I

concernedimpartialBiotechnologie

3 déc. 2012 (il y a 8 années et 9 mois)

459 vue(s)

From what I kn
ow, genetic engineering is a far cry from common breeding and hybridizing
practices.

1)

please briefly explain how and why genetic engineering and is currently being used

2)

transferring genes from one species to another
-

say a fish gene into a tomato, or a
h
uman gene into a pig
-

has raised some eyebrows to say the least.

a.

is this technology precise and predictable?

b.

what are the dangers involved with this technology?

c.

do we know what the long
-
term health impacts of genetically engineered foods
are or whether or

not they are safe to feed our children?


A big concern has been letting these engineered genes loose in the wild.

a.

has this had unpredicted outcomes on related organisms?

b.

are weeds or insects increasing their resistance to herbicides/pesticides?

c.

Viruses ar
e used to genetically modify plants. What are the dangers of using
viruses; can they infect other plants, crops, or animals?

d.


Are there adequate regulations to keep novel genes from entering the wild?


II.

Can the panel address the experiences of farmers

growing genetically engineered crops?

a.

Have yields of GE crops increased or decreased?

b.

Has pesticide use increased or decreased?

c.

what have been the impacts on farmers?

d.

also due to the secretiveness of the industry, GM crops are showing up in GM
-
free fields


currently who is liable for contamination?

e.

how have farmers fared contracting with biotech companies and how can we
expect Kentucky tobacco farmers to fare contracting with a medical research
company?

f.

How has UK as a land grant university, seen their dut
y as far as getting facts
about GM crops to farmers, including risks and loss of markets?


III.

What are the experiences of farmers trying to stay GM
-
free?

a.

With the new organic standard, organic farmers bear the burden of proving their
crops are GM
-
free

ca
n the panel comment on the effects of increased
production of GM crops on the small organic producer?

b.

Is the use of Bt by organic farmers being compromised by the overuse of this
natural insecticide by Bt
-
producing crops?


III.

A new direction that biotec
hnology is moving is the use of plants and animals to
produce pharmaceuticals. Kentucky is the home to a company doing research in this area:
Large Scale Biology Corporation. Now a small company from Louisville, ApoImmune, has
teamed up with Large Scale
to genetically engineer a tobacco plant in attempts to grow tobacco
that produces proteins intended to be used for pharmaceuticals. The state agricultural
development board even approved funding for this project under the idea, and with the claim,
that
Kentucky's tobacco farmers have the chance to become a part of a new multi
-
million dollar
market. What are realistic expectations for

a.

farmers that would enter contracts to produce pharmaceutical tobacco?

b.

the containment of these genes to prevent contamina
tion of the food supply, other
tobacco fields, or the soil?


IV.

How has industry funding university research and intellectual property rights (patents)
influenced the direction of the research?


V. Patents have also dramatically changed the legal landsca
pe for farmers. Traditionally, farmers
who contaminate a neighbors land were liable for damages. However, thousands of farmers
who do not use and do not economically benefit from GMOs are now being sued when
patented agricultural products pollute their l
and. How do you intend to protect Kentucky
farmers from expensive lawsuits based on unauthorized use of patented GMO products?


VI. Genetic engineering dramatically changes the way farms are managed and operated.
Farmers traditionally have purchased seed
s and inputs and put them to use on their farms as
they see fit. With GMOs they purchase only the right to use patented technologies.
Consequently, biotechnology controls the farm management practices of growers using GMOs.
Will farmers growing pharmace
utical tobacco have autonomy and control of their farm
management practices separate from the biotechnology company they contract with?