Nuclear Safety Research at

busyicicleMécanique

22 févr. 2014 (il y a 3 années et 8 mois)

87 vue(s)

H. H. Over on behalf of H. Weisshaeupl

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11th May 2006

Nuclear Safety Research at
the JRC/IE

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
2

High Flux Reactor


Multi
-
purpose research reactor


tank
-
in
-
pool, light water cooled/moderated,

45 MW


irradiation at:

reactor core, reflector region, poolside


horizontal beam tubes,

gamma irradiation facilities, hot cells labs (NRG)


The Programmes


At the service of medicine

o
Radio
-
Isotopes production

o
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)


At the service of reactor technology

o
Nuclear Safety (study of ageing materials)

o
Waste (study of transmutation and thorium cycle)

o
New reactors for the future (HTR, Fusion reactors, etc.)


At the service of research and industry

o
Neutron diffraction applications in materials science

o
Neutron radiography, gamma irradiation, activation analysis, etc


JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
3

ACCIDENT PREVENTION:

Integrity of the Reactor Coolant System


ACCIDENT MITIGATION:

Integrity of the Confinement System


with investigation on:



material’s degradation

(irradiation, corrosion, thermal
fatigue)



in
-
service inspection



structural integrity



preventive maintenance

with investigation on:



accident analysis

(test interpretation, code
validation)
-

‘severe accidents’



accident management



system interaction

Horizontal activities:



probabilistic & risk assessment methodologies



data management & dissemination



training

Nuclear Safety at IE

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
4

Scope:



Mark 10 years of achievements in
the European Networks (1993
-
2003)


Learn from the best scientific and
technical achievements


Look at new R&D challenges in
FP6 and beyond


Round table (industry,
universities, R&D providers,DG
-
RTD, DG
-
TREN)


Establish possibilities and
structure for future network
actions


10 years of networking at Petten

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
5

European Networks


EUROPEAN NETWORKS

for a common understanding and
harmonisation on key issues in nuclear reactor safety


strong Integration element


with hands
-
on research in key competence areas and reference laboratories


Key words:


Sharing/exchange of knowledge


Training & Education


Benchmark
-
Exercises and Workshops


Support to Harmonisation


General Deliverables:


Contribution to Best practices / Guidelines


Contribution to Code & Standards


Contribution to harmonized conclusions on safety assessment methodologies and
procedures


(Web
-
based) Platform for virtual dissemination and learning


specific reports on emerging issues on demand

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
6

Ageing Materials Evaluation and
Studies






Study RPV materials and other (internals) on irradiation
embrittlement and thermal ageing


non
-
destructive ageing monitoring techniques


annealing and re
-
irradiation studies



AMES

has taken major initiatives, including:



Kick
-
Off of the European Plant Life Assessment Forum
(EPLAF) at Minatom 1999



key role in defining the new Tacis/Phare projects on
irradiation embrittlement



20 participating organisations

AMES
AMES
AGEING MATERIALS EVALUATION AND STUDIES
JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
7

European Network on Inspection
Qualification





Assessment and qualification of Non Destructive Testing
systems


Inspection qualification schemes


harmonisation of codes and standards


risk
-
informed inspection



The ENIQ
-
led European Non
-
Destructive Evaluation Forum
(ENDEF) has elaborated a strategy
on measures to
improve
in
-
service inspection in VVER and RBMK reactors




64 participating organisations

ENIQ
European Network for Inspection Qualification
JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
8

Network for Evaluating Steel Components









NESC I

Spinning Cylinder


NESC II

MPA Pressurized Thermal Shock


NESC III

Dissimilar Weld


NESC IV

Multi
-
axial loading (ORNL Beam)


Thermal Loading





25 organisations



NESC
NESC
Network for Evaluating Steel Components
Validation of entire structural integrity
process through large
-
scale testing

NESC I

NESC IV

Benchmarks

VVER Issues

HTR Issues

Training

Dissemination

Harmonisation

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
9

Network on Neutron Techniques
Standardization for Structural Integrity


39 organisations


To employ neutron based testing methods for gaining improved
understanding on residual stresses and material degradation


To harmonise the corresponding experimental methodologies


Technical tasks:


pilot study on residual stress analysis with neutron diffraction, X
-
ray diffraction,
computational analysis


study on stress relief heat treatment for novel repair welding methods


study on thermal ageing effects based on Small Angle Neutron Scattering

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
10

IASCC issues in LWR

PWR +
BWR
:

Baffle/former bolts

support pins

rod cluster control assemblies tip

Core shroud

top guide and core plate

AMALIA test facility

(Ageing of Materials
under Load and and
Irradiation
-
Assisted
stress
-
corrosion
cracking)

Studies

on

stress

corrosion

cracking

in

NPP
:

autoclave

with

pneumatic

loading

device

and

a

water

chemistry

preparation

loop

for

fracture

toughness

testing,

equipped

with

a

device

for

bending

tests

of

mini

and

standard

Charpy
-
size

specimens

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
11

Experimental Facilities
(outside HFR)


Implantation of simulated
defects in components

Fracture testing of steels

Impact testing and
degradation monitoring lab

Thermal fatigue rig for
pipe test pieces

Microstructural analysis

Ultrasound measurements
for detection of defects

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
12

JRC
-
IE has adopted
a new integrated
approach to its R&D
for safety of ageing
nuclear plant,
bringing together
the established
European networks
with new groups in
SAFELIFE


The way into FP 6

projects related to structural integrity

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
13

Analysis and Management of Nuclear
Accidents


SEVERE ACCIDENTS

to integrate the knowledge on severe accident
phenomenology into
common databases

and
reference analytical computer tools

and to
support conclusions for
accident management

measures


SA research results in a better understanding
and evaluation of this very unlikely event


-

risks connected reduced



DESIGN BASIS ACCIDENTS (DBA)

(limited effort)

to support the
transfer of knowledge, data
and tools

in some key issues of VVER
-
DBA
safety based on JRC previous programs and
expertise



LOBI test facility

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
14


PHEBUS
-
FP
(integral in
-
pile tests)


European dissemination networks on:

=
Core degradation and fission product release

= Circuit and containment aerosol behaviour

= Containment chemistry


Over 30 participating organisations (incl. USA, Canada, Japan, S
-
Korea)


test interpretation, code validation and bench
-
marking, dissemination of the
results:

for improving accident mitigation

Networks on Severe Accident
Research

Cadarache / F

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
15

The PHEBUS FP Test Matrix

Contributions from JRC:

Defining the test matrix / pre
-
test calculations for test planning /
review and quality assurance of the Test Reports /
contribution&coordination of the Dissemination Reports / Deputy
Program Manager / promoting European participation
(Dissemination Work
-
Shops) / etc.

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
16

Potential hydrogen explosion within a NPP
containment as consequence of a SA


REACFLOW:

3D reactive gas flow code for turbulent combustion,
deflagration and detonation of highly reactive gas mixtures in large, complex
enclosures


Full scale simulation of the containment of a PWR:


Without two external walls

Non
-
nuclear
application

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
17

Hydrogen Explosion in a Tunnel


Following a release of H2 from a bus tank
at 350 bar

-

pressure distribution on a temperature
iso surface of 350 K

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
18

Probabilistic and Risk Assessment
Methodologies & Reliability and
Availability aspects

P1
P2
etc.
Event Tree Network
Initiating
event
failure
probability
logic
e.g.
pipe break
Initiating event
failure
probability
OUTPUT:
Radioactivity release
probabilities
X fails
Y fails
Fault Tree Model
JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
19

Methodological Developments


Reliability of passive safety systems


to develop new methods how to quantitatively assess reliability on passive safety
systems in the lack of statistical failure data


PSA for Aging reactors


to cross
-
compare existing approaches in Europe and USA for including aging from
active and passive components in PSA


PSA Quality Guide


to develop an international Guidance on how to verify quality level of a PSA study
(together with IAEA)


PSA and RI
-
ISI (together with ENIQ)


to develop a Guidance on how to make best use of available PSA results for RI
-
ISI
application


Quantification of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis


Comparative Energy Risk Assessment


to enable consistent and fair cross
-
comparisons of different energy systems in
terms of risk and sustainability


Previous



Benchmark exercise on Expert Judgement Techniques in PSA Level2


Benchmark exercise on Safety Evaluation of Computer Based Systems

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
20


Mapping nuclear safety related practices and methods as used in the
Enlarged EU


to provide all interested parties with status of top level safety documents
and risk informed approaches


Knowledge Dissemination

http://www.energyrisks.jrc.nl

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
21

Safety of new Reactor Designs


Safety analyses and comparisons of a range of new reactor designs


Material and fuel issues related to HTRs



participation in:


Generation IV (GIF)


INPRO (IAEA)


OECD/NEA



MICANET

“strategy for R&D

keeping the option

for nuclear fission

energy open”


Co
-
ordination of the


High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR
-
TN)

with technical support via irradiations of fuel, graphite and structural materials

Schematic of
the capsule
used for
irradiation
exposures on
HTR fuel
pebbles in the
Petten HFR

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
22

New Reactor Designs

(VHTR, GFR, LFR, SCWR, SFR)

Main activities:


Irradiations (HFR)


HFR
-
EU1, HFR
-
EU1bis, HFR
-
EU2, PBMR

with: fabrication, commissioning, analysis, …


Out
-
of
-
pile tests (GIF related)


(De
-
)Carburization tests for HTR components


High T material tests


Tests at supercritical water conditions


Corrosion tests (H2 production processes)


Analytical work


Neutronic/Thermal
-
hydraulic safety studies & design


Proposals for System safety improvements


HTR fuel database

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
23

Casks for high level nuclear waste

design principles for high level waste packages:
acceptance criteria associated for their structural integrity
and functioning against loads that may occur under
transport, storage, handling and the long
-
term deposition

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
24

SAFECASK: CASKS FOR HIGH
-
LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE

Waste packages constitute an important part in management of radioactive waste to
ensure that there is no release of hazardous radioactive nuclides.

The objective of SAFE
-
CASK is to develop design and assessment methods for
nuclear waste packages and to provide scientific support to policy DG’s in this
area
.

Transport Casks


Short times


Cask primary barrier


Design against
accident scenarios
(dynamic loads, fire
etc)

Geological Disposal Casks


Very long functioning (100 000
years)


Cask constitute first barrier in
multi
-
barrier system


Design account for very long
processes (including climate
change)

Intermediate and Long
-
term Storage
Casks in near
-

or sub
-
surface
facilities


Intermediate times (50
-
500 years)


Cask primary or secondary barrier


Design against accident scenarios


Waste retrievable

Decay of waste radiotoxicity with time, reduced need for monitoring

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
25

On
-
line Data Information Network


ODIN (https://odin.jrc.nl)

ODIN architecture


ODIN Web Portal on Petten Server


secure connection <
-
> fire
-
wall <
-
> access control <
-
> integrated user management

Engineering DBs

Mat
-
DB, Gasket
-
DB, HTR
-
Fuel
-
DB

Document Management DB

DoMa



Relational Database Management System (ORACLE)

Open Interfaces to

European competence
sites:

Webservice between Mat
-
DB and FIT
-
IT
life
-
time prediction at Fraunhofer IKM,
Freiburg


Mat
-
DB web application at FZ J
ülich


HFR
-
Fuel
-
DB data exchange with CEA
Caderache

Nuclear DBs

SENUF
-
DB, NuCoC
-
DB,

DARES
-
DB


Investments for hard
-

& software ~ 1 MEuro

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
26

JRC Information Day in Romania on 11
th

May 2006

page
27

NUCLEAR REACTOR SAFETY
Accident analysis
Accident management
System interaction
Ageing of material
Inspection qualification
Preventive maintenance
Structural integrity
Probabilistic & risk assessment
Reliability
Uncertainty quantification
Preservation
Dissemination
On-line service
Technical/scientific
Support:
Design Safety
On-Site Assistance
Dissemination
Regulators, Waste,...
Generation IV
INPRO
MICANET
HFR applications
TACIS/PHARE
Accident Prevention
Accident Mitigation
Innovative Reactors
PSA & Risk Methodologies
Data & Information Management
Training & Education
Benchmark Exercises & Work-Shops
Best Practices / Guidelines / Code&Standards
Western & Russian type NPPs
European Harmonisation