No

elatedmusteringDéveloppement de logiciels

21 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 10 mois)

885 vue(s)

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1

篇数

关键词

搜索范围(基本涵盖
90
年代以后文献)

368

performance

appraisal

performance

management

PsycLIT Journal Articles
19
90
.1
-
1996.6

PsycINFO 1998
.1
-
200
1.7

UMI 1996
-
200
3


UMI
全文
期刊

Journal of psychology


Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology


Public Personnel

Management.

活跃
杰出研究者
(最近的文章在
2000
以后)


Fletcher, C
.


3
篇以上的核心期刊)


Hempel
,

P
.
S.

香港
-
中西比较

JWB
);

Martell
,

R
.

F
.

3
篇以上的核心期刊,
2

JAP



Maurer
,

T
.

J
.


3
篇以上的核心期刊,
1

JAP
);


Rotundo
,

M
.

2

JAP
);


Tziner, A
.


3
篇以上的核心期刊,
2

JAP
);


Viswesvaran
.
C
.

3
篇以上的核心期刊)。


全文文献

Becker
,
G
.

A
.

(
2002
)
. Examining contrast effects in perfromance appraisals: Using appropriate
controls and assessing accuracy
.

The Journal of Psychology
.

136
(6):

667
-
683.


per
-
001


Bernardin, H. J
.,

Cooke, D
.

K.
,

Villanova, P
.

(
2000
)
. Conscientiousness and agreeableness

as
predictors of rating leniency. Journal of Applied Psychology. 85(2): 232
-
236
.


per
-
002


Colella
,

A
.,
DeNisi
,

A
.

S
.
&

Varma
,

A
.

(
1998
)
. The impact of ratee's disability on performance
judgments and choice as partner: The role of disability
-
job fit stere
otypes and
interdependence of rewards
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
. 83
(
1
):

102
-
111.


per
-
003


Conway
,

J
.

M
.

(
1999
).

Distinguishing contextual performance from task performance for
managerial jobs
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
. 84
(1):
3
-
13.


per
-
003


Day
, N
.

E.
(
1995
)
. Can performance raters be more accurate? Investigating the benefits of prior
knowledge of performance dimensions.

Journal of Managerial Issues
.

7(3)
:

323
-
342
.


per
-
004

DeNisi, A
.

S
.

Performance appraisal and performance management: A multil
evel analysis. Klein,
K
.

J. (Ed); Kozlowski, S
.

W. (Ed). (2000). Multilevel theory, research, and methods in
organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions.

San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey
Bass. 121
-
156.


per
-
005

Fletcher
,

C
.

(
2001
)
. Performance

appraisal and management: The developing research agenda
.

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
.

74
:
473
-
487.


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2

per
-
006


Fried
,

Y
.,

Ben
-
David
,

H
.

A
.,

Tiegs
,

R
.

B
.,
Avital
,

N
.

&

Yeverechyahu
,
U
.

(
1998
)
. The interactive
effect of role conflic
t and role ambiguity on job performance
.

Journal of Occupational and
Organizational Psychology
. 71
(1):

19
-
27.

per
-
007


Harris
,

M
.

M
.,

Gilbreath
,

B
. &

Sunday
,

J
.

A
.

(
1998
)
. A longitudinal examination of a merit pay
system: Relationships among performance r
atings, merit increases, and total pay increases
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
. 83
(5):

825
-
831.


per
-
008


Hempel
,

S
.

P
.

(
2001
)
. Differences between Chinese and Western managerial views of performance
.
Personnel Review
.

30
(2):

203
-
226
.


per
-
009


Kikoski, J
.

F.
(
1999
)
. Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: Face to
face communication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public
Personnel Management. 28(2): 301
-
322
.


per
-
010


Kulik, C
.

T.

&

Ambrose, M
.

L.
(
199
3)
. Ca
tegory based and feature based processes in
performance appraisal: Integrating visual and computerized sources of performance data.
Journal of Applied Psychology
.

78(5)
:

821
-
830
.


per
-
011


Longenecker, C
.

O
. &

Fink, L
.

S
.

(
2001
)
. Improving management perfo
rmance in rapidly
changing organizations. Journal of Management Development. 20(1): 7
-
18
.


per
-
012


Martell
,

R
.

F
.,
Leavitt N
.
K
.

(
2002
)
. Reducing the performance
-
cue bias in work behavior ratings:
Can groups help?
Journal of Applied Psychology
.

87
(6):

103
2
-
1041.


per
-
013


Martin, D
.

C
.,

Bartol, K
.

M
.,

Kehoe, P
.

E
.

(
2000
)
. The legal ramifications of performance
appraisal: The growing significance. Public Personnel Management. 29(3): 379
-
406
.


per
-
014


Maurer
,

T
.

J
.

(
2002
)
. Predictors of attitudes toward a 3
60
-
degree feedback system and involvement
in post
-
feedback management development activity
.

Journal of Occupational and
Organizational Psychology
.

75
:

87
-
107.


per
-
015


Pettijohn
,

L
.

S
.

(
2001
)
. Performance appraisals: Usage, criteria and observations
.

The
Journal of
Management Development
.

20
(
9/10
):

754
-
771.


per
-
016


Robbins, T
.

L.

&

DeNisi, A
.

S.

(
1998
)
. Mood vs. interpersonal affect: Identifying process and
rating distortions in performance appraisal. Journal of Business and Psychology. 12(3):
313
-
325
.


per
-
017

Robbins, T
.

L.

&

DeNisi, A
.

S.

(
1998
)
. Mood vs. interpersonal affect: Identifying process and
rating distortions in performance appraisal. Journal of Business and Psychology. 12(3):
313
-
325
.


per
-
018

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3

Rotundo
,

M
. &
Sackett
,
P
.

R
.

(2002).
The relativ
e importance of task, citizenship, and
counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy
-
capturing
approach
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
.

87
(1):

66
-
80.


per
-
019


Rotundo
,

M
. &

Sackett
,

P
.

R
. (
1999
).

Effect of rater race on conclusions regarding differential
prediction in cognitive ability tests
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
. 84
(
5
):

815
-
822
.


per
-
020


Taylor, M
.

S
.,
Masterson, S
.

S
.,

Renard, M
.

K
. &

Tracy, K
.

B
.

(
1998
)
. Managers' reactions to
procedurally just performance management systems. Academy of Management Journal. 41(5):
568
-
579.


per
-
021


Tziner, A
. &

Murphy, K
.

R.
(
1999
)
. Additional evidence of attitudinal influences in performance
appraisal. Journal of
Business and Psychology. 13(3): 407
-
419
.


per
-
022


Villanova, P
.

(
1996
)
. Predictive validity of situational constraints in general versus specific
performance domains
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
.

81
(5):

532
-
547.


per
-
023


Viswesvaran
.
C
.

(
2002
)
. The mode
rating influence of job perfromance dimensions on convergence
of supervisory and peer ratings fo
r

job perfromance: Unconfounding construct
-
level
convergence and rating difficulty
.

Journal of Applied Psychology
.

87
(2):
345
-
354.


per
-
024


Waite, M
.

L
.

(1999)
.
Modeling gain sharing and quality: A longitudinal quasi experimental field
study. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
59(9A): 3548.


per
-
025

Williams, J
.

R.

&

Levy, P
.

E.
(
2000
)
. Investigating some neglected cr
iteria: The influence of
organizational level and perceived system knowledge on appraisal reactions. Journal of
Business and Psychology. 14(3): 501
-
513
.


per
-
026


Woehr, D
.

J.

&

Feldman, J
.

(
1993
)
. Processing objective and question order effects on the causal
relation between memory and judgment in performance appraisal: The tip of the iceberg.
Journal of Applied Psychology
.

78(2)
:

232
-
241
.


per
-
027



摘要文献
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4

2003

Bh
anthumnavin
,

D
.
(
2003
).

AB:
The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship
between 3 dimensions of perceived social support from supervisor (PSSS) (emotional,
informational, and material) and subordinate performance (self
-
report and supervi
sory rating). The
second purpose was to study the effects of psychological and situational factors on subordinate
performance. Usable data of 355 matched supervisor
-
subordinate pairs working in health centers
in Thailand were analyzes. Results revealed tha
t female subordinates receiving all 3 types of
support received higher performance ratings from their supervisors than did their male
counterparts. Perceived organizational support, self
-
efficacy, and location of workplace were also
associated with subordi
nate performance. Discussion, recommendations for future research,
implications for HRD in Thailand, and limitations are presented.

研究首要考察知觉到上级的社会支持(
PSSS
)对下属的影响;考察心理和情境因素对与下
属绩效的影响。

获得三种支持的女性下属得到上级的更高绩效评估;知觉到的组织支持,自我效能和工作地
点的位置与下属的绩效相联系。


Craig
,

S
.

B
.
(
2003
)
.
AB: Multisource performance ratings involve multiple raters of a common
target, thus violating the statistical assumption of indep
endent observations. This study
investigates the consequences of that isolation on response item
-
theory based analyses of ratings
in 2 domains of managerial performance. Using a differential item functioning framework, the
study found no significant differ
ences in item parameters attributable to the violation. The findings
suggest that item response theory can be applied to multisource ratings without discarding data in
order to meet the independence assumption.

研究探讨了多元评估方法学上的问题,研究者认为项目反应理论可被用于多元评估
。方法:
采用了一个差异化的项目反应模式。


Penny
,

J
.

A
.

(
2003
)
.
AB: This study used logistic regression to model times responses from a
popular 360
-
degree assessment
-
for
-
delivery survey. The model used method of survey delivery
and rater gro
up to identify items exhibiting differential item functioning. Results indicated little
evidence that DIF existed due to method of survey delivery, lending additional support for the use
of the Internet to deliver 360
-
degree surveys.

研究考察评估递送方法对于
360
度评估结果的影
响。
差异化的项目功能(
DIF



Barr
,
M
.

A
.

(
2003
)
.
AB: This study compares 3 item response theory
-
based models for assessing
measurement equivalence in 360 degree feedback: the traditional
differential item functioning
(DIF) methodology, Muraki's rater's effect model, a
nd Patz, Junker and Johnson's hierarchical
rater model. Using data from 491 managers collected on the Benchmarks instrument, the study
found that
the traditional DIF methodology provides the most information about the rater's
conception of the ratee's abil
ity,

where the 2 other muffles provide explicit estimates of rater
leniency/severity. The study also found that rater source effects of leniency and severity, even
though statistically significant, did not substantially affect the observed score at the ite
m and scale
levels. The different results and conclusions produced by each model are discussed.


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5

Yammarino
,

F
.

J
.
(
2003
)
.
AB: For nearly 3 decades, the use of multisource ratings of
organizational phenomena for developmental feedback to managers has gown.
As work on
multisource feedback moved from the practitioner to academic realms, scholars have sought to
theoretical and methodological understanding of multisource ratings. The intent of this article is to
develop the use of rigorous analytic methods for t
he evaluation of construct validity and
psychometric properties of multisource ratings and feedback. An overview of 4 techniques are
presented.

考察多元评估的效度问题


LeBreton
,

J
.

M
.

(
2003
)
.
AB: The fundamental assumption underlying the use of 360
-
degree
assessments

is that ratings from different sources provide unique and meaningful information
about the target manager's performance. This study reexamines the support of this assumption,
suggesting that past research has been distorted by a statistical artifact
-

res
triction of variance in
job performance. This artifact reduces the amount of between
-
target variance in ratings and
attenuates traditional correlation
-
based estimates of rating similarity. Results obtained from a
Monte Carlo simulation and 2 field studies
support this restriction of variance hypothesis.


2002

Becker
,
G
.

A
.

(
2002
)
.
AB: In research on contrast effects in performance appraisals, control
conditions or measures of accuracy have rarely been used. In the present study, the authors
included appropr
iate controls and used expert ratings to develop "true scores" for assessing
accuracy. The study is an examination of the influence of 3 variables on performance ratings: (a)
the sequence of viewing and rating performance, (b) the delay between viewing and

rating
performance, and (c) whether the target of the performance rating was the same person as the
anchor. Experimental conditions did not have the expected differential effects on target ratings, but
target ratings in all the experimental conditions sho
wed contrast effects when compared with
ratings in relevant control conditions. The target ratings in experimental conditions were accurate,
however, as assessed by comparisons with true scores, thus raising questions about the
relationship between contras
t effects and accuracy
.

评估真分数的问题,研究探讨了三个可能影响绩效评估的变量:
1.
观察、评估的顺序

2.

察与评估之间的延迟

3.
评估目标与参照是同一个人。


Cederblom
,

D
.
(
2002
)
AB: This article first outlines recent suggestions for improving agencies'
performance appraisal systems: incorporating the developments of To
tal Quality Management
(TQM) and core competencies into appraisals, and moving toward performance management. It
then relates the experience of a state enforcement agency in applying these suggestions. What
began as an objective of updating officers' perfo
rmance appraisals to include recent agency
developments, evolved into significantly overhauling this appraisal system; adding a new
performance mechanism at the manager level; and using both of these processes to drive the
agency's new strategic plan and p
romote a different way of doing business. This agency's
experience seems applicable beyond enforcement agencies, and relevant both for those wanting to
move performance in new directions, and for those wanting to energize ongoing performance.
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6

Suggestions a
re offered for moving toward effective performance management.


Glendinning
,

P
.

M
.

(2002)
AB: This paper examines the copious, and sometimes quite
contradictory information on the subject of Performance Management. To do so, a cross
-
sectional
survey was co
nducted of members of a Human Resource Professional association. This group was
chosen because, in their position, they are the individuals who would develop, manage, and live
with the consequences of Performance Management systems. In addition to testing
the premises of
the professional literature and observing their degree of penetration into actual practice, additional
information was gathered on the subject by garnering the opinions of these professionals.

研究主要考察了关于绩效管理的大量信息。


Mani
,
B
.

G
.

(2002).
AB: One would expect a valid, reliable performance evaluation system to give
employees and managers data about employees' strengths and needs for development. This paper
explores employees' and administrators' perce
ptions of a system with these goals, a system
specifically designed to appraise performance of North Carolina "Subject to the Personnel Act"
(SPA) employees at East Carolina University. The data show that a large proportion of employees,
but no supervisors
, are dissatisfied with the system; that neither the number of subordinates nor
the time spent evaluating employees under the system affects supervisors' satisfaction with the
system; and that employees' perceptions of the fairness of the system is related

to trust and
satisfaction with their supervisors but not with compliance with the program's procedures.
Although various factors motivate employees and supervisors, pay is very important.

考察评估者和被评估者对于绩效评估系统的评价。研究显示对于特定的绩效评估系统:
SPA
而言,大部分的雇员是不满意的。
下属的人数和评估雇员所
花费的时间不会影响主管对系统
的满意度。雇员对于系统公正性的知觉与对他们主管的信任和满意有关,而不与项目的程序
有关。


Spears
,
C
.

M
.

(
2002
)

AB: To what extent does training influence employee satisfaction with
performance appraisal systems? In particular, can the manner in which a firm implements training
improve e
mployee satisfaction? Alternative types of training, their current usage, and their impact
on performance appraisal satisfaction are discussed. A survey of training and performance
appraisal systems provides updated information on the types of training pro
vided in current
practice, changes to training, and employee satisfaction. A probit analysis estimates the
significance of training methods on performance appraisal satisfaction.

培训在多大程度上影响雇员对于绩效评估系统的满意度



Morrow
,

P
.

C
.

(
2002
)

AB: Morrow and Leedle compare job performance and receipt of
disciplinary action among smoking and nonsmoking hotel employees using organizational records
and observation. Although smokers and nonsmokers did
not differ on 3 measures of discipline,
there were significant differences on a guest relations performance dimension and a summated
overall job performance measure.

研究者采用组织录像和观察比较吸烟和非吸烟酒店雇员的工作绩效和纪律行动的接受。在一
个与顾客相关的维度,以及总体工作绩效上面两者存在显著的差异。


Bycio
P
.

(2002)
AB
: Ratings from an operational assessment centre (AC) were examined as a
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7

function of the order that candidates participated in the assessments. Assessment scheduling had a
significant multivariate effect on the preconsensus exercise
-
based ratings. The effec
t was small,
however, accounting for at most 1% of the rating variance. Differences in exercise order were seen
as being unlikely to result in serious unfairness to applicants, although programme designers
should be sensitive to the possibility of early vs
. late
-
day performance differences.


Maurer
,

T
.

J
.

(
2002
)
AB: This study examined predictors of 150 managers' attitudes toward a
360
-
degree feedback system and their degree of involvement in on
-

and off
-
the
-
job development
activity in response to the feedb
ack, as reported an average of 10 months following receipt of
feedback. Three sets of predictors were: 1. feedback ratings from four sources (supervisor, peer,
subordinate, self), 2. individual characteristics of the feedback recipients, and 3. perceived
c
haracteristics of the feedback recipients' work contexts. Despite adequate statistical power, few
relationships were observed between feedback ratings and subsequent involvement in
development activities and attitudes toward the feedback system. Three exce
ptions were a positive
relationship between subordinate and peer ratings of managers and managers' attitudes toward the
system as well as an interaction between self and peer ratings: the more unique or different peer
ratings were compared to self
-
ratings,

the more favourable ratee attitudes toward the system were.
Practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

影响
360
度反馈接受程度的因素。


Atkins
,

W
.
P
.

(
2002
)

AB: Although 360
-
degree feedback programs are rapidly increasing in
popularity, few studies have examined how well ratings from these programs predict an
independent criterion. This study has 2 main aims: 1. to examine the validity of ratings from a
360
-
degree feedback program using assessment center ratings as an independ
ent criterion and to
determine which source provided the most valid predictor of the criterion measure of competency,
and 2. to better understand the relationship between self
-
observer discrepancies and an
independent criterion. The average of supervisor,
peer, and subordinate ratings predicted
performance on the assessment center, as did the supervisor ratings alone. The self
-
ratings were
negatively and nonlinearly related to performance with some of those who gave themselves the
highest ratings having the

lowest performance on the assessment center. Supervisor ratings
successfully discriminated between overestimators but were not as successful at discriminating
underestimators, suggesting that more modest feedback recipients might be underrated by their
su
pervisors. Peers overestimated performance for poor performers.

360
度考察中不同评估源预测的准确性,采用了评价中心的技术


Martell
,

R
.

F
.,
Leavitt N
.
K
.

(
2002
)

AB: The authors examined whether the performance
-
cue bias
can be reduced by relying on groups as raters. Study participants
(N = 333) were provided with
feedback regarding the performance of a workgroup and, after observing the group, assigned to an
individual or group rater condition to complete a behavioral rating instrument. Results revealed
that when provided with positive
(vs. negative) feedback, individuals attributed more effective and
fewer ineffective behaviors to the workgroup; however, group ratings were unaffected by the
feedback. In addition, feedback biased the decision criteria and false alarm rates of individuals

but
not of groups. Discussion of when groups may attenuate versus amplify bias in performance
appraisal judgments emphasizes 2 key elements
-
bias magnitude and task perception.

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8

对于绩效线索偏差是否可以用群体评估的方式来降低。
研究
采用
2
(绩效期望,正性
/
负性,
组间)
×
2
(评估方式,个人
/
小组,组间)
×
2
(行为类型,有效
/
无效)的混合设
计,
结果
表明,在正性反馈的条件下,个体将会评估小组存在更多有效行为、更少的无效行为;而小
组评估则较少受反馈的影响。除此以外,反馈会影响个体的判断标准和错误警戒水平。群体
通过强调两个关键成份:偏见数量和任务知觉,来削弱绩效评估判断中对偏差的放大



Newcombe
,
M
.

J
.

&
Ashkanasy
,

N
.

M
.

(
2002
)

AB: Based on the idea that emotional exchanges
determine symbolic meanings in interpersona
l exchanges, this paper hypothesizes that displays of
positive and congruent affect determine members' ratings of leaders in a simulated performance
appraisal context. To test the hypotheses, 537 participants viewed videotapes of four male and
female leade
rs giving positive and negative feedback, and with facial expressions of affect that
were either congruent or incongruent with the verbal message that they were delivering. Results
supported hypotheses that positive and message
-
congruent leader affect resu
lts in more positive
member ratings of the leader, assessed using a seven
-
item measure of members' perceptions of the
leader's negotiating latitude. The least positive ratings of negotiating latitude were given when
positive feedback was delivered with neg
ative facial affect.

研究考察情感交流在人际互动中的象征含义。研究者假定在绩效评估情境中展示积极和一致
将会决定下属对于领导的知觉评估
。结果表明,积极和与信息一致的领导获得更加积极的评
估结果。


Riketta M
.

(
2002
)

AB: A meta
-
analysis was conducted to estimate the true correlation between
attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance and to identify mod
erators of this
correlation. One
-
hundred and eleven samples from 93 published studies were included. The
corrected mean correlation was 0.20. The correlation was at least marginally significantly stronger
for: 1. extra
-
role performance as opposed to in
-
rol
e performance, 2. white
-
collar workers as
opposed to blue
-
collar workers, and 3. performance assessed by self ratings as opposed to
supervisor ratings or objective indicators. Four other assumed moderators did not have at least
marginally significant effec
ts.

研究尝试采用元分析的方法考察组织承诺与工作绩效之间的真实相关,以及影响该相关的中
介变量。结果揭示的相关在
0.20
。研究考察倒的影响因素包括:绩效类型(角色外
Vs.
角色
内);员工类型(白领
Vs.
蓝领)和评估方式(自评
Vs.
上级评或他评)。


Rotundo
,

M
. &

Sackett
,
P
.

R
.

(2002)
AB: A review of research on job performance suggests 3
broad components: task, citizenship, and
counter
-
productive performance. This study examined
the relative importance of each component to ratings of overall performance by using an
experimental policy
-
capturing design. Managers in 5 jobs read hypothetical profiles describing
employees' task, citi
zenship, and counterproductive performance and provided global ratings of
performance. Within
-
subjects regression analyses indicated that the weights given to the 3
performance components varied across raters. Hierarchical cluster analyses indicated that r
aters'
policies could be grouped into 3 homogenous clusters: 1. task performance weighted highest, 2.
counterproductive performance weighted highest, and 3. equal and large weights given to task and
counterproductive performance. Hierarchical linear modeli
ng indicated that demographic
variables were not related to raters' weights.

已在文献综述中

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9

Schaffer
,

S
.
B
.

(
2002
)

AB: One of the primary responsibilities of a board of directors is to assess
management practices and to make sure that the organization is being run in a fashion that is
consistent with the interests of shareholders. This re
sponsibility becomes especially important
when the firm is performing suboptimally. This paper integrates corporate governance theory with
attribution theory to examine the processes by which board members attribute poor firm
performance to either external

or internal causes. A framework is presented that suggests that
inside directors and outside directors differ significantly in the constraints they face and in the
ultimate attributions they make. Facing primarily social constraints, such as loyalty to th
e CEO
and fear of retaliation, inside directors are more likely to consistently attribute poor performance
to industry or environmental factors, as opposed to top management. Facing primarily cognitive
constraints, outside directors will use specific infor
mational cues to attribute poor performance
either to industry/environmental factors or to top management. Implications and suggestions for
future research are provided.

研究考察领导类型(公司统治理论)对于绩效的影响。领导者被分为两类:内领导和外领导,
他们在面对情境的应对和归因方式有显著的区别。


Viswesvaran
.
C
.

(
2002
)

AB: Meta
-
analysis was used to cumulate the correlations between
supervisor and peer ratings for different dimensions of job performance. The general pattern in the
data
suggested that raters from the same organizational level disagree as much as raters from
different levels.

元分析研究考察上级和同事评估在绩效不同维度上的相关。研究结果表明,来自于统一组织
层级的评估源的评估与来自不同评估源的结果的差异一样。


2001

Strauss
,

J
.

P
.

(
2001
)

AB: The effect of similarity on performance ratings in

two data sets (peers and
supervisors) was examined. Surprisingly, there was minimal support for a relationship between
relational personality (i.e. actual similarity on dimension of the Five
-
Factor Model of personality
relevant for sales positions
-

extra
version, conscientiousness, and emotional stability) and
performance ratings in either data set. However, perceived similarity in these same dimensions'
related strongly to performance ratings. Furthermore, the results indicated no support for
interpersona
l familiarity as a moderator of the relationship between relational personality and
perceived personality similarity. Finally, results provided moderate support for liking as a
mediator of the perceived personality similarity
-
performance rating relationshi
p. Implications of
the results for future research and practice are discussed.

研究考察人格相似性与绩效评估结果之间的关系,结果表明知觉到的人格相似性与绩效之间
具有密切的关系。


Dewberry
,

C
.

(2001)
AB: The relative performance of white and ethnic minority trainee lawyers in
England was compared. Ethnic minority trainees were more than twice as likely to fail the
compulsory training

course for lawyers as whites. The possible effect of racial discrimination in
the performance appraisal process was investigated by comparing the performance of the trainees
in blind
-
marked assessments with their performance in non
-
blind marked ones. No e
vidence of
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10

racial discrimination by the assessors was found. It is concluded that future research on the
relationship between ethnicity and performance should focus not only on the possible influence of
racial discrimination during the performance evaluati
on process but also on differences in the life
experiences of people from different ethnic groups from childhood onwards.

研究考察种族
对于律师课程通过的影响,结果表明种族因素的影响不是由于课程评估造成
的,研究者认为种族和绩效的关系应该不是由于绩效评估过程造成的,而可能是由于个体成
长的早期经历。


Hempel
,

S
.

P
.

(
2001
)

AB: Multinational corpora
tions operating in Greater China need to continue
improving employee performance levels, but Western style performance appraisals might not be
the right answer. This paper examines some of the differences in the ways that Chinese and
Western managers view
performance in order to determine the appropriateness of Western
appraisal techniques. Using a sample drawn from Hong Kong, significant differences between
Hong Kong Chinese and UK managers are found, particularly in the role that trait attribution plays
i
n the appraisal process. The paper concludes by considering the implications that these observed
differences have for both performance appraisal research as well as for practice.

研究考察在中国对与绩效考核的运用,结果表明,在香港公司的中国和英国管理者之间存在
显著性的差异,在评估过程中,人格特征扮演了重要角色。


Pettijohn
,

L
.

S
.

(
2001
)
AB: Performance appraisals are often described as the "job managers love
to hate." A study was designed to provide sales managers with information designed to increase
the benefits of engaging in the evaluation process and reduce the negativ
e sentiments often
associated with appraisals. To accomplish this objective, 214 salespeople were personally
interviewed and asked to provide information regarding their perceptions of their performance
appraisals. The results indicate that salespeople hav
e positive perceptions regarding the appraisal
process. Findings also indicate that while salespeople are often evaluated at least twice annually,
the criteria used are not always the ones that salespeople view as being the most appropriate. The
conclusion
s derived from the analysis may provide insight to sales managers as they attempt to
develop and implement appraisal processes that are viewed as being valid and as they attempt to
enhance the benefits that may be obtained from engaging in this process.

研究尝试提高销售主管从评估过程中所获得的益处,研究通过与销售人员进行访谈,询问他
们对于绩效评估结果的知觉信息。结果表明销售人员对于绩效评估的程序都有积极地知觉,
结果也表明尽管销售人员每年接受两次评估,但是所使用的标准在他们看来并不是最合适
的。这些结果向销售经理们提供了信息来发展和使用他们的绩效评估程序。


Pazy A
.

(
200
1)

AB: This field study examined the relationships between sex proportion and
performance
evaluation among 3,014 high
-
ranking officers in the Israeli Defense Forces. Women's
performance was rated lower than that of men when the women were token members of their units.
However, the performance of women was rated higher than that of men when the
constituted a
higher proportion. Men's overall performance did not co
-
vary with proportion. In addition, the
interaction of sex with proportion had a significant effect on the dimensions of Operational and
Analytical Competence. The pattern of findings sup
ports Kanter's framework of skewed and tilted
groups.

研究考察在以色列国防军中的高级军官的性别比例和绩效评估之间的关系。如果女性是男性
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11

小组中的成员,她们的绩效经常被低估;而当她们的性别比例高时,她们的绩效统称会比男
性的高。男性的总体绩效并不随性别比例发生变化。性别和比例的交互作用在操作和分析能
力等维度上有显著性的影响。


Fletcher
,

C
.

(
2001
)

AB: Performance appraisal has widened as a conc
ept and as a set of practices
and in the form of performance management has become part of a more strategic approach to
integrating HR activities and business polices. As a result of this, the research on the subject has
moved beyond the limited confines o
f measurement issues and accuracy of performance ratings
and has begun to focus more on social and motivational aspects of appraisal. This article identifies
and discusses a number of themes and trends that together make up the developing research
agenda f
or this field. It breaks these down in terms of the nature of appraisal and the context in
which it operates.

绩效评估以绩效管理的形式成为整合人力资源活动的一项策略,因此这个领域内的研究开始
脱离测量温和和绩效评估准确性的限制,开始更加注重于评估的社会和动机层面的东西。

篇研究确定和讨论了该领域内研究发展的一系列的主体和趋势。


Erdogan B
.,

Kraimer
,

M
.

L
.
,

Liden
,

R
.

C
.

(
2001
)
AB: Procedural justice is generally thought of as
a unidimensional construct. In this article, it is argued that in the performance appraisal context
procedural justice can be conceptualized as two dimensional: system procedural justice and rat
er
procedural justice. Regression results from a study of 1 organization in Turkey support this
distinction. Due process characteristics and employee characteristics were differentially related to
2 dimensions of procedural justice. Specifically, perceived

validity of performance criteria,
knowledge of performance criteria, and organizational level of employees were related to system
procedural justice, whereas perceived performance feedback and fair hearing were each positively
related to rater procedural
justice.

程序性公正通常被认为是无维度的内容,在这个研究中将绩效评估情境中的程序公正区分为
两个维度:系统程序公正和评估者程序公正。回归分析的结果支持这个区分。过程特征和雇
员特征与这两个程序公正的维度具有不同的关系。尤其,知觉的评估标准的效度,评估标准
的知识以及雇员的组织层级与系统程序公正有关,而知觉到的程序反馈和公正听取与评估者
程序公正正相关。


Facteau J
.

D
.
,

Craig S
.

B
.
(
2001
)
AB: The purpose of this study was to test whether a
multisource
performance appraisal instrument exhibited measurement invariance across different groups of
raters. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis as well as item response theory (IRT)
techniques were used to test for invariance of the rating in
strument across self, peer, supervisor,
and subordinate raters. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the rating
instrument was invariant across these rater groups. The IRT analysis yielded some evidence of
differential item and te
st functioning, but it was limited to the effects of just 3 items and was
trivial in magnitude. Taken together, the results suggest that the rating instrument could be
regarded as invariant across the rater groups, thus supporting the practice of directly
comparing
their ratings. Implications for research and practice are discussed, as well as for understanding the
meaning of between source rating discrepancies.

研究目的尝试检验一个多源评估工具是否在不同评估者群体间具有测量稳定性。
多群体验证
性因素分析,以及项目分析理论技术被用于检验评估工具跨自我、同事、主观和下属评估者
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12

的稳定性。验证性因素分析的结果表明评估工具跨评估群体稳定。


Thornton G
.

C
.
,

Morris D
.

M
.

(2001)
AB: Notes that elements of traditional police promotional
examinations (e.g., written tests and assessment ce
nters) do not take into account candidates' work
histories, and performance appraisals on records are fraught with problems. This article highlights
the strengths and limitations of these traditional elements of police promotional examinations and
describe
s a new method of having panelists systematically review several source documents to
evaluate behavioral evidence of past work history related to dimensions needed for the target job.
This information can then be combined with information from the traditio
nal assessment methods
to improve promotion decisions. The authors conclude that candidates, the police organization,
and, most importantly, the public gain from more valid and fair promotional processes.

传统警察晋升测验(书面测试和评价中心)的成分并没有考察候选者的工作历史,而对于记
录的绩效评估又充满问
题。这篇文章强调了这些传统成分的优势与不足,并且描述了一种新
方法,组成辩论小组系统的评估一些源文件,来评估过去工作历史中能够确定目标工作需要
的行为证据。这两方面的信息共同增进晋升决策。


Jelley R
.
B
.,

Goffin R
.

D
.
(
2001
)
AB: Performance appraisal information is often used for
employee feedback and development. Research has found that assessments th
at are global (i.e.,
based on broad aspects of performance) and comparative (i.e., explicit interratee comparisons)
may be most accurate in terms of Cronbach's (1955) differential accuracy, a type of accuracy that
is directly relevant to the provision of f
eedback. Unfortunately, a global comparative assessment
may not give recipients the most useful diagnostic feedback. In this experiment, an innovative
rater priming manipulation was developed and tested on a sample of 109 participants. The priming
manipula
tion had the effect of improving differential accuracy and providing diagnostic feedback.
A 2nd independent variable in
vol
ving 2 different Behavioral Observation Scale formats also was
investigated. Explanations of findings, limitations of this experiment,

directions for future research,
and implications for performance appraisal practice are discussed.

绩效评估信息通常被用于雇员绩效反馈和发展。研究已经发现总体性(基于绩效的众多方面)
和比较性(外显的被评估者间的比较)的评估按照
Cronbach's (1955)

微分
准确性(直接与
反馈相关的)应该是最准确的。
但是整体的比较评估并没有给受测者最有效的诊断反馈。在
这个实验中,形成了一个创新性的评估者启动操纵并测试了
109
个受测者。启动操纵对于提
高微分准确性和提供诊断反馈有效果。第二个自变量包括两个不同的行为观察量表,


Pettijohn C
.

et al. (2001)

AB: In some sales o
rganizations the performance appraisal is treated as a bureaucratic exercise. As
such, sales managers may essentially conduct appraisals in an arbitrary and perfunctory manner.
This behavior could be based on the belief that conducting performance appraisa
ls requires
considerable amounts of time and effort, generates few rewards, and adds considerably to the
manager's level of conflict and stress. The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships
existing between performance appraisals, salespers
on organizational commitment, and job
satisfaction. If various characteristics of performance appraisals that build commitment and
satisfaction could be identified, then managers may be more capable of using performance
appraisals that yield positive resul
ts. A survey of 185 retail salespeople and 58 retail sales
managers provided the data required to evaluate the relationship between satisfaction,
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13

commitment and various aspects of performance appraisals. The results of the study indicate that
managerially

mediated factors may be used to enhance salesperson job satisfaction and
organizational commitment.

在一些销售企业中,绩效评估被看作是官僚式的练习。销售经理常常按照独裁和马虎的方式
处理评估。指引这些行为的信念是,完成绩效评估需要大量的时间和精力,获得很少的报偿,
并且增加了管理层的冲突和压力。这个研究的目的是考察绩效评估、销售人员组织承诺和工
作满意度之间的关系。如果对承诺和满意度有贡献的绩效评估的不同特征能
够确定,
则管理
者能够更好的使用导致积极结果的绩效评估。
185
名零售人员和
58
名零售经理完成了研究。
研究结果表明管理中介因素可以用于增强工作满意度和组织承诺


Barnes
,

F
.

J
.

(2001)

AB: (from the chapter) This chapter focuses on the performance measurement
phase of performance appraisal, with an emphasis on the ways that person percepti
on and social
cognition related to the problem of arriving at high quality judgments and ratings about the work
effectiveness of others. The author's goals are threefold: (1) to outline the primary cognitive tasks
that form the underpinnings of performance

measurement; (2) to highlight social cognition
processes that guide judgments and ratings of worker performance effectiveness; and (3) to
identify important features of performance appraisal situations that affect the nature and difficulty
of appraisal ta
sks.

致力于绩效评估的绩效测量阶段,强调个体知觉和社会认知的方式与获得对他们工作有效性
的高质量的判断和评估之间的关系。研究者的目的包括:
1
指出形成绩效测量基础的基本认
知任务;
2
强调在规范对工作有效性的判断和评估时的社会认知过程;
3
区定影响评估任务
难度和本质的绩效评估情景的重要特征。

AB: (from the cover) This book is a comprehensive guide for understanding how people make
decisions about other
s in organizations. Although industrial psychologists develop systematic
procedures to help avoid human error in interpersonal judgment, many decisions about people in
organizations are made by employees and managers with no special training and no structu
red
guidelines to eliminate human error. The chapters in this book offer ways to help organizational
decision makers understand and improve the accuracy of their interpersonal judgments in
structured and unstructured situations. The chapters begin with bas
ic theory and research on
person perception, social cognition, interpersonal judgment, and stereotypes. This theoretical
foundation is then applied to (1) selection processes such as the employment interviews,
promotion decisions, and assessment centers, (
2) appraisal methods including performance
appraisal and multisource feedback surveys, (3) developmental processes including leadership,
career dynamics, coaching, and managing problem performers, and (4) person perception in
interpersonal situations.


Ja
mes
,

M
.

C
.
(
1998
)
AB: Recent evidence supports the use of the correlated uniqueness model
over the general confirmatory factor analysis model for multitrait multimethod (MTMM) data.
The former provides no method factor loadings and therefore no obvious est
imate of the
proportion of method variance. This is problematic; researchers have used proportions of method
variance from the general confirmatory factor analysis model for many purposes. Demonstrations
showed that correlated uniqueness can be averaged to

estimate the proportion of method variance.
Unlike factor loadings, correlated uniqueness need not be squared. The first demonstration model
included a mathematical proof and analysis of an artificial matrix. The second inVol.ved two
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14

employment interview
matrixes and one performance appraisal matrix. Proportion of method
variance estimates were used to make comparisons within and between MTMM matrixes. Results
suggested that more structured employment interviews contain smaller proportions of method
varian
ce and that peer performance ratings contain greater proportions of method variance than do
self ratings.

用验证性分析的手段考察多特征多源方法的数据。


2000

Grote, D
.

(
2000
)
AB: Who's coming up with the best now ideas for managing people's
performance on the job? Argues that s
ome of the most innovative work in developing new
approaches to performance management is being done these days by organizations in the public
sector. It is further contended that when executives look for breakthrough thinking and best
practices, their bes
t sources frequently turn out to be state agencies and city governments, federal
bureaucracies, and your local pardons and parole boards.


Lees, C
.

D
. &

Cordery, J
.

L
.

(2000)

AB: (from the chapter) Outlines the process of conducting a
job analysis, includi
ng the kinds of data that are collected, the steps in the kinds of data that are
collected, the steps in the job analysis project and descriptions of a number of formal, structured
job analysis methods. The implications of job analysis for the validity of
activities such as
selection are discussed, and the relationship between job analysis and job design is explained. The
role of job analysis in the future world of 'boundaryless job' is considered. The author considers
job analysis as the foundation stone o
f human resource activities, from human resource planning
to selection, performance management, training and compensation. The theme throughout has
been the efficient utilization of human resources and the redesigning of jobs to maximize
performance, while

at the same time enhancing rather than damaging the employee.


Bannigan, K
. (2000)
AB: A health care professional is not always "the right person, doing the right
thing, in the right way, in the right place, at the right time and with the right result" (J
. Mead,
quoted in R. Potter 2000.) In some renowned cases, health care professionals' interventions have
resulted in the deaths of patients. For this reason, and because there is sometimes unacceptable
variation in practice, poor performance is 1 of the 6
aspects of clinical governance, which is an
integrated quality framework. Clinical governance, although a National Health Service
development, has implications for all occupational therapists, whatever setting they work in. This
discussion paper presents t
he concept of poor performance of occupational therapists in the
context of performance management, which is a mechanism for the early identification and the
remedying of poor performance. Early recognition, feedback on performance, decisive
intervention,
and effective self
-
regulation are the headings used to frame this discussion. The
national, local, and personal implications for occupational therapists also are explored. The central
theme is that identifying and dealing with poor performance is every occ
upational therapist's
personal responsibility.


Aycan, Z
.

(2000)
AB: This article aims at critically evaluating the theory and scope of
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15

cross
-
cultural industrial and organizational (I/O) research, emphasizing its past and its future. In
the theory section,

the author discusses the ways sociocultural context influences organizational
phenomena. Also discussed are issues such as the level of theory, assumption of linearity,
unilateral effect of culture on organizations, conceptualization of culture, and atheo
retical nature
of research. In the 2nd section, three areas of research, which are underrepresented in
cross
-
cultural I/O literature, are discussed: staffing, performance management, and employee
health and safety. It is argued that compared to traditional

research topics of cross
-
cultural I/O
psychology, these topics are more central to the field, more related to improvement of human
potential and conditions at work, and better able to guide practices in various cultural contexts.


Frayne, C
.

A
. &

Geringer
, J
.

M
.

(2000)
AB: In a control
-
group field experiment using a reversal
design, 30 insurance salespeople were randomly assigned to an experimental group that received
self
-
management training. A multivariate analysis of variance and subsequent repeated
-
mea
sures
analyses of variance revealed that, compared with a control condition (n= 30), training in
self
-
management skills significantly improved job performance as assessed through both objective
and subjective measures. Performance improvement continued wit
h time, and increases were
sustained across a 12
-
month period post
-
training. Subsequent training of the control group
produced similar increases in self
-
efficacy, outcome expectancies, and job performance. Potential
mediating effects of self
-
efficacy and o
utcome expectancies on the self
-
management
-
performance
relationship were explored and partially supported.


Weisman, V
.

L
.

(2000)
AB: This study explores the impact of facilitative leadership and its
importance in the evolving roles of managers and leaders
. Global and organizational changes have
ushered in the need to explore a wider range of leadership styles better suited for new work
environments that include participatory work structures, such as work teams. Organizations
continue to move from being hie
rarchically structured entities to networked, decentralized
organizations. New roles for leaders and managers have spawned the need for managerial
-
leaders
who can keep step with the changing demands of the marketplace and harness managerial
resources to pe
rform competitively. The leadership crisis in our society and government is
mirrored in the high rate for executive leadership failure, which is between 60 to 75%. Research
demonstrates four enduring themes concerning leadership failure. These themes stron
gly correlate
with problems with interpersonal relationships and the inability to build and lead teams, which
results in performance decline. When leaders, teams, work groups, and individuals fail, a heavy
toll is extracted on individuals and companies, th
us impacting the economic stability of
organizations and, ultimately our cities and our country at large. Managers and leaders must learn
and implement radically new behaviors to become more effective in collaborative structures where
the lines of authorit
y are blurred. Managerial
-
leaders achieve competitive excellence through
demonstrating facilitative behaviors by means of shared decision
-
making, motivating others, and
enabling others to perform effectively. These facilitative behaviors are interpersonal
and
relationship
-
driven in nature, and often require enhanced social and emotional intelligence. These
are the factors of facilitative leadership. Participatory work roles and structures require more than
technical expertise. They call for the ability to a
ccomplish challenging goals through and with
others. This study analyzed quantitative, empirical feedback from nearly 200 individuals
concerning their managerial
-
leaders' facilitative and routine management (transactional) behaviors.
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Three multi
-
rater inst
ruments were used to investigate the interface between three sets of variables
pertaining to: facilitative behaviors, best leadership practices, and factors concerning routine
management. What emerged was a significant correlation between facilitative lead
ership
behaviors, best practices of leaders, and effective leadership outcomes above and beyond routine
aspects of management.


D
e Gooijer, J
.

(
2000
)
AB: Measuring the business benefits of knowledge management is difficult.
Even more so for public sector a
gencies whose outcomes are social benefits, rather than simple
profit. This paper describes an approach for measuring the performance of knowledge
management strategies for a public sector agency in Victoria, Australia. Knowledge management
is defined as t
hose actions which support collaboration and integration. Two models are presented
for measuring knowledge management performance and knowledge management behaviours: a
performance framework based on the balanced scorecard approach, and a behaviour framewo
rk
that identifies levels of practice demonstrated by individuals. The Knowledge Management
Performance Scorecard maps the objectives for knowledge management across the balanced
scorecard's key result areas The Knowledge Management Behaviour Framework ide
ntifies seven
levels of knowledge management skills for demonstrating collaborative behaviour. The framework
also outlines what might be typical behaviours of managers and the roles they would assume in
relation to individuals at each level.


Masterson, S
.

S
. et al. (
2000
)
AB: Investigated whether procedural and interactional justice affect
work
-
related outcomes through different social exchange relationships. 651 university employees
were asked to complete a survey designed to gather information about job
-
related attitudes and
behaviors, as well as performance management procedures and interactions. The findings
demonstrate that (1) interactional justice perceptions affect supervisor
-
related outcomes via the
mediating variable of leader
-
member exchange and
(2) procedural justice perceptions affect
organization
-
related outcomes via the mediating variable of perceived organizational support.


Theron, C
.

C
. &

Spangenberg, H
.

H
.

(
2000
)
AB: This article reports on the findings of a more
sophisticated and demandi
ng re
-
analysis of a data set collected and analyzed by H. H.
Spangenberg and C. C. Theron (1997) to examine the validity of a Performance Management
audit questionnaire (PMAQ). LISREL 8 was used for a confirmatory factor analysis to determine
the fit of th
e measurement model that guided the construction of the Performance Management
Audit Questionnaire (PMAQ). Ss were 626 managers and employees from 8 South African
commercial, industrial and utility organizations. The findings reported here corroborate the
position explicated in Spangenberg and Theron (1997) that the PMAQ provides a content valid
measure of the Performance Management domain as conceptualized by the systems model.


Brethower, D
.

M
.

(
2000
)
AB: Uniqueness of person, organization, and environme
ntal situation is a
fact of life. Imitating practices that occurred in a different unique environment does not work well.
Improving organizational performance requires managing within the constraints of two sets of
variables that are specific to each organ
ization: variables that connect the organization to the
environment and variables that support individual human performances. Organizational variables
include those relevant to two specific categories of value
-
adding outputs (the financial
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marketplace and
the consumer service marketplace), and four specific categories of costly but
necessary inputs (money, technology, materials and labor). The paper specifies ten guidelines for
understanding and managing the interplay between the organizational variables an
d psychological
variables. The guidelines permit systemic organizational and performance management, which
enables organizational improvement.


Metcalfe B
.,

Dick G
.
(
2000
)
AB: There have been few studies that have explored commitment
among police officers

in the UK. Our research aims to fill a gap in the police commitment
literature. Using survey data (100 per cent population=3,828) the paper analyses the extent to
which organizational commitment is shaped by: employees' experiences of the level of
managem
ent support, organization support and performance appraisal. The commitment measure
we use is derived from the real life HR concerns of the participating police organization ForceCo.
Results show that these factors strongly influence commitment at all rank
s. Key new findings
reveal that the level of commitment varies according to position in the hierarchy, and police
commitment increases with tenure. The paper discusses the limitations in management style and
personnel procedures and suggests ForceCo needs
to re evaluate existing systems.


Stanton
,

J
.

M
.

(
2000
)
AB: A conceptual framework is described for examining employee reactions
to performance monitoring. The framework incorporates attitudinal and motivational effects of
performance monitoring on monito
red employees and discusses effects of performance monitoring
on performance feedback and performance appraisal. The framework is used to organize a review
of research literature relevant to employee reactions to electronic and nonelectronic performance
mo
nitoring. The article includes specific propositions for additional research and general
directions for future research in performance monitoring.


Hunthausen, J
.

M
.

(
2000
)
AB: An employment process suprasystem contains human resource
related systems such

as training, recruitment, performance appraisal, and personnel selection.
Similarly, a personnel selection system consists of interdependent subsystems that work together
to manifest its properties (e.g., the acquisition of qualified and high potential in
dividuals). Finally,
each of these complex subsystems (e.g., applicant reactions to selection methods) have
interdependent elements (e.g., procedural and distributive justice) that work together to manifest
the properties of the subsystem (e.g., applicant
fairness perceptions). This dissertation takes such
a systems approach to understanding the complexities of a personnel selection system to explore
the interactions among three of its subsystems: (1) job performance predictors, (2)
multidimensional job pe
rformance, and (3) applicant reactions to selection methods. Participants
were 214 entry level managers at a major U.S. airline. First, I examined the notion that job
performance is multidimensional, consisting of at least two distinct elements (task and
contextual
performance). Next, using a concurrent validation design, I explored the relationship that
cognitive ability and personality have with task and contextual performance. I also studied
whether framing a personality inventory in the context of work

yields higher validities and led to
more positive fairness perceptions. Finally, I explored whether fairness perceptions moderate test
validity. The current study contributes to the selection research in several ways. First, the
dissertation used field da
ta to confirm the notion that overall job performance is multidimensional,
a function of both task performance and contextual performance. Moreover, results suggested that
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personality is a better predictor of contextual job performance and that cognitive a
bility is a better
predictor of task performance. Frame of reference of a personality test appeared to affect both its
validity and applicants' fairness perceptions. Results also suggested that the perceived fairness of a
personality test may affect its va
lidity. Therefore, this dissertation demonstrates that taking a
systems perspective of personnel selection integrates different branches of selection research and
thus begins to identify the interactions and complexities of a selection system.


Lieb, P
.

S
.

(
2000
)
AB: This study investigated the relationship between Organizational Culture
(OC) and Performance Appraisal (PA) systems as perceived by working college undergraduate and
MBA students. A series of questions were given to 252 MBA and undergraduate s
tudents to collect
data measuring the students' perception of their organizational culture and performance appraisal
system. The initial phase of this study inVol.ved a factor analysis of 41 items from the
quantitative study. This revealed nine factor dim
ensions, which were used to develop a new scale
of matching OC/PA items. Matches were found on seven of the nine original dimensions. These
seven scales were then used to test the general hypothesis that there will be a significant
interaction between reci
procal organizational culture/performance appraisal dimensions on the
variable outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. The
study went further and examined whether an Organization Culture dimension and its
correspond
ing Performance Appraisal dimension would significantly interact to affect the
Outcome Variables of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention.
The results of the hypotheses testing revealed that out of the possible forty nine cas
es where an
interaction could occur, an interaction between Organizational Culture and Performance Appraisal
was significant only seven times. A median split on each of the seven interactions was created and
protected t tests performed. Support was found
for three of the dimensions, the dimension of
Reward for Intrinsic Satisfaction, Aggressive for Affective Commitment and Innovative for
Turnover Intention. Not one of the seven dimensions had a significant effect on Continuance,
Normative or Total Organiza
tional Commitment, General or Extrinsic Satisfaction. The
implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.


Hill, M
.

S
.

(
2000
)

AB: Textile machinery manufacturers continuously strive to make faster, more
efficient processing machines. As tech
nology advances and mechanical speeds increase, it is
imperative that textile manufacturing companies focus on machine maintenance, since poor
machine maintenance is known to result in poor quality and deflated processing efficiencies. This
study focused o
n persons who are in part responsible for daily machine maintenance on airjet
spinning machine the airjet spinning technician. Technicians are responsible for daily maintenance
on spinning machines, machines that use compressed air and mechanical means to
impart
structural integrity to a strand of fibers to make yam. The purpose of this work was to develop job
performance measures for air jet spinning technicians. Technicians, supervisors, and managers in
six textile manufacturing plants were observed and i
nterviewed as a means for discerning tasks
technicians perform, and a task list was compiled. The next step was to assess the content validity
of the appraisal instrument through subject matter expert conferences. Finally, an appraisal
instrument was devel
oped and supervisors in two plants rated a total of 16 technicians. Using data
from the appraisal instrument administration, the degree of adequacy of the developed job
performance measures was judged using the psychometric notions of validity and reliabil
ity.
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Evidence for the reliability and validity of job performance scores obtained using the appraisal
instrument was offered. The performance appraisal instrument developed in this work can be used
by manufacturing managers to assess the performance of air
jet technicians, and it is believed that
the methodology followed in this work can be used to develop performance criteria for technicians
in other manufacturing areas.


Ivanitskaya, L
.

V
.

(
2000
)
AB: The study examined the relationships of cognitive abili
ty and
personality with self and others' multisource feedback (MSF) ratings. Ratings by others (managers,
peers, and subordinates) were more strongly related to each other than self and others' ratings were.
Cognitive ability tests correlated negatively wi
th MSF ratings by self and positively with MSF
ratings by others. Compared to employees who scored high on cognitive ability tests, low
cognitive ability individuals were more likely to (a) overrate themselves and (b) receive lower
performance ratings, as
indicated by a performance appraisal measure administered prior to MSF.
Underrating tendencies may be explained by motivational factors, such as intentional rating
distortion. Self esteem did not correlate significantly with MSF ratings by self. The first
wave of
MSF neither reduced self ratings' leniency, nor increased their validity. No increase in agreement
between MSF ratings by self and others was observed from wave 1 to wave 2.


Greenwood, D
.

M
.

(
2000
)
AB: Individual differences in the acceptance of
performance appraisal
feedback is a troublesome area in both theory and practice. This longitudinal study investigated
the relationship between two individual difference factors adult attachment based patterns of
interaction and self esteem with regard to
the acceptance of work place performance appraisal
feedback. A second research question examined the impact of feedback content, based on task and
contextual performance domains, in relationship to feedback acceptance. The study was conducted
with 78 stude
nt teachers in workplace performance conditions. That is, these student teachers were
still developing professional skills and received relevant constructive feedback. At the same time
they were expected to perform in a fully professional manner and receiv
e formal performance
appraisals. Attachment theory did not explain individual responses to performance feedback
acceptance. Self esteem did influence feedback acceptance as a moderator of distal components in
the process, although it offered no direct effe
ct on feedback acceptance. Task and contextual
performance feedback resulted in slightly different affective reactions, and contextual performance
interacted with level of feedback in predicting satisfaction with feedback and behaviors related to
the feedb
ack. An updated, empirically based framework for the performance feedback process was
reported as a result of exploratory analyses of affective, cognitive, motivational, and behavioral
components in that process. Two unexpected and significant components i
n that process were the
quality of the relationship between the student teacher and faculty supervisor, as measured by
Leader Member Exchange (LMX), and reflective activities after receiving performance feedback.


Lin, T
.

Y
.

(
2000
)
AB: The topic of perfor
mance feedback has received a great deal of attention
from researchers studying organizational behavior. The reason for the interest from researchers is
that feedback can play an important role in individual behavior and performance in organizations.
At th
e individual level, feedback is seen as a valuable resource for individuals. Because it is seen
as important by employees and managers, both may initiate feedback giving or feedback seeking
behavior. By actively seeking feedback an individual can have grea
ter control over their own work
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behaviors and performance. The current study used a large number of managers from several
different non profit organizations. A 360 degree feedback technique was used to gauge feedback
processes and effectiveness. In the sam
ple of managers used in this study, there was a high degree
of accuracy between the LEAD self and the LEAD other scores. The managers seem to have a
good sense of their own leadership ability. The second part of the study created an experimental
design tha
t manipulated level of assigned task, feedback seeking mechanisms and feedback
delivery mechanisms. The study results show that feedback context, either public or private, is an
important factor affecting feedback inquiry. If feedback is to be encouraged,
it seems appropriate
that circumstances are created that will facilitate workers asking for and receiving feedback in
private. The findings indicate that the level of assigned task is interrelated with the feedback
variables. Public requests for and public

delivery of feedback is more likely to occur when the
subject already has some confidence that he or she is doing a good job. Feedback should be
considered as an integral part of the general self assessment, process that employees undertake
continually wi
thin organizations.


DeNisi, A
.

S
.

(2000)

AB: (from the chapter) Discusses performance appraisals at different levels
of analysis, noting issues associated with each (including some thoughts on the source of
appraisals at different levels). Then the focus

changes to performance management, focusing on
the level of the desired performance change in any performance management intervention. There
is a discussion of the links among performance at different levels, and of how performance at each
level is constr
ained by and constrains at other levels. Following that is a series of illustrative
research questions proceeding from a levels oriented perspective on performance appraisal, along
with some concluding remarks.

AB: (from the jacket) Illuminates the interd
ependence of organizational behavior patterns and
integrates the discipline for future study. The contributors examine top down and bottom up
processes and effects; identify central issues; provide examples of integrated, multilevel models;
and evaluate th
e dominant most accepted techniques for the analysis of multilevel data.

Foreword [by] Sheldon Zedeck



Boswell, W
.

R
.,

Boudreau, J
.

W
.

(
2000
)

AB: Investigated how perceptions of performance
appraisal (PA) use relate to employee satisfaction with both
appraisal and appraiser. Ss consisted
of 128 employees (mean age 39 yrs) at a production equipment facility, and the PA occurred
naturally in the organization. All employees were given a formal PA by their immediate supervisor
once a year on the anniversa
ry of their hire date and were rated on multiple job dimensions in
addition to an overall performance rating. During the PA, employees were provided past
performance feedback, information on future areas for improvement, training needs assessment,
and any
merit increase. Ss were administered surveys to assess perceived appraisal use, justice and
demographic information during small group meetings and then 2 months later attitudinal
measures concerning satisfaction with the appraisal and the appraiser were a
dministered. Findings
show that perceived PA use for development positively relates to both PA satisfaction and
satisfaction with the appraiser above the effects of justice, the PA rating, and demographic
variables. It is concluded that perceived developme
ntal PA use shows a consistent positive
association with employee attitudes toward the appraisal and appraiser.


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21

Tziner, A
.

et al. (
2000
)
AB: Examined the effects of rating scale formats on several indices of the
usefulness of performance appraisal for emp
loyee development. The job performance of 96 police
officers (mean age 36.1 yrs) was rated using simple graphic scales or 1 of 2 behaviorally oriented
rating formats: behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) and behavior observation scales
(BOS). As pred
icted, ratees' satisfaction with performance appraisal was highest and their
perceptions of performance goals most favorable when using BOS. In addition, performance
improvement goals for officers rated using BOS were judged by experts to be most observabl
e and
specific. Contrary to the authors' predictions, graphic rating scales were generally as good as BOS
and as good as or better than BARS when evaluated in terms of ratee attitudes and goal
characteristics. The results suggest that different behaviorall
y oriented rating formats can enhance
or inhibit the developmental applications of performance appraisal.


Desai, H
.,

Daftuar, C
.

N
.

(
2000
)
AB: The system of appraising the performance of employees in
any organization has been recognized as an important t
ool of Human Resources Development
(HRD). It is a mechanism that can be used to motivate, encourage, and mould employees.
However, both the appraiser and the appraisee consider it an unpleasant task as no Performance
Appraisal (PA) system can be perfect an
d free from personal biases and other defects. Employees
in organizations can be subjected to varying degrees of stress. However, little is known about
whether an organization's PA system significantly effects employee stress levels. In this paper, this
qu
estion was explored in a sample of 105 managers/supervisors (aged 30 50 yrs), who were
divided into high stress vs low stress groups. Significant differences were found in the
perception of high and low stress groups on some aspects relating to objectives

of PA (basic trust
and aims of PA; clarity, priority and acceptance of the targets of PA; and satisfaction of
respondents about the method of determining targets/objectives for individual employees). On all
these counts, the high stress group viewed the s
ituations more negatively. High stress groups
were also seen to be dissatisfied with the manner in which personality traits and skills were judged
by appriasers.


Moss, G
.

L
.

(
2000
)

AB: Discusses the employee performance appraisal process, particularly
r
egarding optometrist offices. Types of appraisals include evaluative, developmental, and
judgmental appraisals. A critical incidents file, noting important positive and negative employee
incidents, can be a particularly valuable tool. Performance appraisal
s need to be specific and job
related, concern observable and well documented actions, and not contain biased or subjective
criteria. Employees should understand expectations for the specific position and employers have
the obligation to protect employee p
rivacy. The final product of the performance appraisal process
should be a written document summarizing the employee's accomplishments since the last
appraisal.


Pettijohn, C
.

E
.,

Pettijohn, L
.

S
.,

Taylor, A
.

J
.

(
2000
)
AB: In some sales organizations the
performance appraisal is treated as a bureaucratic exercise required by some "higher up" executive.
As such, sales managers may essentially conduct appraisals in an arbitrary and perfunctory manner.
This behavior could be the result of the manager's percep
tion that conducting performance
appraisals requires considerable amounts of time and effort, which provides few rewards, but adds
considerably to the manager's level of conflict and stress. The purpose of this research is to
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examine the relationships exis
ting between one aspect of performance appraisals, salesperson
perceptions of the appropriateness of the criteria used, and two other variables, organizational
commitment and job satisfaction. A survey of 155 retail salespeople provided the data required t
o
evaluate the relationship between satisfaction, commitment, and the perceived appropriateness of
the criteria used. Findings indicate that salesperson satisfaction levels are significantly correlated
with the level of the perceived inappropriateness of t
he evaluation criteria used. However, the
findings also indicate that the perceptions of the inappropriateness of the evaluation criteria are not
significantly related to the salesperson's level of organizational commitment.


Martin, D
.

C
.,

Bartol, K
.

M
.,

Kehoe, P
.

E
.

(
2000
)
AB: Contends that turmoil in the business
environment brought on by numerous mergers, acquisitions, reorganizations, downsizings, and
spinoffs has provided impetus to the growing number of cases in
v
olving discrimination litigation,
and

that performance appraisal is frequently a part of this litigation. This article provides
information concerning those areas (layoffs, promotions, discharges, merit pay, and combinations
of 2 or more of the aforementioned), which are normally related to t
he results of performance
appraisal and attract a significant amount of legal work. The sample of cases used to demonstrate
prudent, and not so prudent, use of the results of performance appraisal focus on discrimination
issues related to Title VII of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment
Act, the Equal Pay Act, and other closely allied statutes. The authors conclude that evaluations of
performance should be based on the results of performance appraisal processes that incorporat
e
concerns for organizational justice and fairness.


Bowen, C
.

C
.,

Swim, J
.

K
.,

Jacobs, R
.

R
.

(
2000
)
AB: Examined gender bias on job performance in
work settings where confounding variables (e.g., organizational level, experience, education) were
taken in
to consideration to ensure fair comparisons. The purpose of this study was to statistically
integrate and summarize field studies focusing on comparing men's and women's performance
appraisals. Little evidence of overall gender bias in performance appraisa
ls was found. However,
there were significant pro male biases when only men served as raters. Measure specific gender
stereotypicality, instead of general stereotypicality about the job, produced gender bias in
performance appraisal. Masculine measures pro
duced pro male bias, and feminine measures
produced pro female bias.


Viswesvaran, C
.,

Ones, D
.

S
.

(
2000
)

AB: Reviews contemporary models of job performance.
Links between task performance, contextual performance, organizational citizenship behaviors,
cou
nterproductivity and organizational deviance are pointed out. Measurement issues in
constructing generic models applicable across jobs are discussed. Implications for human resource
management in general and performance appraisal for selection and assessme
nt in particular, are
explored. It is pointed out that the different dimensions or facets of individual job performance
hypothesized in the literature are positively correlated. This positive manifold suggests the
presence of a general factor which represe
nts a common variance shared across all the dimensions
or facets. Although no consensus exists in the extant literature on the meaning and source of this
shared variance, rater idiosyncratic halo alone does not explain this general factor. Future research
should explain the common individual differences determinants of performance dimensions.


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Boger, C
.,

Boger, D
.

(
2000
)
AB: The purpose of this study was to utilize a post observation
interview with 37 female elementary and middle grades student teachers rel
ating to items on the
North Carolina Teacher Performance Appraisal Instrument (NCTAPI). The post observation
interview provided elementary and middle grades student teachers an opportunity to explain their
reasons for choosing a teaching practice, especial
ly when their choice was incongruous with what
was taught in the professional education courses and inconsonant with research on teaching.
Results of the 8 major functions on the NCTPAI identified by student teachers as receiving
frequent emphasis in their

professional education courses revealed that, on all major functions, the
majority of student teachers made choices inconsistent with what had been taught in professional
education classes and what was congruent with research findings. Moreover, student t
eachers'
explanations regarding their motivation for selecting a particular choice disclosed a low influence
of university training on their decision.


Lim, K
.

H
.,

Benbasat, I
.,

Ward, L
.

M
.

(
2000
)
AB: Drawing from multimedia literature, this study
identifi
es several characteristics of multimedia presentations that have the potential to alleviate
first impression bias. Based on this literature, a set of predictions was generated and tested through
a laboratory experiment using a simulated multimedia intranet
. Half of the 80 Ss were provided
with a biased cue. Ss were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) text with first impression bias cue,
(2) multimedia with first impression bias cue, (3) text without biased cue, and (4) multimedia
without biased cue. The expe
rimental task inVol.ved conducting a 5 yr performance appraisal of a
department head. Results show that the appraisal score of the text with biased cue group was
significantly lower than the text only (without biased cue) group. On the other hand, the appr
aisal
score of the multimedia with biased cue group was not significantly different from the multimedia
only (without biased cue) group. As a whole, the results suggest that multimedia presentations, but
not text based presentations, reduce the influences
of first impression bias.


Webber, S
.

S
.,

et al. (
2000
)

AB: Borrowing from performance appraisal practices, this article
presents a new method for assessing team mental models (TMMs) that is user friendly and allows
for the measurement of both TMM accuracy

and similarity. To demonstrate the utility of the
proposed TMM measurement methodology, the authors examined the ability of TMM similarity
and accuracy to predict subsequent team performance. Participants were 147 members (mean age
28 yrs) of 24 community

league basketball teams. The new method inVol.ved (1) generating
multiple critical incident based team scenarios with the help of subject matter experts (SMEs), (2)
asking a different set of SMEs to generate behaviors that vary in effectiveness across tea
m
scenarios (3) reducing the number of behaviors to a reasonable amount with the help of SMEs,