Chap08[1]

gabonesedestructionDéveloppement de logiciels

17 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 7 mois)

60 vue(s)

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin




Copyright © 2008, The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin




Copyright © 2008, The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin




Copyright © 2008, The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin




Copyright © 2008, The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Enterprise Business Systems

Chapter

8

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Identify and give examples to illustrate the
following aspects of customer relationship,
enterprise research, and supply chain
management systems


Business processes supported


Customer and business value provided


Potential challenges and trends

Learning Objectives

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Customer Relationship Management


A customer
-
centric focus


Customer relationships have become a company’s
most valued asset


Every company’s strategy should be to

find and retain the most profitable

customers possible

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Case 1: Business Benefits of CRM


Forex Capital Markets trades $20 billion

worth of currency per month


12,000 clients in 70 countries


Tracking sales leads and prospects


Began with Excel spreadsheets


Switched to Access database


Volume forced move to CRM system


Access controlled through data security

and information sharing privileges

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Case 1: Business Benefits of CRM


Wyse Technology


World leader in thin
-
client computing


Revenues in excess of $180 million


Doubled sales within 12 months of installing

CRM system


No additional staff needed

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Case Study Questions


Why can’t Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and
Access database software handle the customer
relationship needs of companies like FXCM?


What functions do CRM systems like Salesforce
provide to a company that these software
packages do not?


What business benefits has the Salesforce

CRM system provided to FXCM?


To Wyse Technology?

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Case Study Questions


Salesforce.com is an example of an ASP
(application service provider), which was
discussed in Chapter 4.


What benefits do you see in this case for that
method of providing a CRM system to a company
versus installing a CRM software package?


What disadvantages might arise?


Which method would you prefer?

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What is CRM?


Managing the full range of the customer
relationship involves


Providing customer
-
facing employees with a
single, complete view of every customer at

every touch point and across all channels


Providing the customer with a single, complete
view of the company and its extended channels


CRM uses IT to create a cross
-
functional
enterprise system that integrates and automates
many of the customer
-
serving processes

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Application Clusters in CRM



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Contact and Account Management


CRM helps sales, marketing, and service
professionals capture and track relevant

data about


Every past and planned contact with prospects
and customers


Other business and life cycle events of customers


Data are captured through customer touchpoints


Telephone, fax, e
-
mail


Websites, retail stores, kiosks


Personal contact

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Sales


A CRM system provides sales reps with the

tools and data resources they need to


Support and manage their sales activities


Optimize cross
-

and up
-
selling


CRM also provides the means to check on a
customer’s account status and history before
scheduling a sales call

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Marketing and Fulfillment


CRM systems help with direct marketing
campaigns by automatic such tasks as


Qualifying leads for targeted marketing


Scheduling and tracking mailings


Capturing and managing responses


Analyzing the business value of the campaign


Fulfilling responses and requests

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Customer Service and Support


A CRM system gives service reps real
-
time
access to the same database used by sales

and marketing


Requests for service are created, assigned,

and managed


Call center software routes calls to agents


Help desk software provides service data

and suggestions for solving problems


Web
-
based self
-
service enables customers

to access personalized support information

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Retention and Loyalty Programs


It costs 6 times more to sell to a new customer


An unhappy customer will tell 8
-
10 others


Boosting customer retention by 5 percent can
boost profits by 85 percent


The odds of selling to an existing customer are
50 percent; a new one 15 percent


About 70 percent of customers will do business
with the company again if a problem is quickly
taken care of

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Retention and Loyalty Programs


Enhancing and optimizing customer retention
and loyalty is a primary objective of CRM


Identify, reward, and market to the most loyal

and profitable customers


Evaluate targeted marketing and relationship
programs

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The Three Phases of CRM



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Benefits of CRM


Benefits of CRM


Identify and target the best customers


Real
-
time customization and personalization

of products and services


Track when and how a customer contacts

the company


Provide a consistent customer experience


Provide superior service and support across

all customer contact points

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CRM Failures


Business benefits of CRM are not guaranteed


50 percent of CRM projects did not produce
promised results


20 percent damaged customer relationships


Reasons for failure


Lack of understanding and preparation


Not solving business process problems first


No participation on part of business stakeholders
involved

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Trends in CRM


Operational CRM


Supports customer interaction with greater
convenience through a variety of channels


Synchronizes customer interactions consistently
across all channels


Makes the company easier to do business with

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Trends in CRM


Analytical CRM


Extracts in
-
depth customer history, preferences,
and profitability from databases


Allows prediction of customer value

and behavior


Allows forecast of demand


Helps tailor information and offers to

customer needs

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Trends in CRM


Collaborative CRM


Easy collaboration with customers,

suppliers, and partners


Improves efficiency and integration

throughout supply chain


Greater responsiveness to customer needs through
outside sourcing of products

and services

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Trends in CRM


Portal
-
based CRM


Provides users with tools and information

that fit their needs


Empowers employees to respond to

customer demands more quickly


Helps reps become truly customer
-
faced


Provides instant access to all internal and

external customer information

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ERP: The Business Backbone


ERP is a cross
-
functional enterprise backbone
that integrates and automates processes within


Manufacturing


Logistics


Distribution


Accounting


Finance


Human resources

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Case 2: Business Value of ERP


Autosystems produces headlamps for

major automobile manufacturers


Until a few years ago, the manufacturing

process was managed with paper documents


An ERP system was installed, but did not

extend to the shop floor


Significant research was done before

deciding to add the shop floor reporting module

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Case 2: Business Value of ERP


Installing PCs and ERP software on the shop
floor allows Autosystems to


Enter timely, accurate information


Plan more efficiently


Make production changes in order to avoid

labor or scrap problems


Discuss these issues with employees while they
are still current and meaningful

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Case Study Questions


Why did Autosystems decide to install the
ActivEntry system?


Why did they feel it necessary to integrate

it with their TRANS4M ERP system?


Which three business benefits of the use of
ActivEntry provided the most business value?


What changes are already being planned to
improve the use of ActivEntry?


What other improvements should the

company consider?

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What is ERP?


Enterprise resource planning is a cross
-
functional enterprise system


An integrated suite of software modules


Supports basic internal business processes


Facilitates business, supplier, and customer
information flows

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ERP Application Components



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ERP Process and Information Flows



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Benefits and Challenges of ERP


ERP Business Benefits


Quality and efficiency


Decreased costs


Decision support


Enterprise agility


ERP Costs


Risks and costs are considerable


Hardware and software are a small part

of total costs


Failure can cripple or kill a business

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Costs of Implementing a New ERP



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Causes of ERP Failures


Most common causes of ERP failure


Under
-
estimating the complexity of planning,
development, training


Failure to involve affected employees in

planning and development


Trying to do too much too fast


Insufficient training


Insufficient data conversion and testing


Over
-
reliance on ERP vendor or consultants

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Trends in ERP



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Supply Chain Management (SCM)


Fundamentally, supply chain management

helps a company


Get the right products


To the right place


At the right time


In the proper quantity


At an acceptable cost


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Goals of SCM


The goal of SCM is to efficiently


Forecast demand


Control inventory


Enhance relationships with customers, suppliers,
distributors, and others


Receive feedback on the status of every link in
the supply chain


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Case 3: Applying Lean Logistics to SCM


The Tesco supermarket chain is a pioneer in
retailing


Used SCM to overcome disadvantage of

weak supplier leverage and expensive logistics


Changed product distribution methods to

reduce labor costs and inventory levels


Got suppliers to ship in smaller quantities,
preconfigured for sales display


Reduced total product “touches” from 150 to 50


Reduced throughput time from 20 days to 5

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Case Study Questions


What key insights of Tesco’s SCM direction
Graham Booth helped revolutionize Tesco’s
supply chain and range of retail store formats?


Can these insights be applied to any kind of retail
business?


How did Dan Jones and the Cardiff Business
School of Wales demonstrate the inefficiencies
of the Tesco and Britvic supply chains?


Can this methodology be applied to the supply
chain of any kind of business?

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Case Study Questions


What are the major business and competitive
benefits gained by Tesco as the result of its
supply chain initiatives?


Can other retail chains and retail stores

achieve some or all of the same results?


Defend your position with examples of

actual retail chains and stores you know.


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What is a Supply Chain?


The interrelationships


With suppliers, customers, distributors, and

other businesses


Needed to design, build, and sell a product


Each supply chain process should add value to
the products or services a company produces


Frequently called a value chain

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Supply Chain Life Cycle



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Electronic Data Interchange


EDI


One of the earliest uses of information technology
for supply chain management


The electronic exchange of business transaction
documents between supply chain trading partners


The almost complete automation of an e
-
commerce supply chain process


Many transactions occur over the Internet, using
secure virtual private networks

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Typical EDI Activities



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Roles and Activities of SCM in Business



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Planning & Execution Functions of SCM


Planning


Supply chain design


Collaborative demand and supply planning


Execution


Materials management


Collaborative manufacturing


Collaborative fulfillment


Supply chain event management


Supply chain performance management

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Benefits and Challenges of SCM


Key Benefits


Faster, more accurate order processing


Reductions in inventory levels


Quicker times to market


Lower transaction and materials costs


Strategic relationships with supplier

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Goals and Objectives of SCM



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Benefits and Challenges of SCM


Key Challenges


Lack of demand planning knowledge, tools,

and guidelines


Inaccurate data provided by other information
systems


Lack of collaboration among marketing,
production, and inventory management


SCM tools are immature, incomplete, and

hard to implement

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Trends in SCM



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Case 4: Consequences of ERP Failure


The goal Agilent Technologies Inc. specializes
in measurement and technology


Its goal is to enable customers to speed

their time to market


Achieve volume production


Obtain high
-
quality precision manufacturing


Consequences of a new ERP system


One year to stabilize system


$105 million in lost revenue


$70 million in lost profits

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Case 4: Consequences of ERP Failure


Lessons Learned


Disruptions can be more extensive than expected


Enterprise resource planning is very complex


ERP implementations are more than software


People, process, policies, the company’s culture
should all be taken into consideration


According to Enterprise Applications Consulting


99 percent of rollout fiascoes are caused by
management’s inability to spec requirements, and
the implementer’s inability to implement specs

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Case 4: Consequences of ERP Failure


Russ Berrie and Company


First ERP implementation attempt took

three years and cost $10.3 million


Litigation is pending between Russ Berrie

and SAP


Second attempt


Uses new applications


Is being implement department by department


Uses stand
-
alone systems

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Case Study Questions


What are the main reasons companies experience
failures in implementing ERP systems?


What are several key things companies should
do to avoid ERP systems failures?


Why do you think ERP system in particular are
often cited as examples of failures in IT systems
development, implementation, or management?