EROSION AND SEDIMENT POLLUTION CONTROL PROGRAM MANUAL

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EROSION AND SEDIMENT

POLLUTION
CONTROL

PROGRAM

MANUAL



FINAL



Technical Guidance Number

363
-
2134
-
008



March
20
1
2







BUREAU OF WATER
WAYS

ENGINEERING AND WETLANDS

DIVISION OF WETLANDS
, ENCROACHMENT

AND
TRAINING


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
i

DEPARTMENT OF EN
VIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

B
ureau of
Waterways Engineering and Wetlands



DOCUMENT N
UMBER
:

363
-
2134
-
008


TITLE:

Erosion and Sediment
Pollution
Control
Program

Manual


EFFECTIVE DATE:

March 31, 2012


AUTHORITY:

Pennsylvania Clean Stream Law (35 P.S.
§
§

691.1

69
1.1001
) and
regulations at 25
Pa. Code

Chapter 102.


POLICY:

It is the policy of the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to
provide guidance and procedures for those engaged in earth disturbance
activities on ways to minimize accelerated erosion a
nd resulting sediment
pollution to
surface waters
.


PURPOSE:

The purpose of this guidance is to
inform

those engaged in earth
disturbance activities and in the preparation of
Erosion and Sediment

Control

(
E&S
)

Plan
s how to comply with
regulations found at
25 Pa. Code
Chapter

102
.


APPLICABILITY:

This guidance applies to all those engaged in the preparation of
E&S
Plan
s for earth disturbance activities in the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania.


DISCLAIMER:

The policies and procedures outlined in this guidance are

intended to
supplement existing requirements. Nothing in the policies or procedures
shall affect regulatory requirements.



The policies and procedures herein are not an adjudication or a
regulation. There is no intent
by
DEP to give the rules in these
policies
that weight or deference. This document establishes the framework
within which DEP will exercise its administrative discretion in the future.
DEP reserves the discretion to deviate from this policy statement if
circumstances warrant.


PAGE LENGT
H:

5
6
3

pages


DEFINITIONS:

See 35 P.S.
§

691.1 and 25
Pa. Code

§

102.1.



363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
ii

FOREWORD


The various Best Management Practices (BMPs) described herein are primarily
used

during earth
disturbances associated with land development and construction activities. Ot
her special BMPs for
agricultural plowing or tilling activities which provide for the economic viability of farms, maintenance of
the land, and protection of Pennsylvania waterways are described in the Natural Resources
Conservation Services’
Pennsylvania
Soil and Water Conservation Technical Guide
. An overview
of these agricultural BMPs is also provided in
A Conservation Catalog
:

Practices for the
Conservation of Pennsylvania’s Natural Resources
.
Persons conducting agricultural plowing or
tilling activit
ies are encouraged to review the practices described in the catalog and contact their local
conservation district or Natural Resources Conservation Service office for more detailed planning
information and assistance.


This manual lists various BMPs and de
sign standards which are acceptable in Pennsylvania. BMPs,
when designed according to these standards, and properly implemented and maintained, are expected
to achieve the regulatory standard of minimizing the potential for accelerated erosion and
sedimen
tation, and at the same time to protect, maintain, reclaim and restore water quality and existing
and designated uses of surface waters.


Th
is

manual contains a selection of performance oriented BMPs that minimize accelerated soil erosion
and sedimentation

associated with temporary earth disturbance activities. It is a tool for developing
erosion and sediment control plans that
use

basic principles of sound science and reasonable scientific
certainty for minimizing accelerated erosion and sedimentation. E
rosion and sediment control BMPs
associated with earth disturbance activities have undergone extensive research and development to
achieve the desired level of BMP effectiveness. Much of the design criteria and supporting calculations
have been developed
through various technical organizations, academia, and government agencies
with expertise of the management practice functionality, standardized test methods and procedures,
statistical analysis, and environmental, health and safety considerations. The BM
P standards and
specifications adopted by the Department are typically identified and used for the specific field
applications as a performance
-
based effluent limitation for sediment and related pollutants. Many of
the supporting calculations are assumed
and have been incorporated into the standard details and
specifications; however, some simple calculations for drainage area, slope steepness and length, or
other site
-
specific feature may need to be identified to apply the practice for the earth disturban
ce
activity. Generally, details and specifications identify the purpose of the BMP
,

conditions w
h
ere the
BMP applies, planning considerations, design criteria, construction specifications and maintenance
procedures.


Alternate BMPs

that are
not listed in
this manual

but

that provide the same (or greater) level of
protection

may also be used to attain the regulatory standard. It is incumbent on the person proposing
the use of alternative BMPs to demonstrate their effectiveness with appropriate test results

or other
documentation.


BMPs that fail after
installation
shall

be repaired to function properly or be replaced by alternative BMPs
that will serve the intended purpose. For example, if a skimmer in a basin or trap does not function as
intended, it may
need to be replaced by a perforated riser
that functions

as intended. Likewise, if
unforeseen conditions occur on a site, and the installed BMPs are obviously not effective, then
alternate BMPs should be designed and installed. The need for redesign will

be determined on a case
-
by
-
case basis.


Erosion is a natural process, which occurs with each runoff event. Human activities which remove
protective vegetative cover alter topography and runoff patterns
and
typically increase the rate of
erosion to many
times that which occurs naturally. It is this accelerated erosion which is regulated by
the Department’s Chapter 102 regulations. Minimizing accelerated erosion and the resultant
sedimentation is the focus of this manual.


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The following

individuals and organizations participated in developing this manual. Participation does
not infer concurrence or endorsement of the manual or its contents.


E &
S

Manual Oversight Committee:


Barbara Beshore, PA DEP

Robert Cadwallader, P.E., PA DEP

Doug
las W.

Caylor, P.E., PA DEP

James R.

Coslo, Jr., Centre County
Conservation
D
istrict

Chris Droste, Westmoreland
Conservation
D
istrict

Brent Hilderbrand, Butler
Conservation
D
istrict

Karl
K
a
erchner
, Lebanon County
Conservation
D
istrict

Mark Lonergan, PA DEP

Brian Mackowski, PA DEP

Jeffrey McKenna, Montgomery County
Conservation
D
istrict

Jeffry Means, P.E., PA DEP

Domenic Rocco, P.E., PA DEP

Darl Rosenquest, P.E., P.G., PA DEP

Bry
o
n Ruhl, Berks County
Conservation
D
istrict

Darrell Smeal, PA DEP

Dennis Stum, P
.E., PA DEP

Christy Zulli, Schuylkill
Conservation
D
istrict


Special thanks to Stackhouse Bensinger, Inc. of Sinking Spring, PA for providing detail

drawing
s for the
Standard Construction Details contained in this manual and also to Britt Faucette of Filtr
exx
International for providing compost standards and details for compost filter socks.

In addition, thanks to
Assistant Professor William Elmendorf of The Pennsylvania State University for granting permission to
include his publications regarding preserv
ation and planting of trees on construction sites as
appendices to this manual.


Finally, thank you to all who by their comments and suggestions helped make this manual better.



363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Foreword

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........


i
i

Acknowledgments

................................
................................
................................
............................


ii
i

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
......


x
v

Chapter 1

-

Required
E&S Plan

Content

................................
................................
..........................


1

Chapter 2

-

Best Management Practice (BMP)

Sequencing

................................
.............................


8

Chapter 3

-

Site Access

................................
................................
................................
...................


13

Rock Construction Entrance
................................
................................
................................
.......


13

Rock Construction Entrance with Wash Rack

................................
................................
............


15

Rumble Pad

................................
................................
................................
...............................


17

Wheel Wash

................................
................................
................................
..............................


17

Temporary and Permanent

Access Roads

................................
................................
.................


18

Waterbar

................................
................................
................................
................................
....


21

Broad
-
based Dip

................................
................................
................................
........................


23

Open
-
top Culvert

................................
................................
................................
........................


26

Water
Deflector

................................
................................
................................
..........................


28

Roadsi
de Ditch
................................
................................
................................
...........................


30

Ditch Relief Culvert

................................
................................
................................
....................


31

Turnout

................................
................................
................................
................................
......


33

Compost Sock Sediment Tr
ap

................................
................................
................................
...


34

Temporary Stream
and Wetland
Crossing
s

................................
................................
................


36

Stream Crossing

................................
................................
................................
.............


36


Wetland Cross
ing

................................
................................
................................
...........


41


Earthwork within Stream Channels

................................
................................
............................


42


Earthwork within Lakes and Ponds

................................
................................
............................


49

Turb
idity Barrier (Silt Curtain)

................................
................................
.........................


49

Dewatering Work Areas

................................
................................
................................
.............


53

Pum
ped Water Filter Bag

................................
................................
................................
...........


53

Sump Pit

................................
................................
................................
................................
....


5
5

Site Housekeeping and Materials Management

................................
................................
.........


5
7


Waste Management…………
…………………………………………………………………...57


Concrete Washou
t

................................
................................
................................
..........


57

Chapter 4

-

Sediment Barriers and Filters

................................
................................
........................


61


Compost Filter
Sock

................................
................................
................................
...................


62

Compost Filter
Berm

................................
................................
................................
..................


6
7

We
ighted Sediment Filter Tube

................................
................................
................................
..


6
9

Rock Filter Outlet

................................
................................
................................
.......................


73

Silt Fence

(Filter Fabric Fence
)

................................
................................
................................
..


75

Super
Silt

Fen
ce (Super
Fil
t
er

Fabric

Fence
)

................................
................................
.............


82

Sedimen
t Filter Log (Fiber Log
)

................................
................................
................................
..


85

Wood Chip Filter Berm

................................
................................
................................
...............


87

Straw Bale Barrier

................................
................................
................................
......................


89

Rock Filter

................................
................................
................................
................................
..


92

Vegetative Filter Strip

................................
................................
................................
.................


9
4

Storm Inlet Protection

................................
................................
................................
.................


9
6


Inlet Filter Bag

................................
................................
................................
................


9
7


Stone
Inlet Protection

................................
................................
................................
.....

100

Chapter 5
-

R
unoff Calculations

................................
................................
................................
.......

10
8

The
Ra
tional Equation

................................
................................
................................
................

1
10


Runoff Coefficient (C)

................................
................................
................................
.....

1
10


Rainfall Intensity (I)

................................
................................
................................
.........

11
2


Drainage Area (A)

................................
................................
................................
..........

12
3

Chapter 6

-

Runoff Conveyance BMPs

................................
................................
............................

1
2
7


Channel
s

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

12
7


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
v

Page


Manning’s Equation
……………………………………………………………………………..127

Berm


................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

1
50

Top
-
of
-
Slope Berm

................................
................................
................................
.....................

1
50

Temporary Slope Pipe

................................
................................
................................
...............

1
53

Bench

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

1
5
7

C
hapter 7
-

Sediment Basin
s

................................
................................
................................
...........

1
5
9

Design Criteria

................................
................................
................................
...........................

1
5
9

Storage Volum
e Criteria

................................
................................
................................
.............

1
6
4

Design Procedure

................................
................................
................................
......................

1
6
4

Skimmer Dewatering

................................
................................
................................
..................

16
6

Perforated Riser Dewatering

................................
................................
................................
......

1
74

Freeboard

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

1
92

Emergency Spillway

................................
................................
................................
...................

1
92

Flow
Length

to Width

Ratio

................................
................................
................................
........

1
9
9

Outlet Barrel
s

................................
................................
................................
.............................

202

Anti
-
seep Co
llar

................................
................................
................................
.........................

203

F
ilter Diaphragm

................................
................................
................................
........................

209

Sedim
ent Storage Zone Dewatering

................................
................................
..........................

211

Chapter 8
-

Sediment Traps

................................
................................
................................
.............

212

Design Criteria

................................
................................
................................
...........................

212

Embankment Sediment Trap

................................
................................
................................
......

214

Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap

................................
................................
................................
........

2
17

Chapter 9

-

Outl
et Protection

................................
................................
................................
...........

2
29

Riprap Apron

................................
................................
................................
..............................

2
32

Flow Transition

Mat

................................
................................
................................
....................

2
42

Stilling Basin (Plunge Pool
)

................................
................................
................................
........

2
45

Stilling Well

................................
................................
................................
................................

2
48

Energy Dissipater

................................
................................
................................
.......................

2
51

Drop Structure
................................
................................
................................
............................

2
52

Earthen Level Spreader

................................
................................
................................
.............

2
53

Structural Level Spr
eader

................................
................................
................................
..........

2
55

Chapter 10

-

Low Hazard Individual Lot
E&S Pl
an
s

................................
................................
.........

2
56

Chapter 11
-

Stabilization Methods and Standards

................................
................................
..........

2
60

Surface Roughening

................................
................................
................................
..................

2
60

Stair Step Grading

................................
................................
................................
..........

2
60

Grooving Slopes

................................
................................
................................
.............

2
61

Tracking Slopes

................................
................................
................................
..............

2
62

Vegetative Stabiliz
ation

................................
................................
................................
..............

2
62


Topsoil Application

................................
................................
................................
.........

2
63


Seeding

................................
................................
................................
..........................

2
63


Mulching

................................
................................
................................
.........................

2
70


Composting

................................
................................
................................
....................

2
71

Erosi
on Control Blankets

................................
................................
................................
............

2
73


Hy
d
raulically Applied Blankets

................................
................................
........................

2
75

Soil Binders

................................
................................
................................
................................

2
76

Sodding
................................
................................
................................
................................
......

2
77

C
ellular Confinement Systems

................................
................................
................................
...

2
80

Chapter 12

-

New Products and Procedures

................................
................................
....................

2
82

Chapter 13

-

Utility Line Projects

................................
................................
................................
......

2
83

Roadway Crossings

................................
................................
................................
...................

2
84

Stream Cr
ossings

................................
................................
................................
......................

2
84

We
tland Crossings

................................
................................
................................
.....................

2
90


363
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008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
vi



Page

Waterbars

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

2
92

Chapter 14

-

Timber Harvesting

................................
................................
................................
.......

2
94

Haul Roads

................................
................................
................................
................................

2
94

Skid Roads and Skid Trails

................................
................................
................................
........

2
97

Log Landings

................................
................................
................................
.............................

298

Winte
r Harvests

................................
................................
................................
.........................

300

Retirement of Haul Roads,
Skid Roads,
S
k
id Trails, and Landings

................................
............

302

Chapter 15

-

Streambank St
abilization

................................
................................
.............................

303

Vege
tation

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

303

Riprap

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

304

Gabions

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

307

Grid Pavers

................................
................................
................................
................................

310

Cellular Confinement Systems

................................
................................
................................
...

312

Miscel
laneous Hard Armor Techniques

................................
................................
......................

313

Fluvial Geomorphology (
FGM
)

Techniques

................................
................................
................

313

Bioengineering

................................
................................
................................
...........................

314


Live Stakes

................................
................................
................................
.....................

314


Live Fascines

................................
................................
................................
.................

316


Branchpackin
g

................................
................................
................................
................

319


Fabric Encapsu
lated Soil

................................
................................
................................

3
21


Fiber Rolls

................................
................................
................................
......................

3
23

Chapter 16

-

Grading Standards

................................
................................
................................
......

3
25

Chapter 1
7

-

Areas of Special Concern

................................
................................
............................

327


Sinkhole Repair

................................
................................
................................
..........................

327


Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control

Practices for Contaminated Sites

................................
.

3
32


NPDES Permits Involving Sit
e
Remediation and Redevelo
pment

................................
...

3
40


Special Protection Watersheds

................................
................................
................................
..

3
43

Policy

................................
................................
................................
.............................

343

Antidegradation

................................
................................
................................
..............

343


Nondischarge Alternatives

................................
................................
..................

344

Antidegradation Best Available Combina
tion of Technologi
es (ABACT)

..............

344



A
BACT BMPs

for
E&S Plans

................................
................................
..............

345


Slope Failures

................................
................................
................................
............................

3
47


Geotherm
al Well Drilling

................................
................................
................................
............

3
51

Appendix A
-

Checklists

................................
................................
................................
...................

3
54

Complete Plan Checklist

................................
................................
................................
............

3
55

Standard
E&S Control Plan Technical Review Checklist

................................
............................

3
57

Expanded E&S Control Pla
n Technical Review Checklist

................................
..........................

3
60

Appendix B
-

Standard
E&S
Worksheets

................................
................................
.........................

3
71

Appendix C
-

St
andard
E&S Plan

Notes

................................
................................
..........................

3
94

Appendix D
-

Standards for Maps and Drawings
................................
................................
..............

3
97

Appendix E

-

Soil Use Limitations

................................
................................
................................
....

400

Appe
ndix F

-

Energy Dissipaters

................................
................................
................................
......

410


Roughness Element Dissipater

................................
................................
................................
..

411


Impact

Dissipater

................................
................................
................................
.......................

4
26

Appendix
G

-

Technical

Paper: “Level Spreaders an
d Off
-
s
ite Discharges of Stormwater to Non
-
s
urface Waters”

................................
................................
................................
..........

4
30

Appendix
H

-

Dust Control

................................
................................
................................
...............

4
51

Appendix I

-

Publication: “A Guide to
Preserv
ing Trees in Development Projects”

by

William Elmendorf of The Pennsylvania State University (1999)

................................

4
54

Appendix J

-

Publication: “
Understanding Tree
Planting in

Construction
-
d
amaged Soils”

by William
Elmendorf of The Pennsylvania State University (2008)

................................
.............

483


363
-
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-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
vii

Appendix K

-

Fact Sheet

-

E
&

S BMPs
for
Water Well Drilling and Aquifer Testing

.........................

4
96

Appendix
L

-

Glossary
................................
................................
................................
......................

4
98


L
IST OF TABLES

Table Number

Name

Page

3.1

Maximum
Waterbar Spacing

................................
................................
..................


22

3.2

Maximum
Spacing of Broad
-
based Dips, Open
-
top Culverts and Deflectors

..........


23

3.3

Sizing and Spacing of Ditch Relief Culverts for Temporary Access Roads

.............


31

3.4

Recommended
Maximum
Spacing of Ditch Reli
ef Culverts
(18” dia CMP)
for


Permanent Access Roads
................................
................................
.....................


32

3.5

Minimum Distance Between Culvert Pipes

................................
.............................


37

4.1

Compost Sock F
abric Minimum Specifications

................................
.......................


63

4.2

Compost Standards……………………………………………………………………… 64

4.3

Fabric Properties for
Silt

Fence

................................
................................
..............


75

4.4

Maximum Slope Length
for
Silt

Fence

................................
................................
...


76

4.5

Maximum Slope Length for Straw Bale Barriers

and Wood Chip Filter Berms
........


89

4.6

Minimum Filter Strip Width for Sediment Removal

................................
.................


95


5.1

Pennsylvania Rainfall by Count
y

................................
................................
............

109


5.2

Runoff Coefficients for the Rational Equation

................................
........................

111


5.3

Rough
ness Coefficient
for

Sheet Flow
T
c

Computations

................................
........

112


5.4

Appropriate Rainfall Regional Map for Various Times of Concentration



and

Frequencies

................................
................................
................................
....

114


5.5

5
-
Minute
through

24
-
Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 1

................................
.........

118


5.6

5
-
Minute
through

24
-
Hour
Rainfall De
pths for Region 2

................................
.........

119


5.7

5
-
Minute
through

24
-
Hour
Rainfall Depths for Region 3

................................
.........

120


5.8

5
-
Minute
through

24
-
Hour
Rainfall

Depths for Region 4

................................
.........

121


5.9

5
-
Minute
through

24
-
Hour R
ainfall Depths for Region 5

................................
.........

122


6.1

Geometric Elements of Channel Section
s

................................
..............................

1
28


6.
2

Maximum Permissible Shear Stresses
for

Various Channel Liners

........................

1
30


6.3

Manning’s “n” for Trapezoidal Channels with Vegetative
Stabilization



(
Retardance C
)

................................
................................
................................
......

131


6.4

Maximum Permissible Velocities
(ft/sec)
for Channels Lined
with

Vegetation

........

13
2


6.5

Manning’s Roughness Coefficient (“n”) for Commonly Use
d Temporary Channel
Linings

................................
................................
................................
...................

13
3


6.
6

Riprap Gradation, Filter Blanket Requirements
,

Maximum Velocities

.....................

1
35


6.
7

Comparison of Various Gradations of Coarse Aggregates

................................
.....

1
35


6.
8

Riprap Size Adjustme
nt Factor for Various Rock Types

................................
.........

1
36


6.
9

Recommended n Values to be Used with Manning’s Equation

When Doing

Stability Analyses of Receiving Streams

................................
................................

1
37

6.
10

Maximum Permissible Velocities
and Shear Stresses
for Reno Mattresses


and
Gabions

................................
................................
................................
..........

1
39

6.11
Minimum Dimensions for Temporary Slope Pipes

................................
.................

15
4

6.12

Bench Spacing
................................
................................
................................
.......

1
57


7.1

K
p

Values for Common Sizes of Pipe

................................
................................
.....

17
6


7.2

Pipe Flow Capacity

-

n = 0.015

................................
................................
..............

17
8

7.3

Pipe Flow Capacity

-

n = 0.025

................................
................................
..............

1
79

7.4

Concrete Base Requirements for Various Sizes of
Temporary Riser Pipes

...........

1
87


7.5

Grass
-
l
ined
E
mergency Spillway Capacity
in CFS
(
Side Slopes

1H:1V
)

................

1
96


7.6

Grass
-
l
ined
E
mergency Spillway Capacity
in CFS
(
Side Slopes

2H:1V
)

................

1
97


7.7

Grass
-
l
ined
E
mergency Spillway Capacity
in CFS
(
Side Slopes

3H:1V
)

................

1
97

7.8

Grass
-
l
ined
E
mergency Spillway Capacity
in CFS
(
Side Slopes

4H:1V
)

................

1
98

8.1

Recommended Minimum Pipe Sizes for Barrel/Riser Sediment Traps

...................

2
17

11.1

Cubic Yards of Topsoil Required for Application to Various Depths

.......................

2
63

11.2

Soil Amendment Application Rate Equivalents
................................
.......................

266


11.3

Plant Tolerances of Soil Limitation Factors

................................
............................

267


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
viii

Table Number

Name

Page


11.4

Recommended Seed Mixtures

................................
................................
...............

268

11.5

Recommended Seed Mixtures for Stabilizing Disturbed Areas

..............................

269

11.6

Mulch Application Rates

................................
................................
........................

2
71

11.7

Typical Polymer Stabilized Fiber Matrix App
lication Rates

................................
.....

2
76

13.1

Maximum

Spacing and Materials for Trench Plugs

................................
................

2
91

13.2

Maximum

Spacing for Permane
nt
Waterbars on a Utility Line Right
-
o
f
-
way

...........

2
93

14.1

Minimum Vegetative Filter Strip
Widths for Timber Harvesting

...............................

2
98

15.1

Live
Fascine

Spacing

................................
................................
.............................

317

16.1

Recom
mended Minimum

Setbacks for Fill Placement in the Vicinity of
Regulated




Waters,
Highways,
Railroads, and Other Public Transportation Facilities

..............

326

1
7
.
1

Pro
cesses Leading to Landslides
................................
................................
...........

3
49

E.1

Limitations of Pennsylvania Soils
Pertaining

to Earthmoving
Projects

....................

401

F.1

Impact Dissipater Dimensions

(ft
-
inches)

................................
...............................

4
27

G.1

Allowable Velocities for Downslope Covers fo
r Channel Flows

..............................

4
41

G.2

Maximum Velocities of Flow Across a Level Spreader

................................
...........

443

G.3

Level Spreader Lengths for Various D
ownslope
C
overs
and

Dischar
ges

...............

4
44

G.4

Reduced Level Spreader Lengths

for Wooded Riparian Buffers

............................

4
44

H.1

Application Rates for Dust Suppre
ssants

................................
...............................

4
52

H.2

Adh
esives Used for Dust Control

................................
................................
...........

453




363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
ix

LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Number

Name

Page

I
.1

Raindrop Impact

................................
................................
................................
.


x
v

I
.2

Types of Erosion

................................
................................
................................
.


xv
i

3.1

Typical Roadside Ditch Section

................................
................................
..........


30

3.2

Access Road Layout

................................
................................
...........................


30

3.3

Typical

Turnout

................................
................................
................................
...


33

3.4

Temporary Bridge Stream Crossing

................................
................................
....


38

3.5

Typic
al Tire Mat We
tland Crossing

................................
................................
.....


41

3.6

Typical Expanded Me
tal Grating Wetland Crossing

................................
............


41

3.7

Typical W
ood Mat For Wetland Crossing

................................
............................


42

3.8

Typical
Causeway

................................
................................
...............................


43

3.9

Bypass
C
hannel with Non
-
e
rosive Lining

................................
............................


44

3.10

Rigid or
F
lexible Pipe Flume Through a Work Area

................................
............


45

3.11

Temporary Cofferdam and Pump Bypass Around In
-
c
hannel Work Areas

..........


46

3.12

In
-
s
tream Cofferdam Diversion

................................
................................
...........


47

3.13

Jersey

Barrier Cofferdam
-
e
nd View

................................
................................
....


48

3.14

Turbid
ity Barrier

Installation

-

No Current and Sheltered from

Wind and Waves

................................
................................
................................
.


50

3.15

Turbidity Barrier

Installation

-

Small to Moderate Current (
<

3.
5 FPS) and

Som
e
Wind and Wave Action

................................
................................
.............


51

3.16

Turbidity Barrier

Installation

-

Considerable Current (3.5
-
5 FPS) and

P
otential
Tidal, Wind and Wave Action

................................
...............................


51

3.17

Turbidity Barrier

Installation

-

Tidal Condition

................................
......................


52

3.18

Typical Compost Sock Washout Installation

................................
.......................


58

4.1

Sediment Barrier Alignment

................................
................................
................


61

4.2

Maximum Permissible Slope Lengt
h Above Compost Filter Socks

......................


66

4.3

Maximum Permissible S
lope Length

Above
Silt

Fence and Straw

Bale Barriers

................................
................................
................................
.......


78

4.4

Straw Bale Barrier Installation

................................
................................
.............


91

4.5

Vegetative
F
ilter Strip

................................
................................
..........................


95

5.1

Nomograph to Determine Shallow Concentrated Flow Velocity

..........................


113

5.2

Rainfall Region Map A

................................
................................
........................


115

5.3

Rainfall Region Map B

................................
................................
........................


115

5.4

Rainfall Region M
ap C

................................
................................
........................


116

5.5

Rainfall Region Map D

................................
................................
........................


116

5.6

Rainfall Region Map E

................................
................................
........................


117

5.7

Rainfall Region Map F

................................
................................
........................


117

5.8

Rainfall Intensity for 1
-
year
through
100
-
year Storms for Region 1

.....................


118

5.9

Rainfall Intensity for 1
-
year
through
100
-
year Storms for Region 2

.....................


119

5.10

Rainfall Intensity fo
r 1
-
year
through
100
-
year Storms for Region 3

.....................


120

5.11

Rainfall Intensity for 1
-
year
through
100
-
year Storms for Region 4

.....................


121

5.12

Rainfall Intensity for 1
-
year
through 1
00
-
year Storms for Region 5

.....................


122

6.1

Maximum Permissible Flow Depth for Riprap Channels

................................
......


13
4


6.2

“n” Values for Riprap Channels

................................
................................
...........


1
38

6.3

Plan Map of Sample Channel

................................
................................
.............


1
40

6.4

Void Space in Riprap Channel Bottom

................................
................................


1
41

6.5

Maintaining Top
-
of
-
slope Berms and Temporary Slope Pipes

.............................


15
2


7.1

Sediment Basin

................................
................................
................................
...


1
63


7.2

Skimmer Orifice Design Chart

................................
................................
.............


1
73


7.3

Riser Inflow Curves

................................
................................
.............................


1
77


7.4

Typical Sediment Forebay

................................
................................
..................


200


7.
5

Use of Baffles in Sediment Basin
s

................................
................................
......


202


7.
6

Anti
-
s
eep Collar Design

................................
................................
......................


203


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
x

Figure Number

Name

Page

7.
7

Graphical Determination of Length of Pipe in the Saturated Zone (L
s
)

................


206

7.8

Typical Fil
ter Diaphragm Installation

................................
................................
...


209

9.1

Velocity Adjustment Nomograph for Less Than Full Pipe Flow

...........................


231

9.2

Proper Outfall Orie
ntation to Receiving Stream

................................
...................


2
32


9.3

Riprap Apron Design, Minimum Tailwater Condition

................................
...........


2
39

9.4

Riprap Apron Design, Maximum Tailwater Condit
ion

................................
..........


2
40

9.5

Typical Transition Mat Installation

................................
................................
.......


2
43

9.6

Minimum Coverage Length
vs.

Exit Velocity for Flow Transition Mat

..................


2
44

9.7

d50 Stone Size for Stilling Basins

................................
................................
.......


2
47

9.8

Stilling Well Height

................................
................................
..............................


2
48

9.9

Stilling Well Diameter

................................
................................
..........................


2
49

9.10

Depth of Well Be
low Invert

................................
................................
..................


2
50

9.11

Typical Drop Structure

................................
................................
........................


2
52


11.1

Stair Step Grading of Cut Slopes

................................
................................
........


2
61


11.2

Grooved Slope Details

................................
................................
........................


2
61


11.3

Tracking a Fill Slope

................................
................................
...........................


2
62

11.4

Straw Mulch
Applied at 3 Tons/Acre

................................
................................
...


2
70

11.5

Sodding

................................
................................
................................
..............


2
79

11.6

Typical Cellular Conf
inement System Ins
tallation

................................
................


2
81

13.1

Waterbar Installation on a Utility Line Right
-
of
-
way

................................
.............


2
93

14.1

Typical Timber Harvest Haul Road Layout

................................
..........................


2
96

14.2

Typical Timber Harvest Site Plan

................................
................................
........


2
99

14.3

Alternati
ve
Timber Harves
t Site Plan

................................
................................
..


300

14.4

Typical Timber Harvest Plan

Mapping Symbols

................................
..................


301

15.1

Riprap Streambank Protectio
n with Optional Live Stakes

................................
...


305

15.2

Extension of Primary Rock Riprap Protection Area

................................
.............


306

15.3

Gabion Streambank Protection

................................
................................
...........


308

15.4

Reno

Mattress Streambank Protection

................................
...............................


309

15.5

Grid Pavers

................................
................................
................................
.........


311

15.6

Live Stakes

................................
................................
................................
.........


315

15.7

Li
ve Fascines

................................
................................
................................
......


318

15.8

Branchpacking

................................
................................
................................
....


320

15.9

Fabric Encapsulated Soil with Branchpacking

................................
.....................


3
22

15.10

Fiber Rolls

................................
................................
................................
..........


3
24

17.1

Sinkhole Repair
with a Bentonite Cap

................................
................................
....

3
28

17.2

Sinkhole
R
epair with a Pervious Cover

................................
................................
..

3
29

17.3

Sinkhole Repair with an Impervious Cover

................................
.............................

3
30

17.4

Sinkhole Repair with Soil
C
over

................................
................................
.............

3
31

F.1

Typical
Roughness Element Dissipater

................................
................................
..

411

F.2

Forces A
cting on a Roughness Ele
ment

................................
................................

412

F.3

Critical Dimensions Used in Designing R
oughness Element Dissipaters

...............

412

F.4

Dimensionless Rating Curves for Outlet
s of Re
ctangular Culverts on Horizontal



and Mild Slopes
................................
................................
.............................

4
17

F.5

Dimensionless Rating Curves for Outlets of Circular Culverts on Horizontal



and Mild Slopes
................................
................................
.............................

4
18

F.6

Flow fo
r Circular Pipe Flowing Full

................................
................................
.........

4
19

F.7

Design Values for R
oughness Element D
issipate
rs

................................
...............

4
20

F.8

Average Velocity in Abrupt Expans
ion
b
elow Rectangular Outlet

...........................

4
21

F.9

Average Velocity in Abrupt Exp
ansion
b
elow Circular Outlet

................................
..

4
22

F.10

Average Depth for Abrupt Expans
ion
b
elow Rectangular Outlet

............................

4
23

F.11

Average Depth for Abrupt Expansion
b
el
ow Circu
lar Outlet

................................
...

4
24

F.12

Riprap Size for
Use
Down
stream of Energy Dissipaters

................................
........

425

F.13

Design
Curve for Impact Dissipaters

................................
................................
......

4
28

F.14

Impact Dissipater
Dimensions

................................
................................
................

4
29


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
xi

Figure Number

Name

Page

G.1

Convex Contours and Slopes are Less Suscepti
ble to Reconcent
rating Flows

......

4
33

G.2

Turf Reinforcement Mat (TRM) for Level

Spreader with

Vegetated Lip

..................

4
35

G.3

Typical Orientation of Level Spr
eader with Surface Discharge

...............................

4
35

G.4

Variati
on of

Plunge Pool
Dimensions

................................
................................
.....

4
36

G.5

Typical Orientation of Level Spread
er w
ith Subs
urface Discharge

.........................

4
37

G.6

View of Level Spr
eader F
ace Looking Downslope

................................
.................

4
38

G.7

Concentration of Flow
Down
s
lope of Level Spreader

................................
.............

4
41

G.8

Weir Equation In
puts
................................
................................
..............................

4
43

G.9

Outfall Layout

................................
................................
................................
........

4
46

G.10

Rill/Gully Repair

................................
................................
................................
.....

4
47

G
.11

Stream Bank/Gully Repair

................................
................................
.....................

4
47

G.12

Co
mmo
n Level Spreader Failures
................................
................................
..........

4
48



363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
xii

STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAILS


Number

Name

Page


3
-
1

Rock Construction Entrance

................................
................................
...............


14


3
-
2

Rock Construction Entrance
with

Wash Rack

................................
.....................


16

3
-
3

Crowned Roadway

................................
................................
.............................


19

3
-
4

Insloped Roadway

................................
................................
..............................


20

3
-
5

Waterbar

................................
................................
................................
.............


22

3
-
6

Broad
-
based Dip for Low Gradient (
<

5%) Roadways

................................
.........


24

3
-
7

Broad
-
based Dip for High Gradient (
5%
-
10%
) Roadways

................................
...


25

3
-
8

Open
-
top Culvert

................................
................................
................................


27

3
-
9

Water Deflector

................................
................................
................................
...


29

3
-
10

Ditch Relief Culvert

................................
................................
.............................


32

3
-
11

Compost
Filter

Sock

Trap

................................
................................
...................


3
5

3
-
12

Temporary Stream Crossing

-

Plan View

................................
............................


38

3
-
13

Temporary Stream Crossing

................................
................................
...............


39

3
-
14

Temporary Strea
m Crossing

-

Multiple Pipes

................................
......................


40

3
-
15

Sandbag Diversion Dam

or Cofferdam

................................
...............................


48

3
-
16

Pumped Water Filter Bag

................................
................................
....................


54

3
-
17

Sump Pit

................................
................................
................................
.............


56

4
-
1

Compost Filter
Sock
................................
................................
............................


65

4
-
2

Compost Filter
Berm

................................
................................
...........................


68

4
-
3

Weighted Sedim
ent Filter Tube Installation

................................
.........................


70

4
-
4

Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation

in a C
oncentr
ated Flow Area

...........


71

4
-
5

Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation Across a Wide Flo
w Path

................


72

4
-
6

Rock Filter Outlet

................................
................................
................................


74

4
-
7

Standard
Silt

Fence (18” High)

................................
................................
............


79

4
-
8

Reinforced
Silt

Fence (30” High)

................................
................................
.........


81

4
-
9

Silt

Fence Reinforced by Staked Straw Bales

................................
.....................


81

4
-
10

Super Silt Fence

................................
................................
................................
.


84

4
-
11

Sediment Filter Log (Fiber Log)

................................
................................
..........


8
6

4
-
12

Wood Chip Filter Berm

................................
................................
........................


88

4
-
13

Straw Bale Barrier

................................
................................
...............................


90

4
-
14

Rock Filter

................................
................................
................................
..........


93

4
-
15

Filter Bag Inlet Protection
-

Type C Inlet
................................
..............................


98

4
-
16

Filter Bag Inlet Protection
-

Type M Inlet

................................
.............................


99

4
-
17

Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection

-

Type
C

Inlet


................................
...


100

4
-
18

Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection

-

Type M Inlet

................................
...


101

4
-
19

Stone Inlet Protection and Berm

-

Type C Inlet

................................
...................


102

4
-
20

Stone Inlet Protection and Berm

-

Type M Inlet

................................
..................


103

4
-
21

Alternate
Stone

Inlet Protection

for Type M Inlet

-

at Grade

................................


104

4
-
22

Alternate Type C

Inlet Protection

-

Not at Grade

................................
.................


105

4
-
23

Alternate Type M Inlet Protection

-

Not at Grade

................................
.................


106

4
-
24

Alternate
Stone Inlet Protection

-

Type M Inlet Above Grade

..............................


107

6
-
1

Vegetated Channel

................................
................................
.............................


1
46

6
-
2

Sodded Channel

................................
................................
................................
.


1
48

6
-
3

Riprap Channel

................................
................................
................................
...


1
49

6
-
4

Top
-
of
-
Slope Berm

................................
................................
.............................


1
51

6
-
5

Temporary Slo
pe Pipe

................................
................................
........................


1
55

6
-
6

Bench Detail

................................
................................
................................
.......


1
58

7
-
1

Skimmer

................................
................................
................................
.............


1
67

7
-
2

Skimmer Attached to a Permanent Riser

................................
............................


1
68

7
-
3

Skimmer
with

Stone Landing Berm

................................
................................
.....


1
70

7
-
4

Sediment Basin Embankment and Spillway Details
-

Skimmer

...........................


1
71


363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
xiii

Detail Number

Name

Page

7
-
5

Trash Rack and Anti
-
vortex Device

................................
................................
.....


1
80

7
-
6

Sedimen
t Basin Embankment and Spillway Details

-

Perforated Riser

...............


1
81

7
-
7

Sediment Basin Temporary Riser

................................
................................
.......


1
83

7
-
8

Sediment Basin/Detention Pond Embankment and Spillway Details

...................


1
85

7
-
9

Sediment Basin/Detention Pond Riser Structures

................................
...............


188

7
-
10

Temporary Extension Riser and Trash R
ack for Permanent Structure

................


1
90

7
-
11

Dry Sediment Basin Temporary Riser

................................
................................
.


191

7
-
12

Sediment Basin Emergency Spillway with Riprap Liner

................................
......


1
93

7
-
13

Sediment Basin Emerge
ncy Spillway with TRM Liner

................................
.........


1
94

7
-
14

Baffle

................................
................................
................................
..................


201

7
-
15

Metal Anti
-
seep Collar for Temporary Basins

or Traps

................................
........


207

7
-
16

Co
ncrete Anti
-
seep Collar for Permanent Basins

or Traps

................................
..


208

7
-
1
7

Concrete Cradle for Basin

or Trap

Outlet Barrel

................................
..................


210

7
-
1
8

Sediment Basin or Sediment Trap Sediment Storage Dewatering Facility

..........


211

8
-
1

Embankment Sediment Trap

................................
................................
..............


2
15

8
-
2

Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap
................................
................................
.................


2
1
8

8
-
3

Sediment Trap Temporary Riser

................................
................................
.........


2
20

8
-
4

Dry Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap

................................
................................
..........


221

8
-
5

Dry Sediment Trap Temporary Riser

................................
................................
..


2
23

8
-
6

Sediment Trap Outlet Basin Detail

................................
................................
......


2
25

8
-
7

Type M Inlet Sediment Trap

................................
................................
................


226

8
-
8

Concrete Riser with

Tem
porary Dewatering Holes

................................
..............


2
27

9
-
1

Riprap Apron at Pipe
Outlet with Flared
End Section or
Endwall

........................


2
34

9
-
2

Riprap Apron at Pipe Outlet without Flared Endwall

................................
............


2
35

9
-
3

Riprap Apron at Pipe Outlet to an Existing Channel

................................
............


237

9
-
4

Stilling Basin

................................
................................
................................
.......


2
46

9
-
5

Earthen Level Spreader

................................
................................
......................


2
54

10
-
1

Typical On
-
lot BMPs for Lot Above Roadway
................................
......................


2
57

10
-
2

Ty
pical On
-
lot BMPs for Lot Below Roadway

................................
......................


2
58

10
-
3

Typical On
-
lot BMPs for Lot Along Ascending or Descending Roadway

.............


2
59

11
-
1

Erosion Control Blanket Installation

................................
................................
....


2
74

13
-
1

Typical
Utility Line Flumed Stream Crossing with
Optional
Access Road

............


287

13
-
2

Typical
Utility Line St
ream Crossing with Pump Bypass

................................
......


2
88

13
-
3

Typical
Utility Line Stream Crossing with Cofferdam

................................
...........


2
89

13
-
4

Typical
Trench Plug Installation

................................
................................
..........


2
91



363
-
2134
-
008 / March

31,

2012 / Page
xiv

CHECKLISTS, STANDARD
E&S
WORKSHEETS
,

STANDARD NOTES

AND REFERENCES


Worksheet

Number

Name

Page



Complete Plan Checklist

................................
................................
.....................



355


Standard
E&S
Control
Plan Technical Review Checklist

................................
.....


3
57



Expanded
E&S
Control
Plan

Technical Review C
hecklist

................................
...


3
60


1

Compost Filter Sock
s

................................