Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

exultantmynabirdBiotechnologie

14 déc. 2012 (il y a 8 années et 7 mois)

274 vue(s)

Applied Biotechnology:



From Agriculture to

Human Genetic Manipulation

Dr. Phillip B. Danielson

Professor of Molecular Genetics

Department of Biological Sciences

University of Denver

pdaniels@du.edu

Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology

Gel Electrophoresis

DNA Fingerprinting

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering
-

NOT!

5' CCGC

3' GG

OH

P

5' CCGC

OH

P

GG 3'

3' GG

P

OH

CGCC 5'


Shark DNA

What is the result of
ligating DNA from two
different species?

5' CCGC

OH

P

GG 3'

3' GG

P

OH

CGCC 5'

Tomato DNA

OH

CGCC 5'

GG 3'


P

Cloning

Cloning


Is a blanket term used to describe different
processes for duplicating biological material.


There a three main types of cloning


DNA Cloning: Uses plasmids, containing gene of
interest, which are transformed into bacteria to make
more DNA.


Reproductive Cloning: Uses somatic cell nuclear
transfer.


Therapeutic Cloning: The production of human
embryos for use in research.

Stem Cells


Cells that can differentiate (change) into many
different cell types.


Two Kinds


Pluripotent stem cells
-

Also called embryonic stem
cells.


Can make any type of cell in the body.


Multipotent stem cells


Also called adult stem cells.


Can only change into a limited number of cell types.



DNA Cloning


Cloned Goats Produce

Human Anti
-
thrombin III
in their Milk (To Treat
Coagulation Disease)

Transgenic Goat
Chromosomes

Blue dots are Human Anti
-
Thrombin III
Genes on Goat Chromosomes

When will WE be Cloned?


Clones
Already
Walk
Among Us

We have the
Technology


Embryo
Screening


The Future is NOW


Engineering Humans

Dawn of a Brighter Future vs.
Nazi Eugenics Reborn

Human Molecular Engineering:
Are You Ready for the

Brave New World?

Gene Therapy


What is a gene?


The proteins which come from these genes are
what carry out our bodies functions.


When a gene is altered, the encoded protein
from that gene might be unable to carry out its
normal function.


This can results in a genetic disorder.


Gene therapy is a technique used to correct
defective genes which cause disease.

How Does G. T. Correct

These Disorders?


A normal gene may be inserted into a
nonspecific location in the genome.


This replaces the “broken” gene. (most common)


“Good” gene trades places with the “broken”
one.


Controlled mutations to “broken” gene


Returns gene to its normal function.


The amount of protein made from a gene could
be altered.

How It Works


Most of the time a normal gene is inserted to
replace a disease causing gene.


A carrier molecule must be used to deliver the
“good” gene to a patient’s target cells.


Vector: Virus


Why viruses?


Specific cells infected.


Cells produce functional protein from “good”
gene.


Current State of G. T.


Still experimental.


Not approved by FDA


Has not been very successful in trials.


Problems with Gene Therapy


Short
-
lived


Immune response


SCID cases


Problems with viral vectors


Only works in single gene disorders

Transgenic Animals
and Plants


The Green Revolution of the 1960s.


Gains in agricultural production thanks to the
introduction of:


Higher yield hybrid crops.


Gains in agricultural production through the ever
increasing use of:


Pesticides and more pesticides


Herbicides and more herbicides


Fertilizers and more fertilizers

"Joy of Chemistry"

Feeding the Masses

(It worked for a while)

Feeding the Masses

(Beyond Chemistry)


The Biotech Revolution


Gains in agricultural production thanks to the
introduction of:


Genetically Engineered Life.



Transgenic Crops can be engineered for:


Pest and Herbicide Resistance


Increased Yield and Longer Shelf Life


Drought and Cold Resistance


Flavor and Nutritional Content


Vaccine Production

Genetically Modified Food

Just Kidding!

Natural Cotton

Genetically Engineered
Cotton

Genetically engineered cotton reduces insecticide use.


Transgenic BT Cotton


Pest Resistant thanks to
Bacillus thuringiensis

Wild Type “Natural” Cotton

BT “Engineered” Cotton

Transgenic BT Corn


Pest Resistant thanks to
Bacillus thuringiensis

Wild Type “Natural” Corn

BT “Engineered” Corn

ACC Oxidase Gene Knockout



Slower Ripening with Higher
Nutritional Content


Natural Cantaloupe

60 days old

Engineered Cantaloupe

60 days old

Ethylene Receptor Knockout
Plants do not Ripen (vegetables) or
wilt (flowers)

Genetically
Engineered
Tomato

Natural
Tomato

Genetically
Engineered
Flower

Natural

Flower

100 Days

8 Days

Potatoes genetically engineered to produce
human vaccines enable third world farmers
to immunize people even where health care
is otherwise nonexistent.


The Biotech
Revolution Doesn't
Stop With the

Green Giant




Dangerous
bacteria can be
genetically
programmed to
target and kill
cancer cells.

Genetically Engineered Cancer
Drugs (Endostatin)

Blood Vessels in
Healthy Tissue

Blood Vessels in
Cancerous Tissue

Endostatin starves cancers by preventing
the growth of new blood vessels.

Endostatin

Treated

Untreated

Consider These Questions


What is normal and what is a disability, and who
decides?


Are disabilities diseases and do they need to be
cured?


Does searching for a cure demean the lives of
individuals affected by disabilities?


Is somatic gene therapy more or less ethical than
germline gene therapy?


It is very expensive! Who pays?

Translocation and Nondisjunction

Down’s Syndrome Test


Friday, 16 November,
2001,
Nose test for
Down's syndrome


A simple check for the
presence of a bone in the
nose could more
accurately test unborn
babies for Down's
syndrome; reduce
miscarriages from
amniocentesis

Kleinfelter’s Syndrome XXY

Turner’s Syndrome XO

Super Male XXY

DNA Paradox


Lets watch the movie!


While watching think about the ethical issues
presented. What would you do?


Write a journal entry about your thoughts…


Exchange your journal with someone else and
respond to each other’s thoughts.