The Role of AI in the Paradigm Shift towards Enaction

ghostslimIA et Robotique

23 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 5 mois)

130 vue(s)

The Role of AI in the Paradigm
Shift towards Enaction


Life and Mind seminar #2

Tom Froese

Life and Mind seminar #2

2

Overview


Cognitivism



Embodied
-
Embedded Cognitive Science



Enactivism



Beyond?

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The major transitions of

cognitive science

Varela (1999)

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Cognitivism


Cognition is taken to be essentially a form of
centralized problem solving in the form of logical
inference through abstract symbol manipulation.



Mind and world are conceived of as fundamentally
distinct. Hence, the need for representations.



The body is conceptualized as an input/output device,
the environment as a domain for problem solving.



Connectionism: cognition as less centralized.

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Symbolic AI


The commonsense knowledge problem:


The move beyond “toy worlds” leads to a
combinatorial explosion of representations and
rules needed for cognitive behavior.



The frame problem:


How does an abstract symbol processor determine
what is relevant to its current situation? Infinite
regress of symbol structures.



The cognitivist mainstream (and its Cartesian
assumptions) have been put to the test.

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Nouvelle AI

Following Brooks, the field looked for new directions:



Situatedness:

a robot does not deal with abstract
descriptions but with the world directly.



Embodiment:

a robot has a body in such a way that
its actions form a dynamic with the world and have
immediate feedback on its sensations.



Emergence:

the behavior of a robot emerges from
its interactions with the world. It cannot be
reduced to a particular part of the systemic whole.

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Embodied
-
Embedded Cognitive Science

1.
Cognition is essentially fluid, flexible, real
-
time,
context
-
sensitive, skillful, and adaptive coping.


2.
Cognition is a dynamical process which spans an
extended brain
-
body
-
system.


3.
Cognition is a process which is embodied in an
organism and embedded within a world.


4.
A cognitive agent is best understood and analyzed
as a dynamical system.

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A first paradigm shift

Cognitivism

Embodied
-
Embedded

Cognitive Science

Failure of symbolic
AI / emergence of
nouvelle AI

The Cartesian tradition

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The role of AI and robotics


It has provided the foundation for a lot of
the conceptual developments.



In its role as a subversive science it was able
to question and undermine the constitutive
assumptions underlying cognitivism.



Philosophical stalemates could be resolved in
the “empirical” domain of the cognitive
sciences.

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Towards a new dialectic

rational

empirical

rational

empirical

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The Enactive Approach


More recently the paradigm shift has been moving
towards an enactive perspective:


1.
Organisms are
autonomous agents

that actively
generate and maintain their identities, and thereby
enact or bring forth their own cognitive domains.


2.
The nervous system is autonomous: it actively
generates and maintains its own coherent and
meaningful patterns of activity according to its
operation as an
operationally closed system
.

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Organization of the living body:
Autopoiesis

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Operational closure

Rudrauf, et al. (2003)

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The Enactive Approach

3.
Cognition, conceived fundamentally as
meaning
-
generation
, arises from the sensorimotor coupling
between organism and environment. Cognition is a
form of embodied action.


4.
The organism’s world is not a pre
-
specified,
external realm somehow represented internally, but
a relational domain enacted or brought forth by its
autonomous agency and mode of coupling with the
environment.


5.
The organism’s
experiential awareness

is a central
feature of its lived embodiment in the world.


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The problem of subjectivity


A central concern of enactivism is an improved
understanding of
subjectivity
. It does this from 2
complementary perspectives:


Biological agency: an autonomous system that produces and
maintains its own identity.


Phenomenal agency: non
-
intentional and pre
-
reflective, lived
bodily self
-
awareness.



The ‘explanatory gap’ is no longer absolute as both
aspects of subjectivity make common reference to
living being:


The living body as object


The living body as
subject

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Towards a new dialectic?

rational

empirical

rational

empirical

experiential

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The role of AI and robotics


Can we still say that this shift towards enactivism is
driven by developments in AI and robotics?



How can its experimental results inform the
experiential (phenomenological) component?



How can insights gained from the principled use of 1
st

person methodologies inform AI research?



Momentarily at least it appears that AI and robotics
is trailing behind the shift towards enactivism.

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A second paradigm shift?

Cognitivism

Embodied
-
Embedded

Cognitive Science

Failure of symbolic
AI / emergence of
nouvelle AI.

Enactivism

?

The Cartesian tradition

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The nature of the second shift


Just like the cognitivism, the enactivist paradigm necessarily
has its own set of metaphors (e.g. dynamics) and constitutive
assumptions (e.g. embodiment).



Both paradigms are based on distinct premises which therefore
entail non
-
overlapping rational domains. Because of this there is
a fundamental stalemate in the
philosophical

domain.



Since the stalemate cannot be resolved
rationally
, a paradigm
shift cannot be induced by means of argument alone. In the end
the stalemate has to be resolved in the
empirical

domain of the
cognitive sciences.



But even empirical data has to be interpreted from a point of
view. What determines which one we adopt for ourselves?

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Two explanatory paths

Maturana’s (1988) “ontological diagram”

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The role of experience

rational

empirical

experiential

All 3 domains do not only presuppose a background
of non
-
thematic skillful coping, but also one of pre
-
reflective lived experience


our way of living/being.

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The role of experience

Cognitivism

Embodied
-
Embedded

Cognitive Science

Empirical

Enactivism

Philosophical

Experiential

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Concluding remarks


It is clear that AI and robotics has contributed immensely to
the shift towards embodied
-
embedded cognitive science.



It has done so by shifting the disputes from the philosophical
domain to the empirical domain.



The next challenge for this field is to improve our understanding
of agency. Is it possible to synthesize
autonomous agents
?




Nevertheless, a shift towards an enactive cognitive science
appears to require shifting the dispute from the philosophical
and empirical domains to the
experiential

domain.



Open question: What are the consequences?