(especially oat bran) Whole grains and wheat bran ... - Get a Free Blog


14 déc. 2012 (il y a 9 années et 1 mois)

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The Power of Protein

Provides the building blocks for tissues,

enzymes and hormones that control

metabolism and movement

Provides 10
15% of your energy during


Role in creating lipoproteins , muscle

tissue, connective tissue, red blood cells

and immune
system cells

Complete, Incomplete and Complimentary Proteins


foods that contain all of the essential amino acids
in amounts sufficient to meet your metabolic demands

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese and soy


foods that supply most but not all essential
amino acids

Plants, including legumes, grains and nuts


combinations of different incomplete
proteins when eaten together, make a complete protein

Rice & beans; cereal and milk; whole
grain bread &

cheese; noodle dish with peanuts; black beans & corn

Recommended Protein Intake

Adequate daily intake of protein =
0.36 gram per pound of body



35% of total daily calories

Practical Tips

Look for cuts of meat with the words “loin” and “round” in the name to
reduce fat intake

Buy ground beef that is at least 93% lean

Buy boneless, skinless chicken breasts

those with “rib meat” are higher
in fat

Use ground white turkey breast as a substitute for ground beef. Regular
ground turkey can actually be higher in fat than some ground beef.

“All White” or “Chunk White” Albacore canned tuna is the best and
healthiest to buy

Cottage cheese has the highest protein out of all dairy foods. Mix it with
some canned peaches for a yummy snack

Fat is NOT the Enemy!

Helps control hunger by lingering in our stomach and making us
feel full longer

Our most significant form of energy storage, containing twice
the energy of an equal amount of stored carbs

Insulates us from the cold and provides a cushion for our vital

Transports vitamins A,D,E, and K through the body. Without
adequate fat in the diet, these vitamin levels can be low,
causing, among other things, night blindness, weak bones,
muscles problems and bleeding disorders.

Types and Sources of Fat

: a fat with no carbon
carbon double bonds; usually
solid at room temperature.

Found primarily in animal fats and palm and coconut oils

a fat with one carbon
carbon double bond;
usually liquid at room temperature

Found in certain vegetables, nuts and vegetable oils


a fat with two or more carbon
carbon double
bonds; usually liquid at room temperature

Found in certain vegetables, nuts and vegetables oils and

fatty fish

Fat and Health

Excessive intakes of dietary fat contribute to obesity, diabetes, cancer
and cardiovascular disease


fat levels elevate blood cholesterol and are the main
dietary determination of blood cholesterol levels


fats lower blood cholesterol


fats may lower blood cholesterol slightly or have a
neutral effect on it

3 fatty acids
appear to reduce blood cholesterol and may also
help to prevent certain cancers

6 fatty acids
play a large role in maintaining the immune
system and vision

Recommended Fat Intake

35% of total daily calories

Saturated fat should contribute less
than 10%.

Polyunsaturated should not exceed

Trash the Trans Fats!

Industrially created by adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated
fats, making them more saturated

Consumption of trans fats increases one’s risk for coronary heart
disease by raising levels “bad” LDL cholesterol and lowering
“good” levels of HDL cholesterol

Since 2006 the government has required companies to include
this artery
clogging fat on their Nutrition Fact labels

Trash the Trans Fats!


Companies are only required to report trans fat levels over

.5 gram per serving


even if a food package claims “No Trans Fat”

it still
contains trans fat if the ingredient label contains the words
“hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” oils. It will
contain at most .5 grams per serving. If you eat two
servings, you’ve upped your intake to 1 gram of trans fat……

…and 1 gram of trans fat per day

increases your risk of cardiovascular

disease by 20%!

Practical Tips

Lowering Saturated Fat Intake

Eat a meatless meal or two daily

Drink fat free or 2% milk

Use fat
free yogurt or fat
free salad dressing instead of sour cream,

cheese mayo or other sauces on vegetables and in casseroles

Use wine, lemon juice or broth instead of butter or margarine when


Have fruit for dessert

Increasing Unsaturated Fat Intake

Use olive or canola oil to cook and bake

Have 1 oz of unsalted nuts or seeds as a snack or on cereals: 22

almonds; 28 peanuts; 20 pecans; 45 pistachios; 10 walnuts; ¼ cup

sunflower seeds

Include avocados, olives, peanut butter, salmon, whitefish, trout,

tuna and halibut in your diet

Have 1 T per day of olive oil or margarine made with olive or canola

oil on bread

Count on your Carbohydrates

The primary function is to supply energy to body cells

Some cells, such as those in the brain, nervous system,
and blood, use only carbohydrates for fuel

During high
intensity exercise, muscles get most of their
energy from carbohydrates

During digestion, carbohydrates are broken into single
sugar molecules such as glucose for absorption; the liver
and muscles take up glucose and store it in the form of

Whole Grains

Before they are processed, all grains are
whole grains consisting of an inner layer
of germ, a middle layer called the
endosperm, and an outer layer of bran

During processing, the germ and bran
are often removed, leaving just the
starchy endosperm

Refined carbohydrates usually retain all
the calories of a whole grain but lose
many of the nutrients

Refined Carbohydrates vs. Whole Grains

Whole grains are higher than refined carbohydrates in fiber,
vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds

Whole grains take longer to digest

Make people feel full sooner

Cause a slower rise in glucose levels

Choose foods that have a whole grain as the first item on the
ingredient list on the food label

Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, whole

corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc

Recommended Carbohydrate Intake

Adequate daily intake of carbohydrate = 130


65% of total daily calories as carbohydrate

Limit on intake of added sugars

25% of total daily calories

Practical Tips

Healthy Whole Grain/Carb Choices


the highest grams of carbs per serving are found in raisins,

bananas, pears, grapes, watermelon and blueberries


highest g/per serving in baked potatoes and sweet

potatoes (with skins), garbanzo beans, butternut squash and boiled

white/yellow corn and green beans


look for “100% whole wheat breads” that have one or more of

the following listed as one of the first ingredients: whole
wheat flour,

cracked wheat, rolled oats, barley and rye. Multi
grain breads with

sunflower, sesame and flaxseed also.


brown rice is best

the less it’s processed the more vitamins,

minerals, fatty acids and fiber are retained

Breakfast cereal

those made from whole
grain flour or meal, including

corn, wheat and brown rice. Look for whole grains that have been

cracked, split or puffed


A Closer Look

Complex CHO that your body does not break down

Indigestible part of foods like whole grains, fruits and vegetables

Absorbs water in your stomach and expands, which helps you
feel full

Since your body can’t digest it, it passes through your body
without adding calories

You should aim to consume 25
35 grams of fiber every day

Americans currently consume about half that amount!

Types of Fiber


can lower cholesterol levels, improve blood
sugar control in diabetics and delays stomach


helps remove carcinogens (potentially
causing substances found in food) from your

present naturally in plants

isolated from natural sources or
synthesized in a lab and added to a food or

Total fiber = dietary + functional

Sources of Fiber

All plant foods contain fiber, but processing can remove it (such as
canned fruit)

Good sources of fiber:

Fruits (especially whole, unpeeled fruits)



Oats (especially oat bran)

Whole grains and wheat bran

Psyllium (found in some cereals

and laxatives)


Suppresses the appetite naturally and helps the body metabolize
stored fat

A decrease in water intake will cause fat deposits to increase in the

when the liver has to help the kidneys, it can’t do its main job
of metabolizing fat and that fat just stays in the body

Water helps to maintain proper muscle tone by giving muscles their
natural ability to contract and by preventing dehydration


Should be consumed cold because it is absorbed into the system
more quickly. Some evidence even suggests that drinking cold
water can actually burn calories

The most common recommended daily intake is 8 glasses, or
approximately 2 quarts

Pale, yellow urine reflects proper water intake

Plain water is best, but milk, decaf tea and fruit juice can also
contribute to the day’s recommended intake

What is Nutrient Density?

Comparison of vitamin and mineral content to number of calories:

USDA Food Guide Pyramid Becomes


Serving Sizes

Serving Sizes

Leading Sources of Calories in the
American Diet

1. Regular soft drinks (7.1% of total calories)

2. Cake, sweet rolls, doughnuts, pastries (3.6%)

3. Hamburgers, cheeseburgers, meat loaf (3.1%)

4. Pizza (3.1%)

5. Potato chips, corn chips, popcorn (2.9%)

6. Rice (2.7%)

7. Rolls, buns, English muffins, bagels (2.7%)

8. Cheese or cheese spread (2.6%)

9. Beer (2.6%)

10. French fries, fried potatoes (2.2%)

Source: Block, G. 2004. Foods contributing to energy intake in the U.S.: Data from NHANES III and NHANES 1999

Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis

17: 439


Food Additives

Sodium nitrate

Commonly added to bacon, ham, hot dogs, lunch meats

Linked to various types of cancer

under certain high

temperature cooking conditions transforms into a reactive


“Top of my list of additives to cut from my diet” (ADA)


Synthetic fat found in some brands of potato chips

Prevents fat from getting absorbed into the digestion system

Inhibits healthy vitamin absorption from fat

carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables that reduce the risk

of cancer and heart disease

Additional icky side effects

Food Additives

High Fructose Corn Syrup

Heavy consumption has been linked to increased rates of obesity and

Often appears in highly processed and high calorie foods

Fructose is very different from table sugar

Absorbed more quickly by the body and its conversion into cholesterol
and triglycerides is not controlled by insulin because it does not release
insulin or require insulin to be absorbed into the cells

By not releasing into the body, HFCS is prohibiting the appetite
suppressing hormone leptin

Makes our bodies unaware that we have eaten and making us want

Some Ways to Avoid Food Additives

It’s nearly impossible to completely avoid them

Start with snack foods and beverages

these are usually
ones that are consumed in higher quantities

Then concentrate on items that you may use several times
a week

like desserts, bread, pasta sauces, salad dressings
and ketchups

Look for snacks and processed foods that are “All Natural”
or “Organic”

Food Labels

Less is more

the less
ingredients listed the better!

If you can’t pronounce it,
don’t eat it

The higher the ingredient is
on the list, the more of it is
contained in the food

Organic Foods

Foods grown and produced according to strict guidelines
limiting the use of pesticides, nonorganic ingredients,
hormones, antibiotics, genetic engineering, irradiation, and
other practices

Organic foods from out of the country do not meet the
same standards as those from the USA

Crop and animal waste, crops are rotated,

botanical pesticides, no prohibited substances

3 years prior

Top 12 Foods to Buy Organic

(With % of sampled found to contain pesticides)















Imported Grapes

86% of

grapes (i.e. Chile)





Bell Peppers


Red Raspberries


Least Contaminated Fruits and Vegetables






Corn (However, almost all corn is genetically modified)






Sweet Peas

Modified Organisms (GMO)

Crop plants created for human or animal consumption using
the latest molecular biology techniques

These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance
desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or
improved nutritional content

Advantages: pest resistance, cold tolerance, drought tolerance,

Disadvantages: food allergies, stomach, kidney

and liver issues in animal testing, gene

Transfer to non
target species

86% of corn, 93% soy, 93% of cotton grown

is GM

Organic Meats and Dairy

Must be fed 100% organic feed

Must have unlimited access to outdoors

Cannot be given growth hormones or antibiotics

If sick, may be given antibiotics but may not be sold as organic

May be given vaccines

May be given vitamins and mineral supplements

Workout Nutrition

Exercising on an empty stomach deprives you of the energy needed to
get the most out of your workout

Eat a small, 200
calorie snack 30
60 minutes before you exercise. It
should be high in carbs (70
80%), provide moderate amounts of protein
12% of calories) and fiber, and be low in fat (less than 15%).

You should try to eat your last full meal at least 2.5 to 3 hours before

Fruit is ideal for exercise. If you’ll be working out less than 45 minutes,
choose an orange, peach or melon. These are low in fiber and will be
digested quickly.

For longer workouts, pick fiber
rich fruit like apples, berries or pears and
have them with some protein. Your body will digest them slower and
get what it needs for a workout: long lasting energy.

Workout Nutrition

The 45
minute period after exercise is the best time for your body to
metabolize nutrients

Ideally you should eat within the first 20 minutes after exercising since
you’ll be able to regulate your blood sugar faster

Your metabolism is already elevated from your workout and you can
keep it going by refueling correctly

eat something with carbs to
restore glycogen, and protein to help build muscle.

You can also eat
1/3 of your daily calories

within 3 hours after exercising
because your body is in high
burn mode and will metabolize the calories

C may reduce exercise induced soreness

Practical Tips

If you eat an energy bar for a meal replacement, try to eat some
unprocessed food with it, such as yogurt, an apple or raisins

Look for energy bars that have 10
15 grams of protein

Sports drinks have been shown to be more effective than plain water in
improving performance, hydration and recovery for athletes participating
in activities that last 60 minutes or longer

Energy drinks are ok for occasional consumption, but they should not
displace water, fruit, juice, tea and sports drinks that are more beneficial
and have few diuretic effects

Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

im for fitness

Aim for a healthy weight. If you are overweight, first

prevent further weight gain and then lose weight gradually

(1/2 to 2 pounds per week) to improve health.

Be physically active every day. Aim to accumulate 30

minutes (adults) or 60 minutes (children) on most days

more if your goal is weight loss or maintenance of weight


Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

uild a healthy base

Let the “MyPlate” guide your food choices

Eat a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains

Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. Favor

green leafy vegetables, bright orange fruits and

vegetables, and cooked dried peas and beans.

Keep food safe to eat

Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

hoose sensibly

Choose a diet low in saturated fat and

cholesterol and moderate in total fat. Focus on

keeping intake of saturated and trans fats as

low as possible.

Choose beverages and foods to moderate your

intake of sugars. Limit your consumption of

regular soda, candies, sweet desserts, and fruit


Dietary Guidelines for Americans:

ABCs for Health

hoose sensibly

Choose and prepare foods with less salt


DRI for sodium = 1500 mg/day (about 2/3

teaspoon of salt)


UL for sodium = 2300 mg/day


The majority of Americans exceed the UL.

If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in



No more than 2 drinks/day for men


No more than 1 drink/day for women

A Personal Plan: Applying Nutritional

Assess your current diet

Set goals for change

Try additions and substitutions to bring your current
diet closer to your goals

Plan ahead for challenging situations