Resource and environmental


8 nov. 2013 (il y a 7 années et 11 mois)

244 vue(s)

Resource and environmental

Example of Environmental issues


Environmental Impacts of Mining

Global Warming

“Tragedy of the commons”

and other


Jungle burned for agriculture in southern Mexico

Logging in


Environmental impacts caused by

Burning forests and decay of wood after
logging contribute to the release of
greenhouse gases

Loss of biodiversity

Forests are important parts of hydrologic
cycle in nature


Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile

Iron hydroxide precipitate
stains a stream receiving
acid drainage from surface
coal mining.

Environmental impacts of mining

Land/soil erosion

Formation of sinkholes,

Loss of biodiversity in the area

Contamination of groundwaters by
chemicals from the mining process and

Abandoned mines can still pose safety
hazards such as deadly gases

Chemicals used for mining

Sodium cyanide for extraction of gold

Sulphuric acid for extraction of copper
from copper oxides

If these chemicals are not handled properly,
serious environmental impacts may occur
to the neighbouring environment

Global Warming

Environmental Effects of

Global Warming

Melting of permafrost and polar ice

Rising sea level

Spread of pests and disease

Ecological impacts (e.g. disturbed life
cycle of flora

This image is of the Easton Glacier on Mount
Baker in the North Cascades of Washington
taken in 2003. It shows the terminus position of
the glacier in 1985 as well.

“Tragedy of the Commons”

Free access and unrestricted demand for a finite
resource ultimately dooms the resource through

Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is
one example. As everyone can release carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere with little personal
consequence, people tends to care very little
about limiting its emission.

Overfishing in the open sea is another example. If
everyone with a fishing boat can fish as much as
they like, they will eventually drive the fish stock
to commercially extinct.

State of Global Fisheries

The FAO State of World Fisheries and
Aquaculture 2004 report estimates that in 2003,
of the main fish stocks or groups of resources for
which assessment information is available,
"approximately one
quarter were overexploited,
depleted or recovering from depletion… and
needed rebuilding.“

edible fish are endangered in 14 of the world's 16
major fishing areas

This is another example

If anyone can throw charms onto the
wishing tree (a shared resource) without
caring the consequence, the tree will
eventually collapse.

Any solution?

Some suggested that overexploitation of a
resource can be solved by proper
management of the
property right

to use
the resource.

Licensing and tradeable quota are some
possible financial instruments.


If there is another wishing tree, how should
it be managed?