity to increase and sustain a supply of biomass for energy and bioproducts while meeting
food, feed, and export demands

[
REFERENCE
]
. Ohio’s agricultural biotechnology industry is
well
-
positioned to take advantage of these em
erging opportunities as the largest economic
sector in Ohio’s commercial bioscience industry
[
Ohio Bioscience Growth Report, BioOhio,
2007
]
. The proposed research thrust will investigate the potential to utilize substantial biomass
resources in Ohio and
around the nation, many which are currently underutilized, for
conversion to biobased energy and materials. OSU research has documented significant
renewable biomass sources projected to provide up to 64% of the residential electricity use in
Ohio. Munic
ipal solid waste (MSW) is the single largest potential source of biomass energy,
comprising 68% of Ohio’s total biomass potential.


This investigation will couple technological innovation with an integrated systems analysis to
understand the broader econo
mic, environmental, and social implications of biofuels and other
forms of bio
-
based energy. For example scale
-
up of ethanol production must consider biomass
feedstock logistics and the related agricultural, hydrological, and policy implications. OSU
recen
tly completed a major NSF
-
funded study of the comparative environmental impacts and
the energy return on investment for various types of cellulosic ethanol feedstocks including
switchgrass, corn stover, MSW, and others
[
Bakshi et al
]
.


To gain the full adv
antage of the emerging bio
-
based energy and materials and to integrate
them will require a wide breadth of high
-
level research with close collaboration among
geneticists, engineers, chemists, and biologists. The Ohio State University is unique
in

having
n
ational preeminence across a wide range of disciplines and colleges associated with renewable
energy and materials. These research strengths include enabling technologies in the areas of
genetics, biotechnology, biomolecular engineering, bioprocessing, bi
ochemistry, engineering,
logistics and systems analysis. In particular, the Ohio BioProducts Innovation Center, a $30
million Wright
Center
, fosters discovery and innovation of renewable bio
-
based materials by
leveraging research strengths at The Ohio Stat
e University and Battelle with industry
collaborators across the agricultural, polymer and material industry sectors.


1.A.
4
.
Changes in Conventional Energy Sources

While the above research thrusts will investigate promising renewable energy technolo
gies, the
fact remains that the U.S. and global economy will be dependent on continued use of fossil
fuels well into the 21st century. Therefore, it is important to explore technologies that will
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enable adaptation of conventional energy sources to environm
ental resource constraints as
well as regulatory restrictions and increasing stakeholder pressures. A 2007 study, published by
the National Academy of Sciences, showed that global
CO
2

emissions from fossil
-
fuel burning
and industrial processes have been ac
celerating, with their growth rate increasing from 1.1%
per year for the decade 1990

1999 to more than 3% per year for the period 2000

2004

[
REFERENCE
]
.

The observed rise in worldwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2000 can be
attributed to increases in bo
th the energy intensity of production as well as the carbon intensity
of energy generation, coupled with continuing increases in population and per
-
capita gross
domestic product (GDP). Not surprisingly, the growth rate in emissions has been strongest in
ra
pidly developing economies, particularly China. The economic recession of 2008
-
2009 may
cause a temporary lull, but the long
-
term pattern is alarming. OSU has strengths in a number of
technologies that can help to alleviate these trends, including molecula
r separations and
advanced coal combustion.


Molecular separations are important for both existing and new energy conversion technologies,
including separation of hydrogen from coal gas and biowaste;
CO
2

from natural gas or exhaust
gases; oxygen from air;
hydrogen and oxygen from water; water from chemical mixtures;
dissolved salts and contaminants from water; and particulate removal from exhaust gases,
effluents, or natural sources. However, in separation technology the energy cost is often about
50% of th
e total energy consumption, and significant savings are available through advanced
membrane separation. For example, in water desalination, optimized distillation consumes 0.26
GJ/m
3
, whereas a state
-
of
-
the
-
art membrane process is about ten
-
fold more energ
y
-
efficient.


Membrane separation offers the advantage that it can be conducted iso
-
thermally, so that the
required energy input approaches the reversible thermodynamic limit. In ideal membrane gas
separation the only work required is to compress the purif
ied gas. The membrane materials can
be metallic, inorganic, organic
,

and composite depending on the target separation and
conditions. Thin membranes must be deposited on a polymeric or inorganic support. A number
of OSU faculty are pursuing breakthroughs i
n new membrane materials, morphologies and
mechanisms.


Advanced coal combustion technologies promise improvements over conventional coal
-
based
power plants, which have a conversion efficiency of about 35%. Specifically, Integrated
Gasification Combined

Cycle (IGCC) technology offers reduced pollution and higher efficiency,
due to the fact that powdered coal is effectively converted into hydrogen, enabling fuel
combustion at higher temperatures. To reduce carbon emissions, IGCC requires pre
-
combustion se
paration of
CO
2

while for conventional plants post
-
combustion separation is
desired. In both cases relatively pure, pressurized
CO
2

can potentially be sequestered, but there
are currently no viable separation technologies for oxygen from air and pre/post
-
c
ombustion
CO
2

separation. In addition to the separation work described above, several groups at OSU
have research programs that address these challenges; including
"
chemical looping
"

for carbon
sequestration, and advanced catalysts made from earth
-
abundan
t elements and adjusted for a
narrow band of process conditions.


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1.A.5
Overarching Theme 1:
The Electrical Grid

A key technology under development at OSU that is relevant to all types of energy research is
the Smart Power Micro
-
Grid (SPMG). As shown in
the
figure
, one can view SPMG as the glue
that binds together a variety of energy sources and demands. Also SPMGs can be considered as
building
-
blocks for a larger distributed generation power network. Micro
-
grids are intentional
islands formed at a cus
tomer facility or location that includes part of the local distribution
system that has distributed energy resources (DER), possible energy storage devices, and
associated loads. The loads and energy sources can be intelligently and dynamically
disconnect
ed from and reconnected to the main power network (grid), known as dynamic
islanding. The realization of smart power micro
-
grids heavily depends on the power electronics
interface that sits between the DER, loads, and the power grid.


OSU’s energy/power

research team has a 60
-
year history, including internationally recognized
new contributions to wind technology, hybrid electric vehicle technology, power system control
and protection. The ongoing research on micro
-
grids encompasses the design and contro
l of
megawatt level brushless double fed induction machines, hardware
-
in the
-
loop based real
-
time
simulation for micro
-
grids, intelligent charging strategies for the plug
-
in hybrid electric vehicle,
etc. Through the years, strong ties have been establishe
d with leading companies in the
electrical power industry, automotive industry, and airplane industry.


1.A.6 Overarching Theme 2: Sensors and Satellites

Sensors and systems for monitoring changes in the environment from new energy
implementations. These

include both in
-
situ and satellite. These are needed in all four themes.


1.A.
7

Overarching Theme
3
:
Integrated
Systems Analysis of Four Research Thrusts

In

our

tightly connected global economy, decision makers need an integrated approach to
energy poli
cy and technology assessment, considering the full socioeconomic impacts of a
specified energy portfolio. For example, comparative analysis of alternative fuels should
consider the upstream supply chain resource requirements (e.g., corn or petroleum) and t
he
alternative uses of those resources for chemicals, packaging, food, and other industry sectors,
as well as potential future natural or anthropogenic disruptions in resource availability. This
approach would balance the direct costs and benefits as well
as the life cycle impacts,
opportunity costs, and social utilities of different energy mixes, in order to achieve the highest
and best use of available resources. In short, integrated assessment capabilities are needed to
fill the gap between promising inn
ovation and successful real
-
world implementation.


The proposed research will adopt a systems view as depicted in
Figure
X
, representing the
fundamental
"
stocks
"

and
"
flows
"

of energy, analogous to economic wealth. For example,
energy systems utilize natu
ral resources to meet human demands, and proactive policies try to
protect critical ecosystem services, such as the water cycle. While pursuing such a systems
approach appears rational, it is challenging to incorporate the full set of economic,
environment
al, and social considerations into an integrated assessment.


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The above systems are turbulent, non
-
linear, and difficult to predict. Historically, policy
decisions and technology investments have been made using much narrower cost
-
benefit
trade
-
offs, and f
requently such decisions have led to unintended consequences. For example,
few people foresaw that corn
-
based ethanol production in the U.S. might drive up food prices
in Mexico, or that floods in the Mississippi basin might cause fuel shortages. Therefore
, an
important research priority for advancing the study of sustainable systems is the development
of integrated modeling and decision making approaches that support dynamic, adaptive
management rather than static optimization. The required modeling must e
ncompass the
realm of biophysical systems, which can be studied scientifically, and the socio
-
economic realm,
which also requires trans
-
scientific understanding of human cognition and behavior.


The proposed Center will address this research challenge by e
mbedding an integrated systems
analysis approach into all of the energy research thrusts described above

in Sections 1.A.1
-

1.A.4
. The approach will be developed by an interdisciplinary team of scientists,
mathematicians, engineers, economists, social sci
entists, policy analysts, and business scholars.
Examples of key contributing disciplines include the following.



Environmental economics contributes in two ways to understanding environmental and other
issues raised by the development of energy resource
s. The first is diagnostic


evaluation of
trade
-
offs resulting from increased energy production, such as the costs of climate change due
to fossil fuel combustion or the value of scenic landscapes threatened by wind energy
development. The second contri
bution is prescriptive


design of taxes, cap
-
and
-
trade
schemes, and other policies for resolving trade
-
offs efficiently. OSU
'
s
D
epartment of
Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics is internationally recognized for its
strength in environme
ntal and resource economics, with research supported by NSF, EPA,
USAID, and other sources. Moreover, much of this research has been undertaken with
biologists, engineers, foresters, geographers, and specialists from other disciplines. With
reference to
F
igure
X
, economists can help to evaluate the ecosystem services that satisfy
human needs, clarify the incentives that influence resource stewardship, and examine linkages
between energy technologies and human needs and behaviors
. T
o be specific,
they fore
cast
energy demands and help

to design innovative strategies, including the application of taxes and
other fiscal instruments, for meeting those demands.



Sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing discipline that involves methodologies for
underst
anding and modeling the impacts of new products and technologies upon environment
and society. With reference to
Figure
X
, rigorous modeling of energy and material flows
between ecological and industrial systems enables quantification of the total life cy
cle impacts
of energy innovations, taking into account natural resources as well as supply chain and
infrastructure requirements. The scope of analysis may include resource extraction, processing,
manufacturing, logistics, service, remanufacturing, and end
-
of
-
life resource recovery. The
impacts of concern may range from financial burdens to ecosystem degradation to public
health and safety. OSU is internationally recognized for its strength in life cycle assessment and
related methods, with research support
ed by NSF, EPA, and private industry. The Center for
Resilience in the College of Engineering has developed innovative tools to support design,
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evaluation, and optimization of products, processes, and industrial systems. These include
system dynamics mode
ling, carbon footprint and ecological footprint assessment, and
industrial ecology network analysis. For example, an analysis of City of Columbus wastewater
processing operations revealed an opportunity for cost savings of several million dollars
annually
while
cutting greenhouse gases by 25% [
REFERENCE
].



Social sciences, including urban and regional planning expertise, are required to understand
the impacts of energy technologies upon perceived quality of life, to investigate human
perceptions and behav
ior in response to introduction of new technologies such as wind and
solar, and to explore ways to enhance acceptability. Human responses can be measured with
questionnaires, or less obtrusive experimental manipulations such as games or focus groups.
Impac
ts on individuals and communities can be measured by observing socio
-
demographic or
environmental changes through surveys, ongoing panel data and analysis of public records. In
addition, social scientists can investigate the potential for society
-
wide beha
vior change in
energy utilization. For example, the OSU School of Public Health is leading a multidisciplinary
investigation of how U.S. state and local health departments can help to reduce society’s
collective carbon footprint. A toolkit of resources wil
l be disseminated to facilitate engagement
with citizens, the business community, and other governmental agencies, and the effectiveness
of this intervention will be measured.


Drawing upon these and related OSU capabilities, each
of the four
research thru
st
s (Sections
1.A.1
-

1.A.4)

will examine the potential for its selected innovations to satisfy Ohio and U.S.
projected energy demand, taking into consideration life
-
cycle costs and benefits, international
competition, integration with the electric grid, s
ocial and environmental impacts including
greenhouse gas emissions, and evolving regulatory frameworks.


Developing the integrated systems approach will involve two parallel efforts:
inventory

and
integration
.



The team will compile an inventory of cos
t/benefit/risk analysis methods drawn from
different disciplines, ranging from contingent valuation and empirical survey methods to
quantitative simulation and probabilistic modeling tools. For example, the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) offer
s a set of tools that focus on energy production and
savings, costs, emission reductions, financial viability and risk for various types of renewable
and energy
-
efficient technologies. Each set of methods in the inventory will be documented
concisely in te
rms of data requirements, granularity, limitations, inherent assumptions, etc.,
thus providing a comprehensive resource for energy and environmental researchers. The result
will be a unique knowledge base applicable to any study of policy or technology inn
ovations.



Building on OSU’s existing strengths, the team will develop an integrated assessment
methodology for investigating the dynamic interdependencies among energy systems,
transportation systems, urban systems, agricultural systems, and infrastruc
ture systems,
enabling the integrated design of systems that are resilient and sustainable, both economically
and ecologically. OSU has already made significant advances in characterizing the cross
-
effects,
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interdependencies and feedback loops among human
and biophysical systems (e.g., the T21
-
Ohio model funded by U.S. EPA, currently being tested by the State energy advisor
,
REFERENCE
). The methodology will utilize a
"
system dynamics
"

framework built on a
commercial software platform that runs on ordinary
personal computers. It will provide a rich
and flexible representation for causal hypothesis development and assessment, combining
diverse models that are expressed in mathematical, statistical, or qualitative form.


As an example

of the integrated systems

analysis
, let us assume that a city or region commits to
obtain 25% of its electric power from renewable sources by 2015, utilizing some of the
advanced technologies described
in Section 1.A.2,

Climate Based Renewable Energy Systems. In
a comprehensive sy
stems analysis, many dimensions of impacts must be investigated,
including:



The immediate and long
-
term financial impacts of shifting to renewable sources, including
capital investments, changes in operating and maintenance costs, and other cash flow im
pacts.


The immediate and long
-
term environmental benefits of reduced greenhouse gas emissions
and reduced fossil fuel production, balanced against the increased supply chain footprint of
materials and equipment needed for the manufacture and maintenance
of wind and solar
energy devices.


The broader economic costs and benefits for communities that adopt such technologies
related to environment and natural resource disruptions, including energy availability, water
quality, land use, waste disposal, and en
vironmental pollution.


The impacts of technological change upon the urban and rural infrastructure, human
communities, and the distribution networks for transportation and energy that support them.


The evolution of markets, competitive dynamics, and co
nsumer attitudes in the face of
increasing energy costs and changing social norms.


The effect of renewable energy policies and changes in political, economic, and
environmental conditions upon public health, human well being, science literacy, versatilit
y,
and productivity.


Figure
Y

illustrates how important research issues can be identified for purposes of integrated
assessment, based on the four facets of the Ecological Paradigm developed by Bobby Moser of
OSU. This diagram maps out the overlapping in
terdisciplinary aspects of energy, environment,
and sustainability that are addressed by specific research projects. For example, the yellow
boxes correspond to a project that derives renewable energy from agricultural biomass
.


1.A.
8

Overarching Theme 3:
OSU as a Testing Ground

The OSU campus and the various participating colleges will provide a living laboratory for
empirical investigation of the broader environmental and social issues associated with energy
innovation. Thus, the proposed Center will esta
blish an integrated learning and discovery
environment where diverse research groups will have the opportunity to share resources, form
teams, and determine the best combination of methods for supporting and evaluating specific
energy technology innovation
s. Out of this unique constellation of capabilities we will create a
unifying framework for energy systems analysis.

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1.B
.

Links to Graduate
Education


Graduate students are
(1)
a key workforce in academic research
, (2)
enable the linkages
between indust
ry and the University
, and (3) can be a catalyst for furthering cross
-
college
integration
.

Within their research teams, faculty work with master's and Ph.D. students to
produce new discoveries that advance the frontiers of sciences. But, not all graduate
students
remain in academia. Many enter the industry workplace where their skills and ideas are
employed toward solving commercially valuable problems. All graduate students, no matter
where their ultimate employment, need to be well trained in
recognizin
g breakthrough points,
have an adaptable set of technical skills, and be capable of demonstrating their capabilities
through written and oral methods.



O
ur Center
's focus

on renewable energy and
integrated environmental problems requires a
graduate curric
ulum that helps to train students in the skills and knowledge required across the
energy and environment spectrum. Therefore, the Center will form a
Curriculum Team

that will
produce a new set of courses designed to specifically address the four research t
hemes and the
accompanying overarching issues noted in Section 1.A, above. The charge to team is to produce
new master's and Ph.D. degree programs at the intersection of energy and the environment.
These programs should enable a workforce for advanced rese
arch at universities and at
national labs or should produce students capable of immediately stepping into industry
positions where commercial implementation of research ideas is critical.


We are here proposing the process the Curriculum Team will take tow
ard building the
interdisciplinary graduate degrees. The target is to have a fully operational and tested graduate
curriculum in place by the 2012 transition to semesters. During the first year, the curriculum
team will (1) organize a collective of facult
y from the involved TIUs and from administrative
staff, (2) regularly meet to incorporate the recommendations of the Environmental Task Force,
the proposal ideas generated by IGERT submissions, and the core issues of concern to TIUs, and
(3) write a draft
curriculum plan, including budgeting, and circulate it amongst TIUs and colleges
for preliminary feedback. During the second year, the team will (4) revise the plan and its
budget and circulate for final approval, and (5) gain approval of the Board of Reg
ents. During
the third year, and just before the official 2012 transition, the first graduate courses will be
offered but under a semester calendar

(e.g., they could be offered initially as 694 ad
-
hoc
courses)
. This wi
ll allow the Center to interact with
enrolled students, gathering feedback to
further enhance the courses in preparation for full
-
scale operations starting in 2012.


Placement of graduate students within industry is important to the Center because these
students are the link between the Unive
rsity and industry. Many companies have research and
development needs that are best filled by partnerships with universities. These partnerships are
greatly helped by company employees who point management to their alma mater where they
were initially tra
ined in high
-
level research problem solving. The Center is designed to enable
these industry partnerships, hence
the graduate curriculum goes beyond course work by
bringing companies to OSU for joint projects.


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Internships serve as an experiential learni
ng tool and an explicit linkage between partnered
companies and the Center's projects. Companies often hire interns as full
-
time employees.
Thus, part of the graduate curriculum will
include

an internship program.

The curriculum
committee will explore opti
ons of providing students with credits for their internships, will
ensure that the Center is not duplicating existing college internship programs while also being a
value added to them, and will work with OSU's Industry Liaison Office to identify companies

who wish to help build the internship program.


In summary, the goals of the graduate curriculum are to help OSU further meet its metrics
identified by the Ohio Board of Regents;
enroll 200

graduate s
tudents
by offering degrees
matching today's most press
ing societal needs in energy and the environment; and place
students at companies which, in turn, will seek further partnerships with OSU toward solving
renewable energy problems.


1.C. Links to Undergraduate Education

Our
undergraduate
students already

understand that integrated approaches are the solution

pathway

to our energy and environmental problems. The Solar Decathlon serves as an excellent
example.

Undergraduates from nine departments in four colleges have self
-
assembled to
compete with ~20 othe
r university teams from across the country in the Department of
Energy's contest on building a solar powered home.

This is no trivial exercise. The 800 sqft
home is presently under construction near Ohio Stadium and will be transported to Washington
D.C.
for the weeklong competition on the National Mall. Its permanent home will be at the
Columbus Zoo. The Center will embrace this integrated and experiential approach to
undergraduate learning.


An interdisciplinary curriculum in energy and the environment
is being proposed for two
reasons.


First, the future course of energy development, renewable and otherwise, is far from
certain.


Second, critical choices influencing that development cannot be examined from just
one disciplinary perspective.


Instead, a
comprehensive understanding of these choices requires
the sort of technical background acquired by studying the natural sciences and engineering, an
understanding of economics, and an appreciation of the various impacts of and influences on
public policy.


Advanced quantitative and communications skills are needed as well.


Harnessing the strengths of internationally recognized departments and programs that Ohio
State has in each of these areas, the education received by undergraduates completing the new
in
terdisciplinary major will prepare them for comprehensive analysis of environmental and
other trade
-
offs associated with different paths of energy development.


Demand for this
analysis will be strong for many years to come, in government, the private sect
or, the media,
and international agencies.


The goals of the Center's undergraduate curriculum are: (1) produce new B.S. and B.A. degrees
at the intersection of energy and the environment, (2) enroll 800 new undergraduates, (3)
create a workforce for solvi
ng Ohio's integrated energy and environmental problems, and (4)
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ensure that the Center's partnered TIUs enjoy a positive impact from the curriculum in terms of
both new tuition dollars and no

per
-
capita

increases in teaching loads.


A new undergraduate cur
riculum is an exciting opportunity for the Center to grow its research
and financial base. Undergraduates are already
involved in many faculty

research teams,
serving valuable roles in
problem solving. These undergraduates, like their graduate
counterparts

noted in Section 1.B., will go on to industry jobs where they can influence
management to partner with the Center to further grow our research base. The influx of new
undergraduates represents ~$1M per quarter in tuition generated dollars (i.e., 800 stude
nts
multiplied by $1259 for 5 credit hours each per quarter).

While it is challenging to increase
enrollments by 800 students, there are examples of success. Arizona State University
established in 2007 a bachelor's degree in sustainability and now enjoy
s

over 200
undergraduates with a projection of 500 by late 2009. The Center does not expect that $3M/yr
(i.e., three quarters at $1M each) will belong solely to the Center. Rather, a budget model has
been developed that ensures these dollars flow directly
to the faculty lecturer's

home

TIU and
college
(see governance Section 4, below)
. In turn, an MOU will be signed by the allied deans

that delivers related funds to the Center.


The Curriculum Team
described

in

the Graduate Education

Section 1.B. will also
create and
operate the new undergraduate curriculum. In building the undergraduate curriculum, the
team will follow the same

process and

timeline as that of the graduate curricu
lum
, including
the transition to semesters in 2012
. Because the Cen
ter is not

a TIU, the challenge

to the
Curriculum Team
is

to make certain that faculty TIU homes are compensated for faculty time
spent in Center courses while not spent in TIU courses.

Like graduate education, the
undergraduate courses and degree curriculum will be

created by the Curriculum Team. It is
possible

that new courses will be created rather than a curriculum based entirely on existing
courses.

The Team will focus on identifying learning objectives that are aligned with the four
research themes and the over
arching issues identified in Section 1.A, above.

Specifics such as
the number of courses, the credit hours per course, who will teach the courses, core courses,
electives, having specialized tracks or not, etc. will be worked
-
out by the Curriculum Team.


1
.D. Impact of Center

1.D.1.
How is this Center truly innovative?

Energy innovation must begin with a fundamental understanding of thermodynamics, which is
often lacking in contemporary policy debates. The law of entropy means that there is an
irreversibl
e flow from high
-
quality energy sources to less useful forms of energy, such as waste
heat. The amount of wealth that an economy can create is limited by the amount of low
-
entropy energy that it can sustainably extract from its environment


and by the amo
unt of
high
-
entropy effluent from an economy that the environment can sustainably absorb. We will
ensure that our research is grounded in these basic realities, and that every innovation is
assessed in terms of the
"
energy return on investment
"
.


Three

inn
ovation

groups

will guide us in solving the integrated energy and environmental
problems. These
groups

are
a

central point of this proposal, but they do not

yet

exist. T
he three
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groups

will focus on research, curriculum, and funding. Because these are not

mutually
exclusive, the
group

leadership will meet regularly to exchange long

term plans and short term
successes.

Governance and fiscal operations of the teams are described in Section 4.


Innovation Group 1, Four

Research Teams
:
Research is

often led by

one or two principal
investigators from similar disciplines, e.g., physics and materials. Our center will take this to the
next level where departmental and college boundaries are not evident. Instead, the focus is
problem centric. Membership will be f
luid enough to allow newcomers
who

provide important
new ideas and others to drop
-
off as experiments end. Yet, solid enough to permit sustained
activities, particularly partnerships with industry and funding
sources
.

The
four

teams to be
formed will focus

on research themes
described in

Section 1.A.


Innovation Group 2,
Curriculum Team
:

Curriculum is often designed within a single TIU

and
essentially for the benefit of that TIU
.

As described in Section
s

1.B

and 1.C
, the Center
curriculum will involve multi
ple TIUs and colleges
. Undergraduate and especially graduate
student researchers are vital to the
Center's
researcher enterprise, thu
s linking
student

educational and research experience is important to the Center. The fiscal returns associated
with curric
ulum are also important to the Center.
The curriculum team will consist of faculty
and staff, represen
ting the involved TIUs.


Innovation Group 3,
Center Longevity Team
:

Generally, OSU responds to multi
-
million dollar
request
-
for
-
proposals (RFPs) by formi
ng ad
-
hoc proposal writing teams. This approach lacks
continuity where learned experiences and an intimate knowledge of the granting agency is lost

upon proposal submission
. The Center will overcome this by cr
eating a full
-
time team made of

high
-
level staf
f with additional
faculty and staff
members rotating
-
in
/out

on an as
-
needed basis.

Usually, these members will come from the research or curriculum teams.

This team is further
described in Section 5.



Comparisons with TIEs and the IEE:

Our Center
will p
rovide critical synergies for

the already
funded
Targeted Investments in Excellence and the Institute for Energy and the Environment
(TIEs and IEE). The three innovation
group

described throughout this proposal are not
FINISH
THIS SECTION using text like t
he following:
Solving these problems will require breakthrough
innovation, since our current pattern of industrial development is unsustainable. OSU boasts
many centers of research excellence that are developing promising energy innovations. Equally
import
ant is the need to evaluate innovative technologies from a systems perspective, and
understand the full economic, environmental and social implications of pursuing energy and
environmental innovations. Again, OSU has unique resources that enable modeling a
nd analysis
of these broader implications.



1.D.2.
How will this Center create significant progress in addressing a global problem?

The
global energy problem envelopes basic research,
engineering
technology
,
commercial
development

via proof
-
of
-
concept t
esting
, policy and economic
assessments
, and
full
-
scale
industry implementation.

Significant progress needs to be made across all of these fronts. The
Center will become the nexus where partners work together in the three
groups

noted in
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Section 1.D.1. The

goal of working together is to form a
continuum

between each front such
that smooth transfer of ideas occurs. This is a back
-
and
-
forth process, rather than a

one
-
way,

linear process. For example, ideas generated by economists and policy researchers migh
t
suggest price
-
points for energy implementation

requiring technology at half the present cost.
This allows engineers to develop a reasonable technology, rather than seeking a more "perfect"
solution. By working with environmental researchers, the
require
d total engineering

improvements

might be better distributed into one
aspect of the technology compared to
another.

Essentially, our Center will treat the energy problem as a system.



1.D.3.
What major contributions will this Center make?

We anticipate

making three major contributions. (1)
Here: cite the expected key research
breakthroughs
, i.e., the problems we expect to solve
.
(2) By creating an integrated energy and
environment curriculum, we expect to produce a significant pool of talented students
.

Our
target is 1000 new majors within 5 years.

They will be integrated with Ohio's employers via
internships and project based curriculum. (3) A key outcome of the three
innovation groups

of
Section 1.D.1. is that Ohio's renewable energy industry will be

fully involved in the Center, thus
directly linking OSU to Ohio's economy. The ideas generated in our research labs will be
implemented by industry.



1.D.4.
How will this Center have made a significant impact on the global problem after 5 years
and beyo
nd? What is the lasting impact of this Center?

The Center's impact needs to be tied to
realistic
tangible metrics.
For example
, impact
could
mean

decreases in

global

atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations
. Instead of applying this
metric to the Cente
r on the global scale, the metric will be applied locally.

T
he Center will
facilitate reductions in OSU's campus carbon footprint

within 5
years followed by helping to
decrease Ohio's carbon emissions.

Another metric will be the number of companies partner
ed
with the Center

and the number of new jobs created.


1.D.5.
What are the linkages of the Center with other universities in Ohio and with other
external entities?

Notes:
We are in the process of getting letters of interest from Case Western Reserve
Un
iversity and
Ohio University
. We are also seeking letters of interest from industry, Battelle,
EWi and NASA Glenn. This paragraph will be written after we have their collaborating letters,
probably in
early May.


2. Planned activities of group


The
pla
nned activities of the Center focus on communicating and marketing the actions of the

Research Teams, the Curriculum Team, and the Longevity Team (Section 1.D.1).

In order for the
Center to create an impact, an important step is to deliver our results to

a variety of end
-
users
including

policy makers, the voting public,
potential industry partners, Federal agencies such as
the Department of Energy, foundations, and philanthropic donors. The best approach for
delivering this information can vary amongst the

users, thus the communications and
marketing strategy needs flexibility.


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The tools and techniques available to us for communicating and marketing
the results of the
Center range from the standards to the creative, from broad distributions to targeted, an
d from
passive to active. These include: (1) web pages and brochures with basic content, (2) digital
media and social networking such as videos,
podcasts,

blogging,
and twittering, (3) cultivating
relationships with key journalists at targeted news outlet
s such as Ohio's large and small market
newspapers, (4)
on campus symposiums targeted at fellow researchers or journalists as well as
small group interactions for key donors, and (5) time spent with Federal agencies such as the
Department of Energy.


We h
ave already had success with
some

of these. For example, the Kiplinger Program in the
Glenn School
has
won

two

$50,000
grants from the McCormick Foundation

to conduct climate
change and energy conferences for about two dozen journalists. These prestigious

grants are
used to bring reporters to OSU where they directly interact with our researchers.

Such
foundation moneys help maintain journalistic integrity which otherwise could be compromised
by paying journalists for their travel using Center funds.

OSU's
Offices of Communications,
Government Affairs
, and Industry Liaison

regularly engage faculty and center directors for
advice. But, the competition they face is intense. For example, Arizona State University's
Global Institute of Sustainability has seven
full
-
time commun
ications staff whereas most OSU
colleges, which are much larger than ASU's Institute, have only one or two communications
staff members.


The

Longevity Team will
implement the Center's
communications and
marketing plan. Initially,
the impl
ementation will rely on OSU's existing offices by providing ad
-
hoc
support.
After funds
are
first
won
by the Center, the Longevity Team will hire a full
-
time staff member for
communications and marketing.
Th
e implementation plan includes the following ste
ps which
will be funded by the budgeting for the Center Longevity Team

(see Section 8, below)
. (1) In the
first year of
Center
operations,
we will
create digital media including web pages, videos, and
podcasts. News out
lets will also be contacted, encourag
ing them to write articles announcing
the Center's creation. Meetings will be held with key people at Federal agencies, informing
them of the Center and soliciting their advice. (2) In the second year of operations, the Center
will host a one
-
day symposium

on a renewable energy and environmental issue. The
symposium focus will be Ohio centric, identifying joint industry
-
university research projects,
internships, and job creation. This symposium will be another opportunity for interactions with
news outlets
. Ohio congressional delegates

and key donors

will be invited to visit the Center
throughout the second year.

(3) During the next three years, the communications and
marketing plan will be adjusted to match the demands of the growing Center. These will lik
ely
include web
-
based social networking (blogging, twittering), interactions with other campus
entities to facilitate implementation of renewable energy ideas, and a continuation of all ideas
initiated in the first two years.


3. How will faculty be rewar
ded for participation in the Center?

The rewards to faculty participating in the Center are
largely related to
the Center deliverables
and less so to salary based incentives. Center deliverables include funds
and partnerships
created

by the Longevity Te
am, student researchers taking a curriculum closely tied to our
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integrated research themes, and interactions with colleagues focused on similar research
themes.

The Byrd Polar Research Center serves as one model of success. BPRC does not pay its
faculty, r
ather they continue to serve their home TIUs in two different colleges with teaching
and committee work. BPRC provides staff that fully understand the research needs of the
faculty including proposal writing, grant management, and human resources all speci
alized for
the integrated climate and water related work being done at BPRC. Importantly, BPRC also
provides a co
-
located space for faculty led research teams and
for
non
-
faculty
research
scientists who would not ordinarily have a clear TIU home.


The
two
most important reward
s

to faculty

will be their ability to partner with colleagues
outside of their disciplinary expertise and to interact
with the Center Longevity Team.

(1) New
research collaborations fuel basic science discoveries and create new technol
ogy innovations by
bringing fresh, new insights to energy and environmental problems. During our several group
meetings in planning this proposal, a common theme of excitement was the expectation of new
interactions with OSU colleagues from differing disci
plines gather and routinely working
together.

(2)
Rather than a
proposal writing
team created on an ad
-
hoc basis, this full
-
time
team will
be
a known entity
, available for regular interactions that build a library of information
ready to respond to major
funding opportunities (i.e., calls with funding greater than $5M per
proposal). The reward to faculty is a time savings where this Longevity team will not need to be
retrained on energy and environmental themes with each new call. Rather, this team will wr
ite
the proposals while relying on faculty for the core research elements. Moreover, this team will
know the energy and environment fields sufficiently to engage industry, foundations, and major
donors without requiring constant faculty oversight. Through

the Longevity Team, faculty will
have opportunities to interact with industry partners toward implementing research based
solutions to our integrated energy and environmental problems. Hence, the incentive to faculty
to participate in the Center will be t
he professional approach taken to securing funding and
building external partnerships.


Because the $750,000/yr award amount is cash based
, not based on annual rate
, the Center will
use some of the funds to release faculty from normal TIU duties of teachin
g and service.

About
5 faculty will be released to lead the
Research and Curriculum Teams
. These are not
permanent, given the cash base of the funding, and will be reviewed based on performance
metrics (see Section
3.A
).

We note that OAA will provide, in a
ddition to the $750,000/yr, a fiscal
officer and a staff coordinator. These staff people are considered value added and rewards to
faculty for their participation in the Center.

With time, the Center will raise funds to continue
the release time allocation
s and to hire full
-
time grant managers and Center coordinators.


Co
-
located space is both a reward for faculty participation and necessary for enhancing
integrated research. Presently, funding places practical limits on co
-
location. Faculty with large
rese
arch labs cannot yet be relocated whereas others with essentially computer
-
based
operations
are movable (i.e., those with
graduate students and laptops).

Space allocation
requests are planned in three steps. Step 1: At initiation, the Center will

request c
o
-
located
office space
for four people
and interactive space for five projects
(Director, Associate Director,
and
two full
-
time staff researchers;
the four research themes and the Curriculum Team).

This
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space request may be greater than that offered by OAA

in the RFP, thus we have reserved some
of the $750,000/yr

for additional rental fees (see budget Section 8).

Step 2:
Before the five year
funding period expires, the Center is expected to have met sufficient metrics of success to
warrant additional space
(metrics are described in Section 6.A). This space will include faculty
offices and research space, allowing the teams to more fully interact. Step 3:
The ultimate goal
of the Center is to develop funds for a new "green building" with sufficient space to c
o
-
locate
all Center faculty and their integrated research teams.

Although unpredictable, we hope that
the Center activities will be sufficiently strong after 5 years that a major donor will contribute
the necessary building funds.


3.A.
Annual performance
reviews

Provost Alutto has made it clear that written and interactive reviews are necessary for a high
performance academic culture and that "
...
achievement of agreed upon performance objectives
should provide the primary basis for

allocating institutiona
l resources
" [Alutto, 2009].

Becau
se
Center faculty do not receive salary
compensation
from the Center, rather from their home TIU,
the Center evaluations will focus on the contributions faculty make to the Center. These
evaluations will be provided to the

faculty member's home TIU

to ensure that faculty excellence
is rewarded
.

Given Provost Alutto's call for written evaluations, the reviews will be provided
annually to each participating faculty by the Center Director. Essentially, the performance
reviews
are not onerous and will be designed to ensure that participation is valued by both the
faculty member and the Center.


The following metrics
, averaged on an annual basis,

will be used to evaluate faculty
performance in the
Center: (1) a history of at lea
st one energy or environment peer
-
reviewed
publication, (2) participation
in research team activities demonstrated by co
-
mentoring of
graduate students or post
-
graduate researchers with other Center faculty, (3) instruction of
courses in the Center based c
urriculum, or (4) demonstrable role in garnering external funding
from government agencies, foundations, or philanthropy, e.g., co
-
PI of a winning Federal
agency grant. Rewards will be tied to the number of metrics met.
For example,
as noted in
Section 4.B
., below, the Center will receive funds from the Colleges via an MOU. These funds
could include
GRAs

which

would be allocated to students whose research is most closely
aligned with faculty meeting more metrics.


3.B
. Promotion/tenure reviews

B
ecause the

Center is not a TIU, it will not conduct promotion and tenure reviews.


4. Governance plan and administrative structure of Center