Thematic Analysis of Stressors and Limitations to Conservation of Species and Habitats

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22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 3 mois)

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Thematic Analysis of Stressors and Limitations to Conservation of
Species and Habitats

Eastern Tallgrass Prairie and Big Rivers Landscape Conservation Cooperative



8/23/2013






1


A)

River Restoration

Table 1.
Distribution of
Themes on Stressors/Limitations of River Restoration Extracted from Participants’
Responses (n = 27).

Stressors / Limitations

n

Causes of stressors / limitations

n

Invasive species

6



Lateral disconnection of landscapes

6

Agricultural practices

1

Land use

1

Economic

factors

5



Cost of land use decisions

1



Cost of restoration

1



Navigation

1



Commodity prices

1



Changing economic market

1



Hydrological alterations

5

River structures

1

Storage reservoirs

1

M
anagement

4



Disconnected projects

1



Management practices

1



Management tools

1



Inconsistency of river management plans
among proximate states

1



Land use

3



Soil erosion and sedimentation

3

Agricultural practices

2

Social/sociopolitical factors

3



Public apathy

1



Public perception

1



River management politics

1



Climate change

2



Institutional
factors

2



Drainage districts

1



Private l
and ownership

1



Divergent agency/state missions

1



Bank stabilization and vegetation
encroachment

1



Overlapping information and research

1



Conflicting
objectives

of

land use and
conservation

1





2


Table 1.

Continued

Stressors / Limitations

n

Causes of stressors / limitations

n

Development and planning

1



Geographic scale of restoration

1



Habitat homogenization

1



Habitat loss

1

Land use

1

Hydrological uncertainties

1



Lack of k
nowledge

1




Landscape restoration to original setting

1



Loss of
water bodies
natural channels


1

Changes in sediment supply, flow, flood
protection, and
change of riverbank
vegetation

1

Loss of wetland functions

1



Maintenance of built infrastructures

1



Pollution

1

Non
-
point source pollution

1


1

Sediment contamination by heavy
metals,
PAH
, oil
-
sand products

1

Nutrient dynamics and sediment
loadings

1

Use of waterways

1

Population growth

1



Reduced plant species diversity

1

Climate change

1

Soil erosion

1

River fragmentation

1

Main
-
stem impoundments, hydrologic
alteration by diversions , tributary or off
-
channel storage, or groundwater
pumpage from (or enhanced recharge to)
hydrologically connected aquifers;
channel oversteepening

1

Sampling in large rivers

1



Stakeholders' motivations and incentives

1



Uncertainty

1



Use of waterways

1



Water quality

1

Pollution

1

Water quantity

1

Pollution

1

River structures

1





3


B)

Urban Watershed M
anagement

Table
2
. Distribution of Themes on Stressors/Limitations of
Urban Watershed Management
Extracted from
Participants’ Responses (n =
9
).

Stressors / limitations

n

Causes of stressors / limitations

n

Water pollution

2

Agricultural runoff

1



Non
-
point source pollution

1



Sewer outflows

1

M
anagement

2



Poor
or

fragmented m
anagement
practices

2


Data availability and
consistency

2


Social factors

2



Public apathy


1



Stakeholders' motivations and
incentives

1



Stream alteration

or
channelization

2



Erosion

and sedimentation

1

Invasive species

1



Agricultural runoff

1

Economic

factors

1



Changing economic markets

1



Lack of streamside landowners’ Knowledge
=
1
=
=
=
i慲g攠g
敯gr慰h楣is捡汥
=
慮d=
楮瑥t捯nn散瑥tness=of=big=r楶ers
=
1
=
=
=
eydro汯g楣

=
慬瑥a慴楯n
=
1
=
T楬敤=f慲m=f楥汤s
=
1
=
=
=
o敧u污瑥l=dr慩as
=
1
=
=
=
f汬⁤敶楳敤=汥l敥s=
=
1
=
fnvas楶攠sp散楥i
=
1
=
=
=
i慣k=of=s瑲敡m=s整e慣ks
=
1
=
=
=
iand=慶慩污a楬楴y
=
for=m慮agem敮t
=
1
=
=
=
iand=use
=
1
=
=
=
=
i慴敲慬a捯nn散瑩v楴y=of=污ndsc慰敳
=
1
=
=
=
i慣k=of=r
敳eur捥s
=
1
=
=
=
却prmw慴敲=runoff
=
1
=
=
=
“Unrestored” u
rb慮=楮瑥tf慣e
=
1
=
mrox業楴y
=
1
=
t慴敲sh敤=fr慧men瑡瑩tn
=
1
=
=
=
=
=
4


C)

Prairie

Re
storation

Table
3
. Distribution of Themes on Stressors/Limitations
Affecting

Prairie Restoration

Extracted from Participants’
Responses (n =
2
5
).

Stressors

/

limitations

n

Causes of stressors

/ limitations

n

Invasive species

9

Absence of fire culture

1

Availability of resources

6



Biological resources

3



Appropriate seeds / local seeds

2



L
ocal ecotype plant materials

1



F
inancial resources

3



H
uman resources

2



Land use

5



Habitat
fragmentation

and/
or loss

4



Social factors

4



Stakeholders' motivations and incentives

2



Stakeholders’ l
and=整e楣
=
1
=
=
=
却慫eho汤敲s'=w楬汩ngness=瑯=p慲瑩捩t慴a
=
1
=
i慣k=of=know

dg攠and=散onom楣i
楮瑥t敳e
=
1
=
䑩a捯nn散瑥t=pr慩a楥i
=
or=污lds捡p敳
=
P
=
=
=
䵡n慧ement
=
P
=
=
=
moor=man慧emen琠tr慣瑩捥t
=
2
=
=
=
乯n
-
in瑥gr慴敤=慰pro慣h=瑯=m慮慧ement
=
1
=
=
=
C汩m慴攠捨ange
=
2
=
=
=
E捯nom楣
=
f慣瑯rs
=
2
=
=
=
i慣k=of=散onom楣i楮捥n瑩v敳
=
1
=
=
=
Chang楮g=散onom楣im慲k整
=
1
=
=
=
i慣k=of=k
now汥lge
=
2
=
=
=
fns瑩tu瑩tn慬af慣瑯rs
=
2
=
=
=
m
r楶慴攠
污ld
=
own敲sh楰
=
1
=
=
=
mo汩捩敳
=
1
=
=
=
䅧ro捨em楣慬i
=
1
=
=
=
Commun楣i瑩tn
=
1
=
=
=
䡡e楴慴ⁱu慬楴y
=
1
=
=
=
䡵m慮=popu污瑩ln
=
1
=
=
=
eydro汯g楣i楮瑥gr楴y
=
1
=
=
=
fn慤敱u慴攠so楬⁳ubs瑲慴a
=
1
=
=
=
fnfr慳瑲u捴ure
=
1
=
=
=
䭥ys瑯n攠sp散楥i
=
1
=
=
=

5


Table
3
.

Continued

Stressors

/

limitations

n

Causes of stressors

/ limitations

n

Land availability

1



Land

cover

1



Landscape alteration

1



Opportunities to reach appropriate scales for
restoration

1



Soil community alteration

1



Technology use
, e.g. plowing

using strip
-
disking

1



Temporal restrictions

1





6


D)

Agroecology Conservation Practices

Table
4
. Distribution of Themes on Stressors/Limitations
Affecting

Prairie

Restoration

Extracted from Participants’
Responses (n =
23
).

Stressors / limitations

n

Causes of stressors / limitations

n

Economic factors

8



Farm program benefits increase cost of
land for conservation

1



Lack of markets for sustainable
agricultural products

1



Production subsidies and distorted markets

1



High commodity prices
encouraging crop
production rather than conservation

1



Economics of agro
-
ecology vs.
conventional ag
ricultural

practices

1



Changing economic market




High demand for cost
-
share

1



Insufficient conservation cost
-
share funds

1



Social

/socioeconomic

factors

5



Social values

1



Socio
-
economic drivers during private land
conservation

1



Stakeholders' motivations and incentives

1



Motivation

1



Unwillingness to change

1



Land use

for crop production

5

High commodity prices

1



Competing demands of land use

1

Management

4



Lack of appropriate/flexible management
tools

2



Management outcome
-

balancing between
field practices and large area impacts

1



Non
-
integrated approach to management

1



Institutional factors

4



Private/
land ownership

2



Policies

2



Farm bill and energy policy

1



Exemptions from regulation

1



Data availability

for conservation

3



7


Table
4
.

Continued

Stressors / limitations

n

Causes of stressors / limitations

n

Lack of farmers’ knowledge

3



Agricultural practices

2



Climate change

2



Risks and uncertainties

1



Habitat fragmentation

or loss

2



Water quality

2

Nutrient
and sediment loss

1

Agrochemicals

1

Economic
-

cheap price of agrochemicals

1

Communication

1



Education

1



Availability of financial resources

1



Availability of food

1



Availability of suitable habitats

1



Land cover

1



Land loss

1

Loss of
fence row and marginal crops due
to h
igh commodity prices

1

Scale of spatial and temporal response

1



Transience of conservation programs

1



Water quantity

1