Department of Physics

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 5 mois)

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Department of Physics

The department of Physics is a two
-
faculty department having roughly 290 employees
organized in nine research divisons, four belonging to the Science faculty and five to the
Technical faculty (LTH). Approximately 70% of the activities

is related to the technical
faculty and the remaining 30% is consequently related to the science faculty. We produce

15 PhD´s at the Science Faculty and ≈ 45 PhD´s at LTH.


Science faculty:

Experimental High
-
Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Synchrotron Radiation Physics, Solid
State Theory.

LTH:
Atomic Physics, Combustion Physics, Mathematical Physics, Nuclear Physi
cs, Solid
State Physics.


At Science faculty we teach roughly 125 full
-
year equivalents (hst) and at LTH around 300.
The science faculty students spend a great portion of their time at the department while at
LTH, the students, (with exception for the Nan
oscience Engineering students), spend only a
small portion of their total time at the department. Hence, we have roughly 125 students at the
science faculty while at LTH the number of students passing through our courses per annum
is close to 2500 coming f
rom nearly every programs at LTH.


At the department several competence centers and large scale facilities can be found and the
divisions frequently collaborate with various other departments at LU (and abroad). Our
researchers coordinate several large Eu
ropean projects and we are also involved in numerous
EU
-
projects as partners. The most important laboratories and associated centers at site are the
Laser Centre, The Nanometer Structure Consortium, The Center for Combustion Science, The
Nanometer laborato
ry, The LIDAR bus, The microbeam accelerator and the PIXE
-
method.
The two sub
-
atomic physics divisions carry mainly out their experimental work at large
international centers abroad such as CERN, Brookhaven National Lab.


In the divison of
Experimental Hi
gh Energy Physics

one collects data in order to give
answers to many questions of both fundamental and existential nature. One goal of the
research is to catch a glimpse of the Universe at the moment of its creation. In interactions
between nuclei at high
energies, extremely hot and dense nuclear matter can be produced and
probably be melted into its constituents of quarks and gluons. A phase transition from
ordinary nuclear matter to a new type of matter, the quark
-
gluon plasma, is searched for. The
Univer
se is believed to have existed in such a phase a few microseconds after its creation in
the Big Bang. Controlled experiments can reveal the particle contents of the Universe, and tell
us how this has influenced the shaping of the world from the Big Bang an
d possibly into the
far future.


At the two
-
faculty division of
Nuclear Physics
research concerned with the properties and
structure of atomic nuclei is carried out both at MAXLAB and at large accelerator
laboratories all over the world, including France,
Germany, Italy, and the United States. We
take active part in several international collaborations, involving physicists from more than 20
countries. Research is also performed at the department within the Nuclear Microprobe and
the Analytical groups. Here

ions are employed for quantitative multi
-
element characterisation
of microscopic structures as well as for proton lithography and low dose irradiation of single
living cells in medicin
-
collaborative projects (brain tumours, dermatological materials, etc.)
,
as well as within the fields of micro
-
ecology, marine ecology geology. Also research in and
around the use and effects of aerosols are explored.


In the
Divison of Synchrotron Radiation Research

one study the surfaces of materials.
Although some of the
work is relevant to modern industrial technology, most of it is pure
science which aims to answer very basic questions about the nature and behaviour of surfaces.

Today's surface science encompasses a very broad range of activities, from problems in
cataly
sis and corrosion in the world of physical chemistry to studies of the geometric and
electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces that are vital for the growing fields of
nanotechnology and quantum electronics. The range of experimental techniques being
used is
similarly broad, as is the mixture of backgrounds of the scientists we work and interact with.
Most of the department's work is based upon the use of radiation emitted from an electron
storage ring such as the one at our local synchrotron radiation

laboratory, MAX
-
LAB, but we
also use other surface science techniques such as low energy electron diffraction and scanning
tunnelling microscopy. Next
-
generation, materials with tailored optical and electronic
properties will be hybrid in nature and may i
nvolve multi
-
functional organic materials that
form compatible interfaces with inorganic surfaces.


The research at the divison of
Solid State Theory

is driven both by theoretical principles and
experiments, and the technical interests range from numerica
l simulations to analytical
techniques. An essential part of the research is acrried out in collaborations with several
research consortia and institutes in Sweden and around the world. Principally,

the research
can be divided into two main areas:
Density
-
functional theory, excitation energies and spectra
and

Physics of mesoscopic and low
-
dimensional structures.
Some of the on
-
going research
projects concerns conduction in atomic and molecular wires. electron correlations in strong
laser fields, physics of m
esoscopic and low
-
dimensional structures, THz lasers, Bloch
oscillations in semiconductor superlattices, hot
-
electron effects, solid
-
state power generation
and refrigeration, coherent spin polarized transport and quantum computation.


The research at the
division of
Atomic Physics

is mainly based on the use of lasers, ranging
from diode lasers to terawatt lasers at the High
-
Power Laser Facility. Some areas of research
are: basic atomic physics including interactions between intense laser
-
fields and matter
and
VUV/XUV laser spectroscopy, quantum electronics, quantum optics and solid state
spectroscopy, applied molecular spectroscopy, laser applications in medicine, biology,
environmental monitoring and industrial applications. Several companies have their or
igin in
research carried out at the division of Atomic Physics.


Semiconductor physics, materials and technology are central areas for the research at the
division of
Solid State Physics
. Here the scientist study the physical and optical properties of
mai
nly nanometer structured materials. The division also coordinates and hosts a major
interdisciplinary research program in Nanoscience, ranging from materials science and
quantum physics to applications in the areas of electronics, photonics and the life sc
iences.
This is a centre for the development of nanotechnology and fields of science & applications
based on the uniqueness of properties and opportunities offered at this nanometer length
scale.

 

The greatest strength of the consortium stems from the uniq
ue combination of
scientific and intellectual competence in areas covering physics, electronics, materials science
and life sciences on the nanoscale.


The Division of
Combustion Physics

has been active since 1991 as a separate division. The
scientific ac
tivities have a long tradition in developing and applying laser techniques for
combustion diagnostics.


There is also a long tradition to work in the field of ignition and
spark phenomena, mainly directed towards SI engines. During the last years there has

also
been strong activities in the field of theoretical chemical kinetics. Within the combustion
modelling activities there is also work in the field of turbulent combustion.


Research is carried out at the division of
Mathematical Physics

within five di
fferent research
groups: Nanostructured Quantum Systems, Theoretic Nuclear Structure Physics, Applied
Mathematical Physics, Elementary Particle Physics, Nonlinear systems & Chaos. The
research is mainly oriented towards fundamental problems in physics but
projects in
medicine, economy, environment and technology are also pursued.
One research group at the
department deals with thermal analyses of different types of ground heat systems for storing
and retrieving heat in the ground. The research is to a large

extent carried out in international
collaborations with both theorists and experimentalists. Thus we keep close contact with
experimental groups at Niels Bohr Institute, Tallahasse, Oak Ridge, Stony Brook, Strasbourg,
GANIL, CEN and ISN Grenoble, Knoxvill
e and Nashville, CERN, GSI, Cologne, Legnaro,
and RIKEN.