Chapters 17-20.docx - SJDAHomework

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AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
1


Week 7
:
Part I
Transcription, Translation, and the Genetics of Microbes

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein

Chapter 18: Microbial Models: The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria


College
Board Performance Objectives:



Explain how the structures of nucleic acids relate to their functions of protein synthesis.



Describe transcription and translation and relate each to possible mutations.



Explain the structure and function of viruses.



Explai
n the major steps in viral reproduction.



Explain how viruses transfer genetic material between cells



Describe the structure and function of the
lac

operon.

College Board Lab Objectives:



Explain the principles of bacterial transformation and conditions u
nder which cells can be
transformed.



Explain how a plasmid can be engineered to include a piece of foreign DNA.



Explain how plasmid vectors are used to transfer genes.



Explain how antibiotic resistance is transferred between cells.



Explain how restriction endonucleases function.



Explain the importance of restriction enzymes to genetic engineering experiments.



Explain the use of plasmids as vectors to transform bacteria with a gene for antibiotic
resistance in a controlled experimen
t.



Demonstrate how restrictions enzymes are used in genetic engineering.



Describe the biological process of transformation in bacteria.



Calculate transformation efficiency.



Use multiple experimental controls.



Design a procedure to select positively fo
r antibiotic resistant transformed cells.

Suggested Laboratory Experiments:

Biology AP* Laboratory 6, Molecular Biology 6

Colony Transformation adapted to p
-
glo plasmid.

Pacing Guide:


Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein

1.5 days

Chapter 18: Microbial Model
s: The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria

1 day

AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
2


Transformation Laboratory, AP* Laboratory 6

Colony Transformation adapted to p
-
glo
plasmid

2.5 days


Key Words:

one gene
-
one polypeptide hypothesis

transcription

messenger RNA

translation

primary transcript

triplet code

template stand

codon

reading frame

RNA polymerase

transcription unit

promoter

transcription factors

TATA box

5' cap

poly(A) tail


RNA splicing

introns

exons

spliceosome

ribozymes

transfer RNA

anticodon

wobble

aminoacyl
-
tRNA

ribosomal RNA

P site

A site

E site

translation initiation


translation elongation


translation termination

signal peptide

mutation

point mutation

base
-
pair substitution

frameshift mutation

mutagens

Am
ides

capsid

host

lytic

cycle

virulent virus

lysogenic cycle

prophage

retrovirus

reverse transcriptase

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

vaccines

viroid

prion

nucleoid

transformation

transduction

conjugation

F factor

plasmid

episome

F plasmid

R plasmid

transposon

insertion sequence

operator

operon

regulatory gene

corepressor

inducer

cAMP receptor protein


AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
3


Weekly Assignment # 7


Chapter 17;
From Gene to Protein


1.

State the purpose of transcription. Briefly describe the process.

2.

Why must the
genetic code be written in triplets of nucleotides?

3.

How many codons does this code allow?

4.

Describe the relationship between a DNA triplet, a codon, and an anticodon.

5.

What is the evolutionary significance of the genetic code?

6.

What is meant by the concept of

a "reading frame"?

7.

Describe the role played by promoters and transcription factors in transcription.

8.

How is the elongation of the new strand accomplished?

9.

State the purpose of translation. Briefly describe the process.

10.

How are tRNAs hooked up with the cor
rect amino acid?

11.

Describe the structure of a ribosome.

12.

During translation, how is the reading frame established?

13.

Explain the initiation step in protein synthesis. Include all the steps.

14.

Describe elongation. Include all steps.

15.

Describe the way in which the

end of translation is signaled.

16.

Explain what happens to eukaryotic mRNA during its post
-
transcriptional modification.
Include an explanation of introns and exons. Also include the purpose of both the 5' cap and
the poly
-
A tail.

17.

What purpose is served by
signal sequences?

18. Name and describe the different point mutations.




Chapter 18
;

Microbial Models: The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria



1. What forms can a viral genome take?

2. Distinguish between a capsid and an envelope.

3. What is meant by host

range?

4. Describe the lytic and lysogenic cycles.

5. Scientists have discovered how to put together a bacteriophage with the protein coat of
phage T2 and the DNA of T4. If this composite phage were allowed to infect an E. coli, then
phages produced by th
is cell would have what type of DNA and what type of protein? Of what
use is an envelope to a virus?

6. What is a retrovirus?

7. What is a viroid?

AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
4


8. What is a prion?

9. How might viruses have originated?

10. What is transformation?

11. A microbiologist fo
und that some bacteria infected by a particular phage had developed the
ability to produce a particular enzyme which they could not make before they were infected.
Why did this occur? What is the term used for this phenomenon?

12. Describe conjugation.

13
. What is a plasmid?

14. What are transposons?

15. Describe the basic concept of the operon.

16. Carefully explain the role of the following in the lactose operon of
E. coli
:

a) promoter

b) regulator

c) operator

d) structural gene

e) repressor protein

17. Explain how the lac and trp operons differ.




AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
5


Week 7
:
Part II
Eukaryotic Genomes and DNA Technology

Chapter 19: The Organization and Control of Eukaryotic Genomes

Chapter 20: DNA Technology


College Board Performance Objectives:



Explain how genetic information is organized in the eukaryotic chromosome and how
the organization contributes to both continuity and variability in the genetic
information.



Explain some mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated in prokaryotic and
eukaryotic genomes.



Explain some mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes.



Explain current recombinant technologies.



Explain some practical applications of nucleic acid technology.



Explain the legal and ethical pro
blems that may arise from technology applications.

College Board Lab Objectives:



Explain how gel electrophoresis separates DNA molecules present in a mixture.



Use electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments.



Design a procedure to select positively for ant
ibiotic
-
resistant transformed cells.



Determine unknown DNA fragment sizes when given DNA fragments of known size.



Determine the identity of an unknown sample of DNA.

Suggested Laboratory Experiments:

Biology AP* Laboratory 6, Molecular Biology

Gel Elect
rophoresis (Adapted to determining
who is guilty of a crime.)

Resources:

Chapter 19: The Organization and Control of Eukaryotic Genomes, pp. 344

363

Chapter 20: DNA Technology, pp. 364

387


Pacing Guide:

Chapter 19: The Organization and Control of
Eukaryotic Genomes

1 day

Chapter 20: DNA Technology

2 days


Biology AP* Lab 6, Electrophoresis

2 days.

Block Scheduling

Eukaryotic Genomes can be accomplished in one block, DNA Technology in one block, and Gel
Electrophoresis Lab in one block.




AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
6


Key Wor
ds:



histones



nucleosome



herterochromatin



euchromatin



multigene family



gene amplification



differentiation



genomic imprinting



histone acetylation



enhancers



DNA
-
binding domain



oncogenes



proto
-
oncogene



tumor
-
suppressor genes



genetic engineering



biotechnology



restrictions enzymes




restriction fragment



sticky end



DNA ligase




cloning vector



nucleic acid hybridization



expression vector



complementary DNA



electroporation



pol
ymerase chain reaction (PCR)




gel electrophoresis



restriction fragment length
polymorphisms (RFLPs)



Human Genome Project



DNA fingerprint



trangenic organism



plasmid



Assignments for Chapters 19& 20


Chapter 19

Genome Organization

1. Briefly describe the levels of DNA packing in eukaryotic cells.

2. W
hat are histones?

3. Describe a possible use for repetitive sequences.

4. Describe and give an example of a multigene family.

5. Draw a diagram of a typical eukaryotic gene and describe the function of each of the
following: enhancer, promoter, exon,
intron, cap site, poly
-
A site, leader, trailer.

6. How can the life of a mRNA be extended? Why would a cell do this?

7. What is gene amplification? When would this technique be used by a cell?

8. Explain the purpose of DNA methylation.

9. Explain the role
of oncogenes and tumor
-
suppressor genes in the development of cancer




DNA Technology


AP Biology

2010


Ross 2010 SJDA

Page
7


Chapter 20

Expression in Eukaryotes


1. What are restriction enzymes and what natural purpose do they serve?

2. What is a vector? Name two common vectors that are used

in DNA technology.

3. Briefly outline the steps involved in using bacteria and plasmids to clone a gene.

4. How is cDNA made and why is it sometimes necessary?

5. How can a probe be used to locate a gene of interest once it has been cloned?

6. Explain how

gel electrophoresis can be used to separate and visualize DNA fragments.

7. Describe the Sanger method for sequencing DNA.

8. Describe the polymerase chain reaction.

9. Describe the techniques of Northern and Southern blotting.

10. How are these technique
s useful?

11. How can restriction fragment length polymorphisms be used as genetic markers?

12. Briefly explain how DNA technology can used in each of the following areas:

a) diagnosis of disease

b) gene therapy

c) vaccines and pharmaceuticals

d) foren
sics

f) environmental applications

g) agricultural uses

13. Briefly discuss some ethical and safety concerns surrounding the use of DNA technology.