Emergency Guidelines Overview and How To Use - (SECC) Office of ...

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14 déc. 2013 (il y a 3 années et 10 mois)

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Emergency First Aid
Guidelines for
California Schools

An Overview of Content

And How to Use

Purpose


To serve as a basic “what to do in an emergency”
for school staff with or without medical training.


The guidelines were created as a recommended
procedure.


In a true emergency situation use your best
judgment.

It is strongly recommended…



that staff who are in a position to provide
first
-
aid to students complete an approved
first
-
aid and CPR course.


…that you familiarize yourself with the
format of the guidelines prior to the actual
emergency situation.


…that you use the guidelines for reference
before, during and/or after an event.

What do the Guidelines address?


Emergency procedures


When to call 9
-
1
-
1


Basic information on infection control


Information on emergency planning


Planning for persons with special needs


Recommended first
-
aid equipment


Emergency phone numbers


The Design


Alphabetical order with tabs


Flow charts guide you through decision
steps to treat common illnesses and injuries


Flow charts use color
-
coded shapes to clarify
steps


Key to Shapes and Colors

This note provides
background
information.


This type of box
should be read
before emergencies
occur.

START HERE

Key to Shapes and Colors

? Question Being Asked?

You need to choose

based on person’s condition.

Follow the pathway for your answer.
















NO

YES


Provides First
-
Aid Instructions

Key to Shapes and Colors

STOP HERE.

This is the
final
instruction.

Final instruction for the
algorithm. In some
emergencies, multiple
algorithms may be used.

Additional Information

or

Signs and Symptoms



Key to Shapes and Colors

TIME TO CALL 9
-
1
-
1



There may be additional directions to
continue care or see another algorithm.

Don’t Delay 9
-
1
-
1 When Needed


Have someone contact the 911 system, as
soon as possible, after it is known that
their assistance is needed.

Delay in
accessing the 911 system could result
in worsening of a person’s condition
and may lead to additional injury.


Direct Fire/Ambulance


Have someone meet fire or ambulance
response units


Give directions to location of person.

Always Remember ABCs


A
irway



Open the airway


1st


No Air in, all else is lost.


B
reathing



Ensure Breathing


2nd


You may need to breath for the person or do CPR


C
irculation

(i.e., bleeding)


3rd


Heart beating or CPR


Nothing else matters


Control Bleeding


Prevent the loss of blood

Call 9
-
1
-
1 For:


Blocked Airway


Unable to get air into lungs (i.e., choking)


Difficulty Breathing


Absent or labored breathing


Wheezing due to an allergic reaction (i.e., after a
bee sting)


Near drowning


even if awake and appears ok
water can have a delayed effect on lungs


Call 9
-
1
-
1 for


Uncontrollable Bleeding


you can’t stop it


Unconsciousness


After any injury


If person has history of Diabetes


Unexplained reason


Head Injury



Possible Poisoning


Call 9
-
1
-
1 Immediately


GET ADVANCED MEDICAL HELP ASAP


Answer Questions


Follow Instructions


Do Not Hang Up



Stay Calm


Provide First Aid until ambulance arrives

WHAT TO DO FIRST

CHECK FOR
RESPONSIVENESS

If Unresponsive, send someone to call 9
-
1
-
1

AIRWAY

ENSURE AIRWAY IS OPEN.

If patient is
unconscious use head tilt
-
chin lift or jaw thrust

WHAT TO DO NEXT

B
REATHING

ENSURE PERSON IS BREATHING


LOOK, LISTEN, AND FEEL for breathing. If no
breathing, SEE CPR and Give Rescue Breaths




C
IRCULATION

CHECK FOR SIGNS OF CIRCULATION

(Pulse,
movement, breathing, color). If no signs of
circulation, SEE CPR. CONTROL BLEEDING



D
ISABILITY

-

TREAT INJURIES/ILLNESS THAT
MAY RESULT IN DISABILITY.

(Head injuries, spine
injuries, and fractures will need medical attention)


DO NOT FORGET THESE

F
IRST

AID / MEDICAL AID

Provide first aid and medical support to most
serious injuries/illness risks first.


Which One First?


Scenario


Child falls from
bleachers


Dirty, abrasions


Bleeding scalp


Unconscious, then
awakes



Remember ABC’s

1.
Unconscious due to injury


call 911

2.
Is awake, therefore airway
open & breathing

3.
Bleeding, See “Bleeding”
apply direct pressure

4.
Abrasions, See “Cuts,
Scratches & Scraps”

Ready to Try One?

Try this One


Child is holding hand and tells teacher he was
bitten by a dog. There is some blood oozing
from several small punctures/scrapes. Child
otherwise is crying and looks normal.

BITES (Human & Animal)


Hold bite area under running water

for 2
-
3 minutes


Wash with soap and water


If wound bled, apply clean bandage

Is the person bleeding?


CALL
9
-
1
-
1

See “Bleeding”


Press firmly with a clean

dressing/cloth on bleeding site


“See Bleeding”



Check immunization record for DT,
DPT (tetanus). See “Tetanus” for
more information.

Is bite from a human?

If bite is from a snake, scorpion or other reptile,
hold the bitten area still and below the level of
the heart.

Call POISON CONTROL CENTER

1
-
800
-
876
-
4766

See “Snake Bite”, if appropriate



Don’t try to catch or touch the

animal



Get description and location

of animal



Report to Animal Control or

proper authority, usually the

local Health Department, so

that animal can be caught &

watched for rabies


Contact responsible school nurse or
administrator and parents/legal
guardians. Inform if a human bite
that both the person bitten and the
person biting may have been
exposed to blood from other
person.

ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE

File Incident Report

Is bite large or gaping?

Is blood spurting?

Is bleeding
uncontrolled?

The
Whole
Thing

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

BITES (Human & Animal)

Is the person bleeding?




Press firmly with a clean

dressing/cloth on bleeding

site



See “Bleeding”


YES

Yes decision Leads
to action box

BITES


First Aid

Is bite large or gaping?

Is blood spurting?

NO

Is the person bleeding?





Hold bite area under

running water for 2
-
3

minutes



Wash with soap and water



If wound bled, apply clean

bandage


NO

First Aid
Steps

YES



Press firmly with a clean

dressing/cloth on bleeding site



See “Bleeding”

BITES (Con’t)



Press firmly with a clean

dressing/cloth on bleeding site



See “Bleeding”



Is bite large or gaping?

Is blood spurting?



CALL 9
-
1
-
1

See “Bleeding”

YES

NO

Different

Action

steps

GET
HELP
!


Emergent condition,

do you need 9
-
1
-
1?


Is bleeding uncontrolled?

BITES


Next Steps

Bandage

NO

YES

Is bite from a human?

YES

If bite is from a snake, scorpion
or other reptile, hold the bitten
area still and below the level of
the heart
.

Call POISON CONTROL
CENTER

1
-
800
-
876
-
4766

See “Snake Bite”, if appropriate.


Use Poison
Control, and
follow directions

BITES


Last Steps



Don’t try to catch or touch the animal



Get description and location of animal



Report to Animal Control or proper

authority, usually the local Health

Department, so that animal can be caught

& watched for rabies


Check immunization record
for DT, DPT (tetanus). See
“Tetanus” for more
information.

Contact responsible school
authority and parents/legal
guardians. Inform if a human bite
that both the person bitten and the
person biting may have been
exposed to blood from other
person.


ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE

File Incident Report

The
END

BITES (Human & Animal)


Hold bite area under running water

for 2
-
3 minutes


Wash with soap and water


If wound bled, apply clean bandage

Is the person bleeding?


CALL
9
-
1
-
1

See “Bleeding”


Press firmly with a clean

dressing/cloth on bleeding site


“See Bleeding”



Check immunization record for DT,
DPT (tetanus). See “Tetanus” for
more information.

Is bite from a human?

If bite is from a snake, scorpion or other reptile,
hold the bitten area still and below the level of
the heart.

Call POISON CONTROL CENTER

1
-
800
-
876
-
4766

See “Snake Bite”, if appropriate



Don’t try to catch or touch the

animal



Get description and location

of animal



Report to Animal Control or

proper authority, usually the

local Health Department, so

that animal can be caught &

watched for rabies


Contact responsible school nurse or
administrator and parents/legal
guardians. Inform if a human bite
that both the person bitten and the
person biting may have been
exposed to blood from other
person.

ENCOURAGE IMMEDIATE
MEDICAL CARE

File Incident Report

Is bite large or gaping?

Is blood spurting?

Is bleeding
uncontrolled?

The
Whole
Thing

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Implementing the Guidelines


Review the Guidelines in advance


Write down your local emergency phone
numbers


Make available to all who might use


Provide training to staff.


Encourage all school staff to take 1
st

Aid and CPR
training.


Check with designated first aid person and local
policies.