Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

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Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

1

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment


A Summary and Synthesis of the Akron Workshop

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Overview




Page 2

Concept Cards



Page 3

Missions Overview



Page 4

Mission: Arctic Explorer (Cryosphere)

Page 5

Mission: Carbon Cycle Southern Ocean

Page 9

Mission: Vegetation Structure


Page 13

Mission: Active Fire, Emissions


Page 17

Mission: Hurricane Genesis Evolution


Page 22

Mission: Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor

Page 26

Additional Investment Opportunities


Page 31

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

2

Overview

The purpose of this workshop was to identify capabilities
needed in future civil UAV

s to enable informed funding
decisions on key technologies. This is focused to reveal
science sensor technology gap data in more details than just
miniaturization and
will provide information for a section in our
assessment document.

We also need to determine power and
propulsion technology shortfall data.


Our task is to develop a Civil UAV Capability Assessment for
a 2015 Time Frame. We are intending to serve the Sub
-
Orbital Science Program (Yuhas), the Vehicle Systems
Program (Camacho) and to complement the DOD roadmap.
We will consider Homeland Security, Commercial, Land
Management, and Earth Sciences in our assessment.


Our objectives are to document future missions of civil UAVs
based on user defined needs, the technologies necessary to
support those missions; to discuss SOA of those
technologies, identifying those in progress, those planned,
and those for which no current plans exist. We also intend to
provide the foundations for development of a comprehensive
civil UAV roadmap.


This document is a summary of the group’s work.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

3

Concept Cards

During the
introductory
presentations on
Wednesday, April
27th, participants
were introduced to
the current state of
UAV capabilities,
platforms and
roadmaps. These
concept cards were
captured during
those
presentations.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

4

Missions: Overview

Context


After completing the workshop in Boulder the
following 6 missions from the Sub
-
Orbital Science
Missions of the Future Workshop were defined as
suitable to be used as example of mission types.


1.
Arctic Explorer (Cryosphere)

2.
Carbon Cycle Southern Ocean

3.
Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy
Chemistry

4.
Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

5.
Hurricane Genesis Evolution and Landfall

6.
Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water
Measurements


These missions were used in this workshop to stimulate
the first set of conversations to assess the
capabilities and technology gaps for both
instrumentation/sensors as well as power and
propulsion.


Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

5

Mission: Arctic Explorer (Cryosphere)

Brief Description:

This mission supports measurements of the dynamics of the breakup of polar glacier and polar ice sheets.
The measurements enable direct observation of the evolution in time of ice and land topography, iceberg volume, glacier profi
les
,
and glacier channel profiles and provide data for validating simulations of these dynamics and their interaction with the oce
an
environment.

Sensor Package


The breakout group working on this
mission identified the following
sensors required to complete this
mission:


1.
Active Microwave

2.
Passive STAR (and salinity)

3.
V/IR Imager / Spectrometer

4.
Magnetometer

5.
Topo Lidar (downsized)

6.
Stereo Imager (miniaturized)

7.
High Resolution Nav.




This suite of sensors solve a number of other
science challenges, not just the cryosphere. We
can look at volcanoes, solid earth and geology,
etc. Most of these sensors are pretty well
-
developed. The passive STAR is the least
developed
-

this is the biggest technology gap.
All of the others need to be repackaged and
miniaturized. For the spectrometer this could
actually allow improved performance.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

6

Mission: Arctic Explorer (Cryosphere)

To do high
-
sensitivity
measurements, we need a
platform that can go very low and
slow, while maintaining a constant
land speed
-

this is critical for
these kinds of remote sensing
instruments. This gives us a much
better signal
-
to
-
noise ratio. We
would love to get a ground speed
of 5 knots, but this would require
some serious headwinds.

Operationally, cloud cover will be
an issue for some of our
objectives. We want to record data
on board, and we will need on/off
commands for some data sites.
We do not see any issues for
logistics and deployment. This is
pretty standard operationally.

The total payload will probably be
just under 200kg. It seems like a
good Predator package, but it
should all be measured under
12,000 feet.

We need to pay attention to any
extra power that might be required
to heat these instruments in
extremely cold conditions.

Sensor

Measurements

Notes

Weight/Power/

Active Microwave


Ice thickness, snow,
water

-
Embedded antenna
(needs
miniaturization)

50kg, 2kw, BW
-

Low


Passive STAR
(and salinity)

Freeze, thawline,
water

-
Conformed antenna


50kg, 150w, BW
-

Low

V/IR Imager /
Spectrometer


Lband, 1.4ghz, +
18.37ghz

-
Needs
miniaturization
(pushbroom)


25kg, 500w, BW
-

1mb

Magnetometer

SST, refectivity

-
Mature technology


15kg, 10w, BW
-

Low

Topo Lidar
(downsized)


-
Needs
miniaturization


50kg, 100w, BW
-

High
~10mb

Stereo Imager
(miniaturized)

-
COTS


10kg, 10w, BW
-

High
~20mb

High Resolution
Nav.

-
COTS


5kg, 5w, BW
-

Low

205kg, 2.8kw

Sensors/Instrumentation

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

7

Mission: Arctic Explorer (Cryosphere)

Power & Propulsion

Performance Specifications

Flight Characteristics

1. Altitude: 200’ AGL
-

terrain avoidance
to 12,000’

2. Range: long distance / arctic continent

3. Payload mass: 1000lbs

4. Payload power: 1/2kw

5. Propulsion power: rapid climb
capabilities (turbine/hydrocarbon)

6. Endurance: 36 hours

7. Sampling

8. Speed
-

>100 knots due to high winds

9. Temp: below
-
35
°

operating conditions

10. Quick deploy / quick turnaround

11. Frequency: 1 mission / 3 days during
ice breakup

12. Cost: less than $1000/hour

13. Terrain avoidance requirement

14. Mission available more than 50% of
deployment


Low flight


High wind conditions
-

100 knots or better


Map of base state; quick response to
events


Map continent in 3 weeks every season


Does wind affect lidar measurements?


Need calm conditions


Terrain following


Summer or winter operations?


Year round?


Re
-
tasking during flight

On the Antarctic mission, we questioned when
we would be taking this data, such as in winter
when you're fighting a lot of winds. We
considered using a dirigible, but we weren't sure
if that would fit the requirements.

We were a little worried if it is really cold, there
is a lot of distortion, we have problems with the
turbine. If you're using light fuel, it's probably not
a problem.

The antarctic is colder than the arctic. We saw
minus 74 C. This impacts the type of fuel you
use. They used JP5 for that. We're at JP8 now.

We need to do a little more work on this.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

8

Mission: Arctic Explorer (Cryosphere)

Technology Development Opportunities

Passive Microwave

1.
Scale from Satellite to
UAV

2.
Salinity Sensor

3.
Passive Microwave for
snow on land

1.
Light weight

2.
Antenna integration
w/aircraft

3.
Additional Cal. Issue for
UAV applications

Active

Microwave


Radar (Ka or P)

Passive Optical

HyperSpectral Imager V/SWIR

Miniaturization, light weight

Hyper/Multi
-
spectral TIR

Stereo Camera

Coupled with Lidar

Stabilized mount

Light weight, generic; include
IMU

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

9

Mission: Carbon Cycle Southern Ocean

In the near
-
term, we captured what is possible in
FY06. We used the instruments recommended in a
recent paper, and we added 2
-
channel GPS to
measure surface roughness. We did not include See
-
and
-
Avoid. We have assumed that will always been an
operator in the loop


this does not have full autonomy.

Brief Description:

The primary goal of this mission would be a definitive measure of net annual CO
2

uptake from the
atmosphere by the Southern Ocean, including its inter
-
annual variability, and relation to other known quantities. The mission wo
uld
also add greatly to knowledge of vertical mixing in the atmosphere over the Southern Ocean. The results would serve as input
s t
o,
or constraints on, models of the carbon cycle, improving understanding of many aspects.

Sensor Package


The breakout group working on this
mission identified the following sensors
(or capabilities) required to complete this
mission:

1.
ICO
2

2.
H
2
O

3.
Radiometer

4.
Ocean color imager

5.
Raman for CO
2

6.
Lidar (scatterometer optic/RF)

7.
Turbulence probe

8.
Surface temperature

9.
FTIR

10.
Deployable buoy

11.
Boundary layer

12.
L
-
band radiometer (1.4ghz)

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

10

Mission: Carbon Cycle Southern Ocean

FY 06

Low & High Altitude Vehicles (10m,
3km)

#s

W

Licor CO
2

insitu & H
2
O

2#

5w

Radiometer (SSFR)

2#

5w

Ocean Optics Spectrometer

1#

5w

2
-
CH GPS (sea state/surface + Pos x, y, z +
winds)

1#

5w

Turb Probe

2#

1w

Camera

1#

1w

KT
-

11

1#

10w

3
-
D: hotwire/flux gate

2#

5w

Data system and control

5#

50w

Totals

17#

87w

Once we get to 2010, we can develop a much better
solution. We could develop a CO2 LIDAR. We could add a
three
-
channel LIDAR to measure the winds. We will add a
hyperspectral camera. Infrared (for looking at the sea
surface) will be a challenge because of the cooling issues.
An FTIR has the same cooling issues. It will take until 2010
to develop and image analysis algorithm.

Sensors/Instrumentation

FY 10

For Improved Science Return

#s

W

Lidar: CO
2

10#

200w

Lidar: winds/turbs

15#

300w

Optical absorption: CO
2

10#

150w

Hyperspectral cameras: vis

2#

20w

IR
(cooling for IR!)

10#

100w

Raman Spectrometer (CO
2
)

10#

150w

FTIR
(cooling for IR!)

45#

100w

Image Analysis





L
-
band radiometer (salinity)

20#

25w

Antennas

Autonomy: Control

5#

50w

Totals

127#

1095w

Buoys: TBD

Developing the lightweight antennae will be one of our biggest
challenges. We can increase our autonomy and our data
capacity. Our total mass is less than 200 pounds and just over
1000 watts. This depends on a 3000 mile range. The speed is
negotiable.Our CO2 measurements will require even more
resolution than a 10
-
pound LIDAR can provide. We also need
really good measurements of water vapor. You run the risk of a
false signature. We also need to talk to the wind LIDAR.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

11

Mission: Carbon Cycle Southern Ocean

We believe that the current UAV can
handle the mission. Payload mass is
shown there at 66 lbs. This is low
weight. So these are mild and unless
there is some flight concern about
turbulence, what we have now would
work fine.


Between the small and medium
platforms you have a good jump in
power. There may be some
modification to a small UAV and have
what you need.


One thing is that in your power
requirements, you need to specify if
the requirements are simply for
payload or does it include the
communications package?

Power & Propulsion

Performance Specifications

Flight Characteristics

1. 10
-
30m steady state
-

profiles to 3000’

2. Range: 8000km

3. Payload mass: 66lbs

4. Payload power: ?

5. Propulsion power: climbing requirement
(turbine/hydrocarbon)

6. Endurance: 48 hours

7. Sampling: 150 samples/second ?

8. Speed
-

>100 knots (more info needed)

9. Frequency:


40
°



70
°

South Latitude


Land or sea
-
based platforms


Swarm (5 vehicles) w/predefined flight
pattern


Sensor adjustable flight pattern


High wind


Carbon sequestration


Shipboard operations:


Catapult


Recovery
-

net?


Parachute?



Question on rate of climb for verticle
profiles

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

12

Mission: Carbon Cycle Southern Ocean

Technology Development Opportunities

Passive Microwave

Salinity
-
> L
-
band Passive

Passive Optical

HyperSpectral Imager V/SWIR

Miniaturization, light weight

Gas Filter Correlation
Radiometer

GFCR

Column abundance

Stabilized mount

Light weight, generic; include
IMU

Active Optical

CO
2

lidar

Winds

Short range

In
-
Situ

CO
2

High precision

Wind

Vertical

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

13

Missions: Vegetation Structure, Composition, and



Canopy Chemistry

For this particular application, we do not think
that there is any UAV
-
specific advantage.
These missions are short
-
duration, there are
no opportunistic measurement requirements
(vegetation tends to change quite slowly), and
alternative approaches exist. There are a lot of
technologies used for other applications,
however, that could be used for our purposes.

Brief Description:

This suborbital mission would help scientists improve the characterization of terrestrial biomass, leaf level
chemistry and canopy water content. The science data will provide 3
-
dimensional vegetation structure and information on composit
ion
and chemistry. In addition, the observations will elucidate functional groups and physiological impacts on the carbon cycle.

Sensor Package


The breakout group working on this
mission identified the following sensors
(or capabilities) required to complete this
mission:


1.
Radar (P, L, X band
-

polarimatric

2.
Hyperspectral

3.
Lidar

4.
On
-
board recorder

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

14

Missions: Vegetation Structure, Composition, and



Canopy Chemistry

We want to use radar, hyperspectral radar,
LIDAR, and an on
-
board recorder. Some of
these technologies need to be adapted to the
UAV platform, but this is not a major hurdle.
There are some key components that will be
required for the antennae, telescope, and focal
point array.

There are some general technology challenges
for the UAV. It requires autonomous operations
because it uses different platforms. It requires
a steerable antenna. We need to be able to
correct the flight path in
-
flight. We need high
-
power modules.

A 12 hour mission could generate up to 7
terabytes of data, given the instruments
onboard. There are no real
-
time requirements
for this data, so we do not need instantaneous
access to it. We need to find the most cost
-
effective means of transmitting and storing the
data. We need to coordinate the flight path, but
we do not need to coordinate the flight paths of
multiple aircraft in formation. One UAV will
have X
-
band and L
-
band, and a second UAV
will carry LIDAR and hyperspectral. They do
not need to fly at the same time.

Sensors/Instrumentation

Sensor

Weight

Power

Radar

200kg

2kw

Hyperspectral

50kg

100w

Lidar

100kg

100w

Data rate

Volume

On
-
board recorder

80mb/sec

80x80x80cm

Flight

Duration

Altitude

12 hours

<40,000’ (15km)

Technology Specifications

Lightweigt antenna

Power supply provided by UAV

Large on
-
board data storage/downlink capability

Technology Challenges

Autonomous operations

Low mass & reconfigureable design

COTS digital system

Steerable antenna

Real time flight path control

High power L/X T/R Module / dual pol. Amt.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

15

Missions: Vegetation Structure, Composition, and



Canopy Chemistry

Power & Propulsion

The way we figure the power and mass
for the state of the art UAV situation, we
need to reduce the power by half and the
weight by a quarter.

The weight of the antennae system is in
pretty good shape. The key thing is to
modularize these components. Reducing
the weight of the battery and the sensor
system. It will require interferometric
measurements and differential GPS. You
will need a flight controller as a critical
aspect. We will have a data rate transfer
of 1mb/sec. Having optical
communication is a good approach.
There should be a lot of trades in here.

We think this mission is doable with
current technology. The current assets
will work, We didn't see a real challenge
here at all.

Performance Specifications

Flight Characteristics

1. 40,000’

2. Range:

3. Payload mass: 760lbs

4. Payload power: turbine/hydrocarbon

5. Propulsion power: turbine/hydrocarbon

6. Endurance: 12
-
24 hours



Formation flying: GPS


Refly Formation: GPS


Every Season

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

16

Missions: Vegetation Structure, Composition, and



Canopy Chemistry

Technology Development Opportunities

Passive Microwave

Add L
-
band for SM
-
> moisture
(C&X
-
band)


Active

Microwave

Radar (X & L)

Passive Optical

HyperSpectral Imager V/SWIR

Miniaturization, light weight

Stereo Camera

Coupled with Lidar

Stabilized mount

Light weight, generic; include IMU

Active Optical

Waveform lidar

Canopy top

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

17

Mission: Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

Brief Description:

This suborbital mission would help Earth Science scientists further understand the influence of disturbance
on carbon cycle dynamics by observing and measuring: the atmospheric chemistry; the thermal intensity time
-
series; the plume
composition, including the volume, albedo, particle size distribution; and, the fuel type and quality. The measurements woul
d a
lso
provide the atmospheric composition focus area a better understanding of fire plume chemical constituents resulting from diff
ere
nt
fuels under different intensities of fire.

Instruments

Remote

1.
Imaging Hyperspectral

2.
Lidar

3.
Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer


In
-
Situ

1.
Mass Spec

2.
CI Gas Chromatograph

3.
NDIR

4.
Spectral Radiometer

5.
Chemical Microsensors

6.
Particulate Sensors

7.
Tunable Diode Laser

8.
Gas Bottles

9.
UV Absorption 0
3

Sensor

10.
Aerosol Spectrometer

11.
Condensation Neurli Counter

12.
Metrology System

13.
Flame Ionization

We have a long list of things we want to measure. We did not have any fire specialists on our team, but we think we did a goo
d j
ob. We need a long
list of equipment as well.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

18

Mission: Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

This mission is perfect for UAVs. One UAV would be high up making
measurements of aerosols and humidity radiation and one UAV low enough to
capture measurements where you don't want a manned craft. The long
endurance for the upper one is also a challenge we have.


From this list of instruments (and what they could measure), we tried to
assemble a package of instruments that would measure the most important
items, including CO and CO2. With this list, we can now talk about
miniaturization to see if such an effort makes any sense. Many of the
instruments are so tiny that they are essentially free for the mission in terms of
size, weight and space.

We developed weight and power numbers for each item, but we have not yet
summed them up. We want to use LICOR to measure CO2. We want to use a
HSRL LIDAR


a very powerful instrument for this mission. Another requirement
for these instruments is onboard calibration gasses.

Finally, we wanted to talk about technology gaps. We feel that the multi
-
spectral
is pretty good for use today (not a hyper
-
spectral). Many of these instruments
are in pretty good shape. Some instruments need some help to run more
autonomously. There are some physical limits to how far we can miniaturize the
LIDAR.

We will need to package our instruments differently when we start packing them
into the tight spaces of UAV

s. This is in conflict with another team

s report
which encourages plug
-
and
-
play. There will be data management problems
onboard the UAV.

Sensors/Instrumentation

Measurement Objectives

CO

CO
2

N
2
O

NO
X

CH
Y

NMH CH
2
O

O
2
, O
3

(evolution)

Aerosols / particulates / size dist.

Energy release rate

Albedo

Optical depth

H
2
O

Winds, Temperature, Pressure

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

19

Mission: Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

Sensors/Instrumentation

Lidar (HSRL)

Req’d

LICOR

CO
2

NDIR

Req’d

Multi
-
Sprectral
TIR Scanner

Chem/Micro

SOA

TDL

CO2

CO

Aerosol

(particulates)

Detection Limit

~.1μ

.05μ

350ppm

200ppb

50mk

200

1ppm

Low ppb

Dynamic Range

up

20

10000ppm

3ppm

1800c

3000

400ppm

To>1ppm

Time Response

~1hz

Vert
profile

1hz

20hz

~ seconds


~ seconds

1 sec

Specificity

Quantitative

Speed

Composition

good

NA

Good,
depends

Good,
depends

Excellent

Autonomy

possible

demonstrated

YES

Not req
(72 hrs
OK)

Not req (72
hrs OK)

Requires
setup

Cal Gas
(Stability)

NA

Yes

Built in cal

Yes

Size

1.5 M
3

1ft
3

1f
3
gas

.3 M
3

30cc

30cc

<10cc

1M3

Weight

300kg

15# + gas

15#gas

50

100g

100g

<10g

100kg

Power

700w

100w

300

1w

1w

<10w

250w

Environmental
Exposure

Mod. Robust

(humidity, temp)

Robust

Good

Robust

Moderately
robust

Needs
miniaturization

Can do,
needs minor
work

Can do

Can do

Can do
needs work

Some limits to
aperture & laser
power

.3m

1watt

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

20

Mission: Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

Power & Propulsion

The remote UAV can handle this. It depends on
how many of these you want. Can you stage them
by regions? Then we could send one out as one
wears down.

The plume UAV is also possible. This speaks to the
dirty and dangerous and is probably not dull. This
may need a bit of work because of the temperature
and amount of soot. There is a story in which soot
was going into the engines and they would just shut
down. This could be a challenging environment to
work in. We need to find out more information about
the conditions.

If you have to keep temperatures constant for the
instruments, then you need a heating cooling
system either by payload bay or instrument by
instrument.

The current technology of UAVs is complete right
now for this mission than any of the others. You're
closer to a total application.

We haven't talked about airspace yet. We have to
partner with the forest service on this. But from an
operational standpoint, we're ready to do this.

Control burns are the place to do the science. The
authorization to have airspace for a control burn is
from the Forest Service. There are some places
that you can go to your restricted areas with UAVs
right now.

Performance Specifications

Flight Characteristics

1. Altitude: lower up to 20,000’ / upper above
20,000’

2. Range:

3. Payload mass: 130
-
200lbs

4. Payload power:

5. Propulsion power: heavy wind loads

6. Endurance: 24
-
72 hours

7. Speed:

8. Mission Frequency:

9: Trajectory requirements: position
knowledge required; trajectory requirement
requires additional propulsion power

10. All
-
weather flight
-

required for mapping
but not for other missions



Multiple vehicles in coordinated flight,
but not in formation


Fly in the plume
-

spiral


Terrain avoidance


Track chemistry changes


Vehicle ingests smoke particles


Reduction of O2
-

is there enough O2 for
combustion?


Engine emissions cannot affect
measurements


Re
-
tasking during flight


Payload directed flight


Mountain fires require higher aircraft
performance = gas turbine

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

21

Mission: Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

Technology Development Opportunities

Passive Microwave

L
-
band for S.M.
-
> fuel level

10
-
>37ghz


Passive Optical

HyperSpectral Imager V/SWIR

Miniaturization, light weight

Hyper/Multi
-
spectral TIR

Stabilized mount

Light weight, generic; include
IMU

Gas Filter Correlation
Radiometer

GFCR

Column abundance

Active Optical

High Spectral Resolution Lidar

Cloud/aerosol

Ozone lidar

This capability was missed in the
mission summary but was
required in the mission described
in the July 2004 workshop.

In
-
Situ

CO (TDL or UV) + μsensors

Weight & power reduction
-

open
path

THC (FID + μsensors) (total
hydrocarbons)

Available with some mods
-

reduce extra gases, inlet

Black Carbon

Measurements needed

Particles

Inlet, external probes

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

22

Mission: Hurricane Genesis Evolution, and Landfall

Brief Description:

The purpose of this mission would be to accomplish observations of hurricanes to improve predictions of
hurricane paths and landfall. This approach would use high altitude remote sensing to gather data on precipitation, clouds,
ele
ctrical
phenomenon, microphysics, and dust. Daughter ships or drop
-
sondes would gather data (four
-
dimensional cubes of thermodynamic
variables and winds) at lower altitudes. Additional data would be gathered in the boundary layer (sea surface temperature an
d s
urface
winds, surface imaging, turbulent fluxes, water surface state). Measurements of this type would improve hurricane modeling
capability to increase human safety.

Sensor Package


The breakout group identified the
following sensors (or capabilities)
required to complete this mission:

1.
Optical imager

2.
Sondes

3.
uWave sounder

4.
Radar

5.
GPS Reflectance

6.
Lidar

7.
Infra
-
red pyrometer

8.
Near surface sea temperature

9.
IR Sounder


Our recommended solution is to deploy multiple high
-
altitude
platforms. We would instrument one UAV with microwave
and a few other sensors. We would take the adaptive high
altitude platform to the outer storm or the near
-
storm
environment
-

we

ll put our LIDARs on that vehicle. We will
put our drop
-
sondes on another UAV to validate our remote
sensing instruments, but we do not want to use them
routinely because of the weight that they add to the mission.
This replaces high, middle, and low
-
altitude platforms.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

23

Mission: Hurricane Genesis Evolution, and Landfall

Sensors/Instrumentation

Instrument

Data Rate

Measurement

Size

Weight

Power

Optical Imager

0kbps

K
-
H billows

6
-
7km

2kg

Sondes

50kbps

Soundings

16” length

1lb
-

696lbs for
12 days

uWave Sounder

100kbps


Soundings (cloudy & clear)

.5x.5m

50lb

40w

Radar

2.4kbps

Clouds & Precipitation

C
-
band 5m;
x
-
band ~2m

450lbs

1800w

GPS Reflectance

4.8kbps

Surface & Spectral Cloud
Soundings

4kg

300w

Lidar

14.4kbps

H2O

525lbs

500w

Mid
-
IR Sounder

200kbps

H2O, T, P, CO, CO2, O3

200kg

500w

IR Sounder

Sea Surface temperature

20
-
40kg

20w

AXBT

Near surface sea temperature

1m each

17lbs

Totals

171.6 kbps

866kg

(too heavy)

3.8kw

Our Recommended Solution

1.
Multiple high altitude platforms, instrumented appropriately, fex;

2.
Inner core
-

u
-
wave sounder & radar (cloudy!)

3.
Outer storm & storm environment
-

lidars & mid IR sounder (clear!)

4.
Cal/Val
-

dropsondes

Our goal is to get data that we cannot get from a
satellite or manned mission. We want a
balanced, 4D

grid


of sounding points.


We need a new technique for measuring
surface temperature (about 1m below the
surface)
-

we don

t know how to do that from a
UAV.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

24

Mission: Hurricane Genesis Evolution, and Landfall

Power & Propulsion

This is a challenge from multiple directions from both an airframe and power and propulsion standpoint. We need to get there
qui
ck as well as
stay there for a long time as well as get to various points through the storm.

We need both convective levels to get data for both hurricane and cloud. We might be able to come up with something cheap and

ex
pendable. All
of these are challenging for us. Particularly the high and long endurance one. We had quite a bit of discussion. We wondered
if
we could get it out
there another way.

We keep coming up with the dirigible idea. Can you fly something out there that can keep it out there for awhile? There are m
ult
iple ways of
handling it.

Performance Specifications

1. Altitude: 65,000’

2. Range: 200 nautical miles radius

3. Payload mass: 200kg min/ 1000lb desired

4. Payload power: 1 kw

5. Propulsion power: 150
-
300 hp

6. Endurance: 14 days

7. Time to destination: 24hrs max

8. Deploy from: Hispanola; Canary Islands

9: Mission Frequency:


Reusable dirigible
-

“grandmother”

Vehicle speed vs. wind speed?

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

25

Mission: Hurricane Genesis Evolution, and Landfall

Technology Development Opportunities

Passive Microwave

1.
Atmospheric Sounding? 183ghz

2.
C
-
band (SFMR)
-
> surface wind
speed; rain rate; 4
-
>8ghz


Active

Microwave

Radar (X & L)

Passive Optical

Hyper/Multi
-
spectral TIR

Stabilized mount

Light weight, generic; include IMU

Active Optical

Water vapor lidar

High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL)

For clouds and aerosol

Winds

Long range

In
-
Situ

Dropsondes

Double as a buoy?

Weight & size reduction

Communication (relay stations? UAV
pickup?); Target= 200g

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

26

Mission: Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, & Total Water

Brief Description:

This suborbital mission would study transformations of aerosols and gases in cloud systems.
Convective systems, Sea breeze cloud formation, Marine stratiform, Contrails in the Central U.S. in air traffic regions and
ship tracks in oceans, Synoptic scale systems & Fronts, and Cirrus outflow.

Sensor Package


The breakout group identified the
following sensors (or capabilities)
required to complete this mission:

1.
Instrument/Measurement

2.
Cloud and aerosol lidar

3.
Doppler radar

4.
Optical imager

5.
95 GHz radar

6.
Nav data (from the aircraft)

7.
Temperature profiler

8.
Water vapor lidar

9.
Broadband UV
-
IR radiometer

10.
FTIR radiometer

11.
Microwave radiometer

12.
Lightning detection

13.
Temperature profiler

On our board, we indicated the priority for each of these
instruments. H means high, M is medium, and L is low. For
the three lower
-
flying platforms, we have extra space but we
are a little bit overweight (about 10
-
15%). Many of these
sensors will be smaller in five years. The real problem we
have is power, and there’s not much we can do about it in
the instruments. Many of the probes hang outside the UAV,
they need to be de
-
iced, and that required power. The
aircraft guys have to give us more power


up to 5.7 KW.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

27

Mission: Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, & Total Water

Sensors/Instrumentation

Instrument/Measurement
Priority
Notes
Heritage
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Autonomous
Acceptable
as is?
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Cloud and aerosol lidar
H
CPL
8
150
0.5
Y
N
20
600
5
Doppler radar
M
GSFC EDOP
12
400
1.5
Optical imager
H
MODIS airborne simulator
1
22
0.1
95 GHz radar
H
GSFC CRS
1.2
400
1.5
Nav data (from the aircraft)
Temperature profiler
L
JPL MTP
0.7
35
0.3
Water vapor lidar
M
DLR solid state wv lidar
40
1000
2
N
N
Broadband UV-IR radiometer
M
FTIR radiometer
M
Microwave radiometer
M
Lightning detection
M
1
10
0.1
65.9
2067
6.5
2
50
0.5
Instrument/Measurement
Priority
Notes
Heritage
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Autonomous
Acceptable
as is?
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
CO
H
Liquid N2
ARC Argus
2
80
0.3
y
55
660
3
Ozone
H
Inlet
NOAA O3
1
25
0.3
y
CO2
H
Inlet
HU CO2
1.5
125
0.5
y
Water vapor
H
External mirrors
JPL JLH
1
20
0.3
y
Ice nuclei
H
Special inlet
requirements
CSU IN
3
150
1.5
n
CN
H
Special inlet
requirements
Generic
1
15
0.1
y
CCN
H
Special inlet
requirements
DMT CCN
3
100
0.25
y
Aerosol size: 0.01-3 um; 3 um-1.5 mm
M
External probes
NMASS+PCASP
+CAPS
3
200
0.75
y
MMS
M
External probes
ARC MMS
0.5
20
0.25
y
Aerosol composition
H
Special inlet
requirements
Generic
0.5
20
0.1
y
16.5
755
4.35
State of the Art
Target for Technology
In the remote UAV, the numbers are huge. We need 16 cubic feet, 755 pounds, and 4.35KW. We hope that the next generation of
instruments will combine the functions of multiple instruments of today
-

this would save us on weight and power demands. Let

s combine
the LIDARs and the RADARs as much as possible. If we can do this, we get much closer on all of the parameters for today

s high flyer.

There are some integration issues that we need to consider. Some instruments need to be easily accessed after a flight. Some
det
ectors
need to be cooled with liquid nitrogen. Many instruments have external parts (probes, optical windows, etc.), and these parts

ne
ed to be
accommodated by the platform. The water vapor detection inside the convective system might be problematic.

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

28

Mission: Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, & Total Water

Instrument/Measurement
Priority
Notes
Heritage
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Autonomous
Acceptable
as is?
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Water vapor
H
External mirrors
JLH
1
20
0.3
55
660
3
Condensed water content
H
Special inlet; large dry
gas flow
NCAR/OSU CVI
10
183
1.1
MMS
M
External probes
ARC MMS
0.5
20
0.25
Aerosol size: 0.01um-1.5 mm
M
External probes
NMASS+PCASP+
CAPS
3
200
0.75
Particle habit
H
External probe
SPEC, inc CPI
1
25
0.1
Water isotopes
M
Liquid N2 and inlet
required
JPL ALIAS
2
120
0.5
Cloud extinction
L
External probe
Gerber/UU CIN
1
22
0.2
Upward and downward radiative fluxes
L
Optical windows
ARC/CU SSFR
1
20
0.5
O3
H
External inlet
NOAA O3
1
25
0.3
CO, CH4
H
External inlet; Liquid N2
ARC Argus
2
80
0.3
CO2
H
External inlet
HU CO2
1.5
125
0.5
Temperature profiler
L
JPL MTP
0.7
35
0.3
Ice nuclei composition
H
Coupled to condensed
water content
instrument (i.e.,
downstream pickoff)
0
10
0.05
24.7
885
5.15
State of the Art
Target for Technology
Sensors/Instrumentation

Instrument/Measurement
Priority
Notes
Heritage
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Autonomous
Acceptable
as is?
Volume
(cu ft)
Mass (lbs)
Power
(kW)
Particle habit
H
External probe
SPEC CPI
1
25
0.1
55
660
3
Condensed water content
H
Special inlet; large dry
gas flow
NCAR/OSU CVI
10
183
1.1
CN
M
Special inlet
Generic
1
15
0.1
CCN
M
Special inlet
DMT CCN
3
100
0.25
Aerosol size: 0.01um-1.5 mm
M
External probe
NMASS+PCASP
+CAPS
3
200
0.75
Ice nuclei
M
Special inlet
CSU IN
3
150
1.5
Cloud extinction
L
External probe
CIN
1
22
0.2
MMS
H
External probes
ARC MMS
0.5
20
0.25
Water vapor
H
cloud tolerant; external
mirrors required
LaRC
1
20
0.3
O3
M
Inlet
NOAA
1
25
0.3
CO
M
Inlet; Liquid N2 and cal
gas
ARC Argus
2
80
0.3
CO2
M
Inlet; cal gas
HU CO2
1.5
125
0.5
28
965
5.65
State of the Art
Target for Technology
Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

29

Mission: Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, & Total Water

Power & Propulsion

This is in a similar class as the mid
-
air
convective. The challenge here is not so much
in weight or power, it's more the gradient
updrafts and keeping the thing in control. It
might be similar to the hurricane mid
-
altitude
concerns too.

We have to make sure we don't get something
that sucks and wipes out the entire engine.
How much control authority are we going to
have in the engine face? Can we give you
enough power? We need to know more about
the power needs. It's tough to say how much of
a challenge this is.It could be that one of the
current UAVs with or without modifications
could handle this.

Performance Specifications

Flight Characteristics

1. Altitude: 20
-
40,000’ / 40
-
60,000’

2. Range: 22,000 Nautical miles

3. Payload mass: 1600lbs

4. Payload power: 10kw

5. Propulsion power: De
-
icing capability
(heators); defogging capability; low nox
propulsion

6. Endurance: 3
-
5 days

7. Speed: 165’/sec 50’/sec downdraft

8. Mission Frequency: Current frequencey 4
-

6 week observation periods / year



Slower is better
-

loiter over 1 spot


Convective flyer is more difficult


Fly in formation over ocean at different
altitudes
-

long transits for profiling


Mix of manned and unmanned vehicles


Chemical measurements: clean, virgin
air


Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

30

Mission: Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, & Total Water

1. Lidars

(a) Combine water vapor and cloud/aerosol lidar and

(b) Add capability to cloud/aerosol lidar: make it a High Spectral Resolution Lidar
(HSRL) that measures


-

extinction at 355 and 532 nm


-

backscatter at 355, 532, and 1064 nm

This enables retrievals of aerosol effective radius, concentration, real and
imaginary refractive index, and single scatter albedo.


Optical window may be an integration/accommodation issue.


Target accommodations for combined instrument: 8 cf, 300 lbs, 1.5 kW


2. Radars: Combine the two radars


Target accommodations for combined instrument: 10 cf, 300 lbs, 1.5 kW


Windows/radomes may be an integration/accommodation issue.


3) On
-
board data analysis and interpretation

Technology Development Opportunities

Active

Microwave

95ghz Radar

Passive Radiometer

Passive Optical

Stereo Camera

Coupled with Lidar

Stabilized mount

Light weight, generic; include IMU

Active Optical

Water vapor lidar

High Spectral
Resolution Lidar
(HSRL)

for clouds and aerosol)


Ozone

This capability was missed in the
mission summary but was required
in the mission described in the July
2004 workshop

In
-
Situ

Total Water / condensed water

Optical detection, CVI weight & size reduction of on
-
board gas generation

Particle probe

Size & weight reduction

Particle

1
-
10μm resolution improvement; white light source, phase doppler

Condensed water phase discrimination

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

31

Additional Investment Possibilities

Vehicle Possibilities

Mission

Prop/power Generation

Key Challenge

HALE = HURR (remote) + cloud
-

14 days

Turbine

Batteries

IC engine

Fuel cell

Solar

Hybrids

Endurance

30 days

Solar Regeneration

Battery

Mid
-
altitude In
-
situ

Convective = cloud

1
-
2 days

Turbine?
-

distortion

IC engine

Environment
(gradient)

Fire In
-
situ

Alt 10k ft. or lower

Turbine

IC engine

Environment

(T, gradient, soot)

Hurricane boundary layer

Alt = 300m (
-
20k ft?)

Turbine?

IC engine?

Need true
conditions

Options:
modularized

Active

Microwave Gap Filler

Autonomous Flight Control <1m

Avionics (control, Active steering)

Autonomous Ops


Factor of 2 reduction in power

Factor of 4 reduction in volume

Data storage and communication

Data Rate (1Gb/s, sampling rate; 180hz); ~3 TB;
OTH Communication)


Lightweight antenna


-

embedded T/R module


-

material


-

metrology (active)


-

wavefront sensing


Antenna receivers < weight, metrology

0.5 m x 15m; 15m swath

In
-
Situ
-

other ideas

Engine
-
generated vacuum (ref to LaRC Tech report)

Engine heat for de
-
icing

Aerodynamically
-
efficient probes & inlets

Common calibration gases

Mission dependent power

Civil UAV Capabilities Assessment

Workshop 3 • Akron, Ohio • April 26

28, 2004

32

Additional Investment Possibilities

In
str
u
ment

W
A
G

Cost

T
ime

T
ime

to

Dem
o
(Les
s
tha
n

f
u
ll

cap
a
bility)

O3+
A
er
o
s
o
l

(Backsca
tt
er)

$7M

4
-
5
y
ears

2
-
3
y
ears

HSR
L

$5M

4
y
ears

2
-
3
y
ears

H2O

$7M

5
y
ears

4
y
ears

O3+HSR
L

$8M

4
-
5
y
ears



O3+HSR
L
+H2O

$9M

5
y
ears



W
i
n
ds

(
l
o
n
g

ra
n
ge
,
pu
l
sed,sca
nn
i
n
g
)

$10M

5
y
ears



W
i
n
ds

(s
h
o
r
t
ra
n
ge
,
C
W
)

$5M

3
y
ears



CO2 (1%)

$10M

5
y
ears




Active Optical

Very little water vapor lidar transmitter development ongoing at this time.
Funding needed in this area.

Inteferometric HSRL receiver technologies are not being developed in the US.
Work ongoing in Europe, but insight into progress and problems difficult to
obtain.