2012 Advisory Panel

deadmancrossingraceIA et Robotique

13 nov. 2013 (il y a 8 années et 3 mois)

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2012 Advisory Panel

Electromechanical System Solutions

Joe Beno

Center for Electromechanics

The University of Texas at Austin



Electromechanical System Solutions

Synergistic combination of electromechanical hardware
(actuators, motors, generators); controls and related software;
sensors and related software; communication and related
software; transducers; power electronics; processors; materials
science; and all interconnections.

Key applications

Almost any electrically powered device or system that moves
itself or something else under its own power.

This talk focuses on motion control systems, actuation systems,
robotic systems and anything else not covered by other talks.

Key Challenges

Get Ahead of the
Wave (or at least ride it!)

Exploit advances in all related fields, especially
computation, analysis and power electronics.

Improve Integration and Systems Engineering.

Identify commercially viable products and
commercially viable new science.

Source: Lyshevski textbook

on Mechatronics

Mechatronics: New engineering discipline that
emerged in ~2000.

CEM vision also includes material science and
systems engineering.

At Universities the disciplines of Electrical
Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical
Engineering and Material Sciences are still
largely represented by separate departments

after 40 years CEM still needed to focus on
cross discipline applications.

Significant Recent Programs

Hobby Eberly Telescope

20 ton robot to move
optical package along

trajectories to

within ~5

microns in

real time.

Significant Recent Programs

HET Tracker Video

Significant Recent Programs

Giant Magellan Telescope Azimuth and Elevation
Drives Design Study

New class of super large telescopes

Operational in ~2020 in Atacama Desert, Chile

7 Large mirrors, viewing area 80 ft in diameter

Long circular track (~60 m);
permanent magnet
direct drive solution

4 forcer heads per track, ~6,700 lbf total

Integrate with GMT control system

Less than 2% force ripple (desire close to 0.1%)

Must stay with 2

C of ambient

Minimize size and weight

Significant Recent Programs

GMT Azimuth Drive Design Tour Video

Significant Recent Programs

Oshkosh 90,000 lb Airport Rescue and
Firefighting (ARFF) Active Suspension System

2.5x to 4x increase in vehicle per wheel
mass compared to previous vehicles

Required hybrid power train
development: 10 Farad Cap storage,
200 kW peak power, 48 kW avg power

6 actuators, each with 17,300 lbf peak and
6,600 lbf continuous

3.5x force and 2x speed (7 m/s wheel
vertical speed) of previous suspension

Result: 3x increase in cross country speed

Result: Greatly improved handling and

eliminates roll on high g turns

Significant Recent Programs

ARFF Highlights Video

Significant Recent Programs

NASA Vibration Isolation System

Isolates electronics racks on heavy lift
vehicle launch platforms (e.g., space
shuttle mobile launch platform).

Disturbance rejection up to 2 kHz (high
bandwidth actuators)

2.75 ton payload

Vertical velocity primarily less than 1 m/s

Actuator stroke ~6 inches

Very low friction system

Developed new “voice
coil” actuator

Significant Recent Programs

NASA Vibration Isolation Video

Recent and Ongoing Smaller Scale
EM System Examples

High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic
Bearings for Ultra Low Loss Flywheel Systems

Aggregate Screen Actuator (sifts and
separates gravel by size; 100 Hz, 3250 lbf,
homopolar actuator with PM bias)

Canfield Joint as Gimbal Replacement System
for Satellite Reaction Wheels (~2 kg)

Small programs with potential to expand
CEM expertise and applications

Key CEM Strength

Modeling and Simulation

Key CEM Strength

of Model Verification

Key CEM Strength

Balanced System Design

Geared Actuator Weight vs. Gear Ratio

Active Suspension Alternator

System Design

Power Electronics

Mechanical Advantage

Power Source


MW Flywheel Battery &
Power Electronics

High Peak

Dual Motor Controller

Key CEM Strength

Multidisciplinary Analysis


X axis,140 turns @ 12 Amps per coil

M19 Laminations 0.063 in, 1.5 deep

Air gap 0.100 in @ 14 in diameter

O.D. 20 in, I.D. 8 in

0 Hz

Neumman Boundary Conditions



EM FEA of Coil Circuit of Screen Actuator

Key CEM Strength

Use of Energy Storage


Mechanical Springs

PM (Potential Energy)

Caps; Ultra


How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Identify and Develop New Opportunities

CEM traditional customer’s budgets are declining. Their response: keep current staff and
reduce/eliminate external contracts (Army R&D centers/labs, NASA, ONR)

One exception: Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and Small Business
Technology Transfer (STTR) programs: established by Congress and must be externally
contracted to small businesses

Some military system procurements surviving

More focused on application of existing technology, more production oriented, less

More focused on OEM’s

DOE: Doing energy research (a CEM strength), but has major cost share requirements


Must develop new customers (DARPA, industry)

Must team with industry more for military procurements

Must team with industry more for SBIR/STTR’s (small contracts with opportunities for
expanding CEM areas of expertise)

Must team with industry more for DOE opportunities

CEM program mangers must expand outreach to industry and new customers (

How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Identify and Exploit New/Emerging Technology

CEM uniqueness is applied R&D through advanced prototype hardware

Usually (but not always) exploits basic R&D or new products from other

Example: Toray T1000G fiber critical to increased flywheel energy density that
was significant motivation for government sponsors to fund CEM flywheel
research in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.

Example: Emerging permanent magnet materials and improved
processing/controls critical to development active magnetic bearings that was
significant motivation for government sponsors to fund CEM flywheel research
in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.

Example: Emerging COTS motor generators, advanced analysis capabilities,
new processing/controls technology critical to CEM active suspension program
from 1993 to ~2005.

Has been a major source of CEM innovation in the past.


CEM must expand outreach efforts to identify new/emerging technology

CEM must expand awareness of relevant R&D developments
and their potential
before industry and other R&D organizations

How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Develop New Areas of CEM Expertise

Active funded areas of R&D grow old and funding wanes.

Newness and excitement wears off.

Upcoming government and industry leaders want to make their own mark.

Sometimes, after sufficiently long lulls, R&D area re

New technology expands possibilities

Other options don’t pay off and they wear out their welcome


CEM must continually develop new areas of expertise

Past examples: flywheel energy storage systems, active suspension systems, oil and
gas support areas (subject of later talk); telescope movement control systems

How to establish a new area of expertise?

Get smart through equivalent of IR&D

Team with other experts

Establish a presence through papers, conferences, meetings, outreach.

How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Required Resources

One 3 day trip per month (~$1,800 average travel cost per trip)

Cultivating new sponsors, joint planning/budgeting/proposing activities with
industry members, visiting government agencies, attending meetings, and
attending 2
3 conferences per year

0.5 days planning and arranging trip, preparing briefings, etc.

1 day follow
up from trip

2 hrs per day when not on travel for white papers, responding to budget
requests, maintaining contact and presence with sponsors and team members,
searching for funding opportunities, etc.

3 major proposal efforts per year (4 PI man
days and 4 engineering support
days each)

Total: ~$9.5K / month

My current B&P budget: $1,670/month (not enough to cover one average trip
if I use vacation time to cover my labor cost).

If successful, UT will earn $1M to $1.6M in overhead and CEM will receive
$290K to $500K direct funding for admin, lab services, software, etc.
per year

after the building year.

Near Term Focus

energize flywheel energy storage programs

After having plateaued for ~20 years, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) offer 30
50% improvement
in energy density in near term to reinforce existing carbon fibers and 1 to 2 orders of
magnitude in long term to replace existing carbon fibers

Team with organizations with appropriate CNT expertise

Exploit SBIRs/STTRs to get started and build technology and “presence”

Will significantly outperform other forms of energy storage (e.g., Li batteries)

Cost will be an issue

After having plateaued for ~20 years, magnetic bearings are poised to make major step in
efficiency through use of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Trapped Field Magnets

Also exploits advancements in COTS cryo
cooling technology

Builds on CEM recognized expertise in HTS generators

Builds on past CEM STTR for HTSMBs for flywheels

Exploit SBIRs/STTRs to get started and build technology and “presence”

Government is showing renewed interest in flywheel energy storage systems (Li batteries
are showing initial signs of wearing out their welcome)

NASA has major internal flywheel development program, needs CEM composite and
HTSMB expertise, and want to team with CEM to go after DARPA money

Favorable circumstance: new DARPA program manager, friend of NASA, and flywheel advocate

Flywheel Technology Status and Roadmap paper may help focus Government funding

Near Term Focus

Exploit leading edge telescope motion control system expertise

on to Giant Magellan Telescope main axis drives system study

Several consortiums have new super large telescopes in various stages
of planning and design

Contracts often spread among consortium members and consortium

Continue to pursue industry support for active suspension projects

Builds on existing CEM customers and CEM active suspension

New Government interest in Semi
active suspension systems (subset of
CEM technology

Expand to new areas


U.S. lags in industrial robots but leads in compliant robots that physically
interact with humans

Have will continue to team with Professor Deshpande, U.T. Department of
Mechanical Engineering

Discussion and Questions